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1

Potential Iranian hegemony in oil producing Islamic countries: Implications for oil geopolitics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades world supply of oil has been increasingly held in the Islamic countries around the Persian Gulf. The fact that the level of oil production is high in these countries and that they possess most of the world's oil reserves could be extremely significant. This 'petropower' could lead to strategic geopolitical developments when oil is used as economic and political weapons. It may be that the apocalyptic appeal of militant Islamism coming out of Iran can weld both Shia and Sunni people of the region to the cause of establishing a world Islamic 'caliphate'. This may appear in a new world of a tripartite mix of superpowers, one of which could be an Iranian-led oil rich Islamic bloc of Gulf states. Each superpower would vie for advantage, and particularly two of these superpowers would seek favor in maintaining supplies of oil imports increasingly from a potentially Iran dominated mix of oil producing Islamic countries. .

Leigh James; Vukovi? Predrag

2010-01-01

2

The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

2000-01-01

3

Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

1977-05-13

4

Producer gas power plants can cut the oil bills of the developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a power-generation fuel substitute in developing countries, producer gas from coal, biomass, or waste could reduce oil-import bills while assuring a steady fuel supply. An international working group formed at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is assisting developing countries in setting up simple producer-gas plants consisting of a downdraft gasifier, cyclone, filter, and cooler. Sweden gained expertise in this technology during World War II and now manufactures much of the equipment needed for producer-gas facilities. Depending on oil price, a dual-fuel power plant (15% diesel oil, 85% producer gas) could compete economically with a diesel-only plant, assuming extra labor requirements of 20 min/hr of operation for the gas-fired facility.

1982-02-01

5

Fresh water supply to oil producing countries by means of crude oil tankers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil producing area and oil consuming area in the world sometimes coincide with water deficient area and water surplus area, like as Arabian Gulf area and Japan. Ocean transportation of oil over these areas is being made by oil tankers, but return voyage of tankers has so far not been put to productive use. By boost of international regulation to prevent marine pollution caused by discharging sea water ballast, such half used bridge will provide with practical measures of fresh water transportation to oil producing arid area. This is to report the proposed scheme to transport and supply fresh water to Arabian Gulf area by means of return voyages of crude oil tankers voyaging between Arabian Gulf area and Japan with it technical and economical aspects as well as its effect and additional advantages to be expected by the scheme.

Akiyama, Y.

1980-12-01

6

GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid). Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and CNG (compressed natural gas).

Tomislav Kurevija; Nenad Kukulj; Damir Rajkovi?

2007-01-01

7

Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

Tsuji, Ryuhei

1999-03-01

8

Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

1999-03-01

9

Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

2011-01-01

10

Oil and gas industry in the 1990s in the producer country of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plans for the development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are outlined. Oil dominates the economy, well over 80% of export earnings being derived from petroleum. The ideal would be for Nigeria to become a net exporter of processed gas and refined petroleum products and derivatives but not of crude oil thus reaping the maximum benefit of value added earnings. This goal is being pursued wherever possible. By 1996, Nigeria should possess all the major constituents of a modern oil industry state. The three modern refineries which have a total capacity of 445,000 barrels per day will have the necessary pipelines, depots and export terminals. Four petrochemical plants will produce a range of products. A gas condensate field will be in production for export and a number of plants will be producing liquefied natural gas, natural gas liquids, methanol and MTBE. To achieve these objectives for its petroleum industry, Nigeria has set up a structure for the management framework and has developed a national petroleum policy. The salient points of the policy are given. (UK)

1992-01-01

11

Optimal capital accumulation and the allocation of investment between traded and nontraded sectors in oil-producing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How should oil-exporting countries allocate revenues from the production of oil over capital accumulation and consumption. How should investment be allocated over traded and nontraded sectors. Most oil-exporting countries are confronted with the problem of maintaining or developing a nonoil traded sector because higher oil revenues lead to a high real exchange rate, thereby pulling resources into the nontraded sector - the so-called ''Dutch disease''. The optimal savings response and investment allocation to temporary and permanent increases in oil revenues are derived in this paper.

1986-01-01

12

Oil and gas trends in African oil-producing countries. Part 1. Algeria and Libya; Africa san`yukoku no sekiyu gas doko. 1. Arujeria, Ribia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces the recent crude oil and natural gas trends in Algeria and Libya out of the 6 African countries which account for more than 90% of crude and natural gas produced in the African continent. Algeria is now under severe economic situations, with deficits totalling 26 billion dollars. She depends on crude and natural gas for 95% of her foreign-exchange earnings. A number of foreign firms are now developing the oil and gas fields under dynamic political situations, with the Islamic fundamentalism radicals gaining power. She is now planning to expand the exportation of natural gas to European countries, produces 1.15 M B/D of oil (1994), having an R/P ratio of 34 years and refining capacity of 470 K B/D, and has the gas reserves of 3.7 trillion m{sup 3}, selling a total quantity of 53.9 billion m{sup 3}/y (1993). The UN`s sanctions on Libya for its acts of terrorism, such as blasting of a PamAm plane, have not had a fatal wound influenced on the Libyan economy. Oil exportation of 1.3 million B/D, accounting for 95% of her foreign- exchange earnings, gives the highest GNP per capita in Africa. Her oil reserves total 22.8 billion B (R/P ratio: 46 years). 6 figs., 15 tabs.

Norie, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-02-01

13

Oil producers and trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differing assessments of advice being offered to governments and national oil companies of the petroleum exporting countries are given by three commentators. The advice, coming from traders, consultants and the management of formal futures exchanges, is that oil exporters should make use of available trading instruments for the purpose of hedging in risk management; sometimes establishing forward and futures markets for their own crudes is also suggested. The first commentator offers two arguments in support of his view that the ''no-trading'' policy of oil exporters is costly and damaging to their interests. The third commentator does not favour the creation of a trading contract by producers for Arabian Gulf crudes. The idea of a producers' trading instrument is rejected more emphatically by the second commentator on the grounds that, unlike private companies, governments cannot credibly organize a market and trade in it; producers should trade in existing markets only with great care. (UK).

1995-01-01

14

The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries; L'ouverture des pays producteurs du moyen-orient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

Giannesini, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

2000-02-01

15

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

2009-01-01

16

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

2009-07-15

17

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

2009-07-15

18

Azerbaijan; Country profile. [Oil and gas potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Azerbaijan was the world's leading oil producer at the turn of the century and the birthplace of the oil refining industry. Azerbaijan became an independent state in September 1991. Very little detailed information is available about the new country, especially with regard to energy consumption and the organisation of distribution. Since Azerbaijan itself and the Western firms eyeing investment possibilities are most interested in the oil and gas sector, this profile, of necessity, is weighted towards those sectors. At its peak in 1940, the Caucasus oil region accounted for more than 70% of the Soviet Union's crude output, and more than 80% of its refined products. However, the region's share of total Soviet output slumped to 8% in the mid-1980s, and only about 3% in 1990. Not only has production suffered, but there has also been immense environmental damage. Domestic production today is insufficient for local requirements. Yet there is a vast untapped, and unproven, potential: nobody knows just how large Azerbaijan's total reserves of oil are. This article considers the newly established state oil company, foreign production sharing agreements, plans to raise oil production, the political problems associated with oil transportation, the possibilities for oil refining and off-shore gas exploitation. (author).

Anon.

1992-05-01

19

Investment and risk associated with exploration and exploitation of petroleum. Case study for Sudan as non-oil-producing developing country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author insists that the major oil companies are afraid of risks resulting from more efficient production by investment-receiving countries and demands by them for primary rights for their natural resources now being drained. From this point of view, the report discusses the relations of risks and decision making for investment, and presents a cash flow analysis to determine whether the differences in objectives between the major oil companies and investment-receiving countries can be interpreted in terms of the differences in their handling of risks. Based on these considerations, the report proposes an optimum income sharing scheme for oil exploitation projects in Sudan. Contracts for oil exploration and exploitation are also discussed. A resource rent tax system is proposed to overcome problems associated with traditional financial conditions. A simulation study is made to compare the proposed resource rent tax system and the production sharing system on the basis of data on two oil fields in Sudan. It is concluded that although not in a satisfactory form at present, the proposed resource rent tax system, if improved, will provide a highly effective tool for exploitation by oil companies. (5 figs, 2 tabs, 20 refs)

Mattar, Ashgar A.

1988-02-01

20

Oil exporting countries need nuclear power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated.

Stauffer, T.R. (Diplomatic Academy, Vienna (Austria))

1982-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Oil exporting countries need nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author).

1982-01-01

22

Crude oil exporting countries of Asia and crude oil market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of small existence of oil resources, Asian District expects extensive growth of oil demand. This imposes diversification of domestic energy source, especially the use of the abundant coal and natural gas, saving of oil consumption by the energy policy, and the promotion of oil search and development. Presently the oil exporting Asian countries are five, i.e., People's Republic of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burney, and Burma. Herewith, by focusing on the former four countries, the trend in the oil exporting countries and the features of the crude oil market are outlined, on the basis of the forecast by the research institutes and the national oil companies. (2 figs, 19 tabs)

Yanamoto, Kazunori

1987-05-01

23

Impact of higher oil prices on the economies of Non-Oil Developing Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the oil price increases on the economies of 24 Non-Oil Developing Countries is assessed. The hypothesis is that OPEC's pricing policies have intensified the deterioration of economic conditions in the Non-Oil Developing Countries. Two countries, Brazil and Guyana, are selected as case studies. The first chapter evaluates theoretical interpretations of secular deterioration of the terms of trade in the light of a changed international environment that attended the OPEC price increases. Chapter two traces the roots of the oil price increase and examines the impact of oil on actual terms of trade and trade balances. The growth of external indebtedness of the Non-Oil Developing Countries is the focus of chapter three. Chapter four analyzes the implications of the oil prices increases for industrialization strategy, growth and development of the two study countries, Brazil and Guyana. Chapter V suggests policy options available to the Non-Oil Countries at the international and domestic levels. Among the study's major findings are that the OPEC price increases have intensified the terms of trade deterioration of the Non-Oil Developing Countries and have compounded the former problems with manufactured goods produced by developed countries. External debts of these countries have been exacerbated by U.S. monetary policies.

Baird, G.L.

1987-01-01

24

Oil exploration licensing rounds in eastern countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil is very crucial for the growth of industry and infrastructure of any country. Since the oil exploration is an expensive and risky business, the developing countries have adopted the policy of licensing rounds to attract the private sector investment for exploration and production of oil and gas. Eastern countries, including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and East Timor, have liberalised their policies. India, being a large and fast-developing country in the region, is now on to its fifth round of New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP-V), whereas the small country East Timor is also ready for its very first licensing round as an independent nation. Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Vietnam are also launching licensing rounds since the last few years.

Malhotra, T.C.

2005-07-01

25

Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

NONE

2007-11-29

26

European cross-country oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCAWE first became involved with oil pipeline safety issues in the mid-1960s when it started collecting information and statistics on incidents and spills related to European cross-country oil pipelines. Annual data have been collected since 1969 through a survey of pipeline operators. The first report was published the same year and annual reports have been published since 1972. Starting in 2006, the annual report has included all historical data with each report superseding the previous one.

Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-04-01

27

The economic growth of oil countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

2007-01-01

28

Getty: producing oil from diatomite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be extracted by conventional oil field methods.

Zublin, L.

1981-10-01

29

Current status and prospect for petroleum situation in former Soviet Union. ; Centering on Russia and oil producing countries around the Caspian Sea. Kyusoren chiiki no sekiyu josei no genjo to tenbo. ; Rosia to Kasupikai shuhen san'yukoku wo chushin ni  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the petroleum situation and its prospect in the former Soviet Union regions as investigated by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute. The oil production in Russia in 1992 has fallen by 14% from the previous year to 396.6 million tons, the decline still continuing. Estimation was made on crude oil production under three economic assumptions as: a case that the Russian crude oil production will stay flat after 1995 under an assumption that the economic restoration would delay into 1995 or thereafter; a pessimistic case that the situation is worse than that; and an optimistic case that the oil production will be activated as a result of foreign capitals having been introduced into countries around the Caspian Sea. The crude oil production in the NIS on the whole is estimated to turn to an increasing trend in the latter part of the 1990's if the Russian oil production falls under the second case but foreign funds have made their course into the oil producing countries around the Caspian Sea. The net export from the entire NIS countries in 1992 was a slight increase over the previous year to 106 million tons. The second case in relation with the Russian oil production may restore the 1992 production in around 2000. Funds required to restructure the economy in Russia and the NIS oil producing countries will be procured from bartering the petroleum and natural gas exports. Improving the foreign fund introducing conditions is the urgent requirement. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

1993-12-01

30

Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: ? Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. ? Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. ? Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. ? Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

31

Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: > Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. > Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. > Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. > Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

Toft, Peter, E-mail: peter.toft@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

32

Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Economics Department, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6445 (Iran)

2009-03-15

33

Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies.

2009-01-01

34

Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab.

1994-01-01

35

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

36

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume.

2010-01-01

37

CO2 emission reduction technologies for oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is expected that the consumption of crude oil will fall in the case of a strong international climate policy. This may have considerable impact on the economic position of countries of which the economies are highly dependent on the production and export of crude oil. The aim of this paper is to give a preliminary evaluation of options that may be of interest to oil exporting countries as alternative activities, with a special emphasis on CO2 emission reduction options. A number of commodities have been discussed and selected that may be produced by oil exporting economies, and in doing so, generate additional income: electricity, ammonia and direct reduced iron. On the longer term hydrogen and methanol may be added to this list. It should be emphasized that the analysis presented in this report (and hence this conclusion) is preliminary and should be confirmed by more detailed analysis. Although in some cases oil exporting countries already have a good position to produce these commodities, the position might be improved if the production of such commodities with low CO2 emissions is stimulated. Oil exporting countries have a good position to do so, due to the availability of cheap energy and large storage potentials. This improved position can only be accomplished in a context of international cooperation, including that sufficient credits are given to producing `low-CO2 commodities`. CO2 storage, both generated nationally or in other countries, may become an important activity in the future, but this also depends on the credits that are given to avoid CO2 emissions. At least it is important that depletion strategies are chosen in such a way that enough empty or near-empty natural gas fields become available in the medium term. Renewable energy sources are not expected to have prospects in the short or medium term to generate substantial additional income. Further research may be of interest in some cases, e.g. into biomass that can be grown under saline conditions. 30 refs.

Blok, K.; Worrell, E.; Faaij, A.

1997-05-01

38

Removing oil from produced water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the design, operation, and performance of a new gas-assisted clarifier system which acts to remove oil from waste water. The system has no moving parts and uses no chemical additives. The results show that the system can be successfully used to reduce the oil content of waste water to acceptable effluent limits. The systems are designed for offshore oil and gas production facilities. Test results are provided which show the reduction of oil and grease from 211 mg/L to 3 mg/L

1992-01-01

39

Nigeria, an influential leader of African oil producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nigeria, as Africa's biggest oil producer, can influence other African producers as well as supply poorer countries. The emphasis is on oil, but the author also provides insight into the energy implications of economic growth and policies. Using new arrangements with the oil companies operating within Nigeria, the country has an opportunity to begin exerting influence within OPEC as well as globally. The author assesses Nigeria's resources, catalogs oil companies, and provides appendices on natural gas pipeline and electric power systems. The author concludes that agriculture is the appropriate cornerstone of Nigeria's economy, and that better management of energy resources is vital to continued growth.

Hasan, K. (ed.)

1986-01-01

40

A method for producing cable oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method for producing cable oil, which involves mixing petroleum oil with a polymer product, is improved by using a polymerization product which contains polyisobutylene with a 9,000-15,000 molecular mass. Following the mixing, easily combustible fractions and gaseous products are separated out to the point where the concentrations of polyisobutylene in the prepared oil reaches 16-20 percent. Adding 5 percent colophony into the cable oil makes it possible to produce a product which has increased stability and high electric indicators. In aging the existing cable soaking oil, the oil's specific volumetric resistance falls from -.65 X 10/sup 9/ to -2 X 10/sup 10/ Om X cm, while the dielectric loss increases 10 times or more; the oil, produced by the proposed method, has a resistivity which drops from 0.88 X 10/sup 14/ Om X cm; the sample, containing colophony, has a dielectric loss increase by a factor of two.

Grigor' ev, V.V.; Atarukov, A.G.; Borisenko, P.N.; Filippov, F.I.; Kazanskii, V.L.; Khromova, G.K.; Musaev, D.D.; Prokof' ev, K.V.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The impact of oil on a developing country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

Ikein, A.

1990-01-01

42

Problems of an economic diversification of the oil countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of large surpluses in the oil countries of the near-east has not only led to considerable financial problems, but also thrown up important questions with regard to the economic development of these countries. This article examines the problems which have arisen in six of these countries since 1973 with respect of their efforts to advance their economic development by diversification.

Habluetzel, R.

1981-06-01

43

Oil Price Shocks and Stock Market Returns in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

Mohamed El Hédi AROURI; Amine Lahiani; Makram BELLALAH

2010-01-01

44

Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)

2003-01-01

45

National incomes of oil producers are overstated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transient nature of oil income suggests the need for a better way to calculate the real national income of oil-producing nations. The author argues that it would be better to consider these revenues as a liquidation of capital rather than as income, and that spending the proceeds of oil production is a form of capital consumption requiring a different way to measure gross domestic product. A depletion allowance is needed that could be subtracted from the GDP to account for the wasting asset effect. Preliminary results of a study in Kuwait and Norway are developing adjusted figures that are better economic indicators of real growth than the standard GDP calculation.

Stauffer, T.

1984-02-01

46

Oil and gas exploration and development in oil importing developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rapid rise in oil prices and supply shortfalls during the 1970s did not bring a concomitant increase in oil and gas exploration and development to the oil importing developing countries (OIDCs). To be sure, total exploratory activity in the OIDCs, as measured by the number of seismic party-months and the number of exploratory wells drilled, did in fact increase in the 1970s, but relative to the rest of the world exploratory activity actually declined. The consensus among many investigators indicates that exploration and development in OIDCs was inhibited by a combination of factors. First, the geologic prospects for oil and gas were not conductive to exploration. The high cost, small-sized fields that are characteristic of OIDCs limit profit potential, increases risk, and provides for limited prospects of exportable surpluses, which are necessary to supply downstream operations. Second, the lack of infrastructure in many nonpetroleum producing OIDCs deterred oil and gas exploration. Third, restrictive contracts provided for an insufficient amount of risk sharing to attract foreign capital. Fourth, host government taxation policies discriminated against high cost, small-sized fields. Fifth, political risk and government instability did not encourage foreign investment, considering the usual 10- to 15-year petroleum exploration and development period. Finally, US taxation policies following the oil embargo were designed to encourage domestic exploration and development. The 1980s have seen a substantial decline in real prices for petroleum, high interest rates, a developing country debt crisis, and a worldwide economic recession. These conditions are likely to cause an absolute decline in exploratory activity in OIDCs that are considered high risk, and where the probability of finding oil and gas is low. This trend is already evident in the recent exploratory and development data. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Perlack, R.D.

1985-12-01

47

Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

NONE

1995-05-01

48

Producer gas engines in villages of less-developed countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Producer gas engines could have an important role in the decentralized production of mechanical energy in rural areas of less-developed countries. With this technology mechanical energy is produced from solid fuels by use of internal combustion engines. A comparison with other renewable energy options, on the common basis of energy efficiency and economics, shows that producer gas engines may have significant advantages and deserve serious attention.

Datta, R. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Linden, NJ); Dutt, G.S.

1981-08-14

49

WHICH CONTRACTS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY MEET THE INTERESTS OF THE COUNTRY?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, there are existed a large number of different fiscal contracts, the terms of which are varying significantly. Therefore, developing countries are faced with a choice, which one will best meet their national interests? Solving these issues is of great importance for the economy of the host oil and gas extracting country. Purpose: to show what fiscal contracts meet better interests of producing countries? Methodology of the work: system approach method, comparing and contrasting, spreadsheet, abstract, logical method. Results: The results of the study revealed that the best fiscal regime that meets the best interests of the country is service contract. In this case a country can fully use all channels of positive impact of an oil and gas cluster to the national economy. Practical implications: results of research can be used by government and companies for improvements of production regulation in oil and gas sector of the economy.

Nurseit Nurlan Aytkaliuly

2012-01-01

50

Recombinant Microalgae Cells Producing Novel Oils  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed herein are obligate heterotrophic microalgae cells containing an exogenous gene. In some embodiments the gene is a sucrose utilization gene, and further disclosed are methods of manufacturing triglyceride oils using sugar cane or sugar beets as a feedstock in a heterotrophic fermentation. In other embodiments the feedstock is depolymerized cellulosic material. Also disclosed are cells that produce medium chain fatty acids at levels not produced in non-recombinant cells of the same species and genus.

FRANKLIN SCOTT; SOMANCHI ARAVIND; ESPINA KAREN; RUDENKO GEORGE; CHUA PENELOPE

51

Effect of OPEC oil pricing on output, prices, and exchange rates in the United States and other industrialized countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following each major oil price increase, real gross national product (GNP) has fallen, unemployment and inflation have risen, and exchange rates have moved erratically. But how do oil price increases produce these effects. This paper discusses some of the macroeconomic consequences of too high and rising oil prices, and some of the policy options that might control these effects. It finds that the high and rising price of oil imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) burdens the industrial oil-importing countries in two ways. First, because total expenditures on oil rise relative to income, the potential real standard of living in oil-importing countries falls. Together, the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), for example, may have paid as much as $150 billion more for oil in 1979 than they would have paid in a competitive oil market. Second, the rising oil price increases unemployment and inflation in ways that are difficult for policymakers in oil-importing countries to manage; on the one hand, the rising oil price produces general inflation, and on the other hand, it depresses domestic demand and employment. Policymakers attempt to control part of the inflation, at the cost of increasing unemployment. The total loss in output from the 1974 to 1975 recession, though part of it may have followed from factors unrelated to oil, was about $350 billion.

Fleisig, H.

1981-01-01

52

Technique for producing instant toad oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a technique for producing instant toad oil, comprising the following steps: taking a dry product of toad oil, sterilizing by microwave, mixing the sterilized toad oil and drinking water according to the ratio of parts by weight of 1:45, controlling the temperature of the drinking water at 40 DEG C and soaking for 4.5 hours for standby mixing honey and the drinking water according to the ratio of parts by weight of 1:2, heating, stirring to dissolve the mixture and obtaining hydromel for standby removing impurities and water from the soaked toad oil, adding 0.3 part of hydromel according to parts by weight, then adding 3 parts of drinking water, 0.8 part of monosodium glutamate and 1.5 parts of table salt and stirring and putting into a flat-bottom stainless steel kettle filled with boiling water, preheating for 15 minutes, then heating for 40 minutes, cooling and packaging the drinking water is boiled off for 5 minutes and the toad oil produced by the invention is edible at any moment, is clean and sanitary, is easy to absorb and has high bioavailability, good mouth feel, delicious taste and comfortable eating.

XIAOXIAN SUN

53

Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

2008-01-01

54

Threat of trade restrictions to oil producer - consumer interdependence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activities of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) are discussed. The Arab oil industry is discussed from the following viewpoints: petroleum exploration, production of oil and gas, the oil refining industry, petrochemical industries, technical economic feasibility studies for petroleum projects, oil tanker transportation, pollution control in the oil industry, energy consumption, the gas industry in the OAPEC member countries, latest developments in the oil market, new and renewable energy sources, joint Arab ventures in the oil industry, the role of petroleum in the dialog between the developing countries and industrial countries, processing and utilization of lubricating oils, investment of oil revenues, problems of joint Arab information media and their effect in international relations and economic issues, and economic and energy prospects in the Arab World.

1985-04-01

55

Improved oil recovery for independent oil and gas producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are more than fifty-two hundred independent oil and gas producers operating in the US today (based on current IPAA membership figures). Many of these companies have instituted improved oil recovery programs in some form, but very few have had access to the state-of-the-art modeling technology routinely used by major producers to manage these projects. Since independent operators are playing an increasingly important role in production of hydrocarbons in the US, it is important to promote state-of-the-art management practices, including the planning and monitoring of improved oil recovery projects, within this community. This is one of the goals of the Strategic Technologies Council, a special interest group of Independent Oil and Gas producers. This paper describes a project which focuses on the distribution of advanced reservoir management technologies (geological, petrophysical, and engineering) to independent producers. The evolving information highway serves as the distribution medium, specifically the World Wide Web (W3). The procedure for launching petrotechnical applications and retrieving results over the W3 will be presented. A paradigm for the interaction between the independents, the petroleum service sector, and government will also be presented. Of principal concern is the cost of making high-tech modeling applications accessible to independent operators.

Sgro, A.G.; Kendall, R.P.; Kindel, J.M.; Webster, R.B.; Whitney, E.M.

1996-04-01

56

Oil market situation: the impact on the economic development of the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of instability of oil-export earnings on the economic development of six selected oil-exporting countries. It deals with this issue in three parts: the first part tests degree of instability of the values of oil exports for the selected countries; the second tests the causal relationship between changes in GNP and changes in oil exports; and the third examines the impact of instability on economic growth of these countries. 32 references, 9 tables.

Hammoudeh, S.; Michaux, J.; Hamad, A.; Saiki, K. (eds.)

1987-01-01

57

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

2008-01-01

58

Producing oil from a subsurface oil-containing formation layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for producing oil from a subsurface oil-containing formation layer which is traversed by a cased borehole extending upwards to surface is described. It comprises a tubing, an annular seal, a liquid collecting space below the annual seal which is in fluid communication with an aquifer. Means are provided for limiting fluid flow out of the water disposal space. An open-ended pump housing provided with apertures is arranged at the lower end of the tubing. An oil pump is arranged at the upper end of the pump housing for pumping oil to the surface, and a water pump is arranged at the lower end of the pump housing for discharging water into the water disposal space. The oil pump and the water pump each comprise a stator fixed inside the pump housing and a rotor which is connected to a common rotatable shaft extending to the surface through the tubing. This apparatus is designed to remove the greater part of the water from the oil-water mixture downhole. (author).

Stewart, R.B.; Leerlooijer, K.; Worrall, R.N.

1992-04-08

59

Energy demand in non-OECD countries: oil demand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple model based on income and price elasticities was constructed to project demand for oil in the non-OECD countries (OPEC and non-OPEC) using a function of the growth rates of per capita GNP and the world price of oil. Income and price elasticities were estimated using three different models, A, B, and C, one of which assumed lagged adjustments to price changes and two of which did not. Model A used GNP estimated in U.S. constant dollars and the world price of oil. The income elasticities were very high and most of the price elasticities were insignificantly different from zero at the 90% confidence level. This lead us to the conclusion that the world price of oil does not adequately represent the oil price faced by domestic consumers in most developing countries and is not a useful parameter in most non-OECD countries for estimating price elasticities. Model B and Model C (with lagged adjustment) used GNP and oil prices estimated in domestic currencies. Both these models give more reasonable income and price elasticities. The more reliable of these estimates were used for projecting oil demand.

Lee, J.; Mubayi, V.; Anandalingam, G.

1983-01-01

60

Oil sharing and policy coordination: The implications for developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major program of response to energy emergencies inherited from the 1970s is the International Energy Program (IEP) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The central feature of the IEP is a system of oil sharing, to be triggered by oil supply cutoffs of 7% or more to individual member countries or the group as a whole. In assessing the effectiveness and desirability of the IEP, an empirical study of the contemporary world oil market indicates that it adjusts equally well in disrupted and normal circumstances. Less developed countries and other nonparticipants are thus likely to experience without delay the effects of oil supply disruptions as well as any effects, positive or negative, of sharing among IEA members. Assessment of the sharing program indicates that import quotas, which could be imposed by countries whose ''supply rights'' under the program require them to limit their consumption of oil, could, in the presence of even a small degree of oligopoly production, result in perverse increases in the world price of oil. Prices would be pushed in a downward direction, however, if sharing were to be only partially implemented, with members entitled to receive oil failing to exercise their rights. LDCs, along with all trading countries, would experience these price changes. It is doubtful that membership in the IEA, should it ever be offered, would confer net benefits on LDCs. Their demand elasticities are more likely to make them donors of oil than recipients in a disruption. The lack of accumulated oil stocks makes LDCs especially vulnerable to the need to impose domestic price ceilings and mandatory allocations on general petroleum use as part of the attempt to fulfill their sharing obligations. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

Horwich, G.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Financial disclosures for oil and gas producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pronouncements of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) over the past several years have resulted in much confusion regarding financial disclosures by oil and gas producers. Disclosure requirements have been announced and subsequently revised, amended, or suspended. It is hoped that the SEC's integration project will serve to resolve some of this confusion. However, the recent announcement that the FASB, with the expressed approval of the SEC, is undertaking yet another project to develop disclosure requirements for oil and gas producers suggests that the problem is far from solved. The summary of disclosures presented in this article may be of help to those who are pesently faced with the problem of preparing financial reports with appropriate disclosures. It should also give an insight into the types of disclosures that ultimately will be required. 5 figures, 8 references.

King, B.G.; Brock, H.R.

1981-06-01

62

Nuclear power for the oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focus of this paper is the economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil-exporting countries, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. Headings are: status of nuclear power in Iran and Egypt; rationale for using nuclear power (gas value; gas balance; financial and fiscal parameters; opportunity cost of capital; taxation burdens; rate making formulae; conservation ethos); applications (nuclear - oil competition; process heat and desalination; nuclear reactors and development assistance); conclusion. (U.K.).

1982-09-03

63

Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure) of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

Aurelia Mañé

2005-01-01

64

Producing oil wells show a rare increase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of oil wells producing in the U.S. increased for the first time since 1985. Based on an annual survey of state agencies, it is estimated that 613,810 wells were onstream at year-end 1991. This 1.9% increase over revised 1990 figures tracks similar gains in crude oil production and gas reserves, all of which resulted primarily from higher-than-expected well servicing and drilling in late 1990. This paper reports that the bad news is that the number of wells falling into the stripper category increased for the first time in recent years as more wells dropped below 10 bopd. Average daily U.S. production per well remained at about 12 bopd, but production for marginal wells dropped for the fourth straight year to average 2.26 bopd in 1990. In Oklahoma for example, where active oil producers increased by 5,094 or 5.3%, almost 85% of the artificial lift wells make less than 3 bopd according to the OCC.

1992-02-01

65

The oil Palm tree: A renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) as a renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries. Many uses of the oil palm are known. This paper describes the processing of palm oil fruits for the extraction of both palm oil and palm kernel oil at the small-scale level. Palm oil and palm kernel oil are the primary major products of the oil palm tree. These oils also are raw materials for the production of a variety of products such as cooking oils, biodiesel, edible fats in the confectionery and bakery trades, ice-cream, mayonnaise, toilet soap, powder detergents, pomades, candles, etc. The palm kernel cake is a major ingredient in the livestock feed manufacture. Palm wine, an alcoholic beverage produced from the sap obtained by the tapping of the male inflorescence is sweet when fresh and sugar can be produced from it. Gin is distilled from the fermented wine. The trunk and the leaflet of the tree are also used for the production of various materials. The sale of all these products of the palm tree will yield cash (money) and social recognition for the oil palm tree farmer. It is also argued that adequate support from the government in terms of research in oil palm, training of farmers, provision of processing facilities, and social amenities will help to promote the quality of products and increase the earnings of the oil palm farmers and processors. In order to attract the land-less farmers, incentives are should be offered to them in the shape of land and seeds at an affordable price. They should also be provided road approach, drinking water facility, low cost sanitation, primary education, basic health facilities, oil extraction mill and market to the nearest township to enable them to sell the fruit, seed, oil and inter-cropped vegetables. These facilities if provided would be result oriented, functional and economically viable thereby eradicating poverty in the society.

Omokaro Obire,*1 and Ramesh R. Putheti,2

2010-01-01

66

Macroeconomic responses to oil price increases and decreases in seven OECD countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The correlations between oil-price meovements and GDP fluctuations are investigated for the United States, Canaca, Japan, Germany (West), France, the United Kingdom, and Norway. The responses to price increases and decreases are allowed to be asymmeric. Bivariate correlations as well as partial correlations within a reduced-form macroeconomic model are considered. The correlations with oil-price increases are negative and significant for most countries, but positive for Norway, whose oil-producing sector is large relative to the economy as a whole. The correlations with oil-price decreases are mostly positive, but significant only for the United States and Canada. Most countries show evidence of asymmetric effects, with Norway again as an exception. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Mork, K.A.; Olsen, O. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvika (Norway); Mysen, H.T. [Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway)

1994-12-31

67

Recent developments in the oil spill response, arrangements in four Mediterranean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the existing national arrangement for intervention in case of oil spills in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain, Libya, Egypt) are analyzed. These plans were considered by AGIP for incorporation in the Contingency Plans for offshore operations conducted by its subsidiaries in these four countries. More recent development for improvement of these arrangements (example Oil sector Plans in Egypt) are taken into account together with the oil spill cases more likely susceptible to produce a further increase of the existing capabilities. In addition to the cases which have been extensively dealt with in the specialized Newsletters and Bulletins (Khark 5, Aragon spills), this paper also deals with the less known spill of December 1989 in the Egyptian waters of Gulf of Suez. The accident involved a Philippine ship and the GUPCO's platform Sidki, representing an emblematic case of the problems of the heavy use of the Gulf of Suez as a water way and oil production area.

1990-01-01

68

Inflation, employment, and the Dutch Disease in oil-exporting countries: a short-run disequilibrium analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author uses nontraded goods and labor shortages in the Gulf countries, the decline of the traded goods sector in oil producers (''Dutch Disease''), and the absence of employment benefits of higher oil revenues in Latin American oil producers. Higher oil revenues can be likened to a transfer putting pressure on non-oil traded (NT) goods prices and drawing resources out of the T sector. The slope of the wage indexation line determines whether classical unemployment or repressed inflation results. Various policy measures are analyzed. 3 references, 8 figures.

van Wijnbergen, S.

1984-05-01

69

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author).

1992-01-01

70

World Oilseed Situation and Market Highlights, March 1987. Reference Tables on the Major Producers and Consumers of Olive Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The publication contains tables with historical data on the supply and distribution of olive oil in 35 producing and/or consuming countries. The tables give annual data for most countries from 1964/65 to date on pressed olive oil. The data has been the so...

1987-01-01

71

Method producing pure plant edible oil and plant protein  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to production process of edible pure plant oil and plant protein. The production process of edible pure plant oil includes the steps of: physical squeezing to obtain coarse plant oil, centrifuging in a centrifuging machine to eliminate impurity from oil and obtain clear oil liquid, adding active carbon through stirring and heating at 80-100 deg.C for 30 min to adsorb toxic and harmful matters from oil, and filtering with filtering stick and filtering ball to eliminate active carbon to obtain edible pure plant oil. The present invention is used in producing edible pure plant oil and plant protein.

KONG DEZHONG

72

Energy and the oil-importing developing countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil-importing developing countries will need more energy during the 1980's to sustain development and to support their subsistence sectors. Development plans must be revised to reflect the potentially disastrous effects of high-cost oil on foreign exchange reserves and on national indebtedness. Energy use efficiency must be increased, and wider use must be made of domestic sources of energy-of conventional fossil and hydro sources and of new and renewable options such as biomass and other solar resources. The international community can help by careful management of world financial flows and trade agreements, expansion of capital assistance, and provision of technical assistance. The importance of improving levels of scientific and technical expertise in the less-developed countries is a challege to the worldwide scientific and engineering community.

Dunkerley J; Ramsay W

1982-05-01

73

Arab-American trade: performance and prospects. [With oil group and non-oil group countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty Arab countries were examined by dividing them into two groups depending on the relative share of oil exports (excluding re-exports) in total exports as an annual average for 1972-1978, with a demarcation line of 50%. The oil group (OG) comprises eight countries while the non-oil group covers twelve countries. The level of Arab exports and imports increased during the period between 1972 and 1978. Oil was the dominant export but NOG countries diversified with exports of cotton and phosphate. The balance of trade of the Arab countries was positive during this period despite the persistent, and increasing, deficit of the NOG countries, Combined Arab-American trade increased substantially during the 1970's but particularly after 1974. Oil has been the major factor affecting the size and pattern of Arab-American trade. Export earnings of the OG increased while import capacity of the NOG, supported by increased financial aid received from the OG, also increased. The American balance of trade will continue to be closely linked to Arab influence. (SAC)

Al-Bustany, B.

1980-03-01

74

Oil Price and Economic Growth in Small Pacific Island Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the 14 Pacific Island countries (PICs), only Papua New Guinea has fossil fuel resources. None of the remaining 13 PICs has any energy sources. Consequently, all the 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Recent surges and volatility in oil prices have had serious economic re-percussions on economic growth. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the recently developed panel analysis procedures to five major PICs, namely Fiji, Samoa, Solomon islands, Tonga and Vanuatu with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, economic growth and international reserve are cointegrated. The study findings are that although in the long run there is no long run causality relationship between these variables, in the short run the causality linkage runs from oil prices and interna-tional reserve to economic growth. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on policy options.

T. K. Jayaraman; Evan Lau

2011-01-01

75

78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import Administration...oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

2013-09-16

76

The consumers' environmental policies and the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussion is presented of global environmental problems in their most general form to generate a framework of propositions and criteria for the subsequent discussion of solutions to the problems. These are addressed in sections on oil-exporting countries, oil-importing countries, environmental policies in the OECD, and the responses and strategies of oil-exporting countries.

Mabro, R. (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford (UK))

1992-01-01

77

Quality Improvement of Olive Oils Produced In The Eastern Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize olive oils and to distinguish the production areas according to the specific soil and climate. The goal is to label "local product" olive oils produced in the eastern region of Morocco. The studies focus on oils from three consecutive olives harvest periods. Olive oils, obtained from eastern small olive oil-producers, characteristics were determined using conventional methods analysis, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. This study shows a marked improvement in quality parameters of olive oils produced in this region. There is a difference in the phenol content between oils of different origins; this parameter content can be used as marker to distinguish olive oils according to the production area

Tanouti K; Serghini-Caid H; Chaieb E; Benali A; Harkous M; Elamrani A

2011-01-01

78

Challenges to producing LGB-specific Country of Origin information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluations of whether LGB asylum claimants have a well-foundedfear of persecution frequently require Country of Origin Informationbut information on LGB populations in countries where being LGB iscriminalised is often difficult to obtain.

Christian Pangilinan

2013-01-01

79

Process for producing crude oil from oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This process uses water and glycolipids as nonionic surfactants for the separation of the oil from the mixture of oil, water, and solid materials. It uses trehalose lipids in the form of a solution or dispersion in an organic solvent miscible with water at temperatures below 90 C; this mixture is added to the oil sand and the crude oil then is separated from the mixture.

Lindoerfer, W.; Schulz, W.; Wagner, F.; Jahn-Held, W.

1981-05-21

80

Investigation of coal producing countries in ASEAN (2)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the coal chains, the national plans for exploration and development of coal resources and the problems involved in coal resource development for the following ASEAN countries: Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia. The paper concludes with an assessment of the possibility of coal supply from these countries to Japan and the possibility of mutual coal supply among ASEAN member countries.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cyclic thermal solvent recovery method utilizing visbroken produced crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a cyclic method of solvent stimulation of a single oil well penetrating a viscous crude oil-containing formation, the well is first produced and a portion of the produced crude oil is subjected to a visbreaking operation to produce a hot visbroken crude oil having reduced viscosity. Production is terminated and a predetermined amount of the hot visbroken produced crude oil is injected into the formation via the well as a solvent, the formation is allowed to undergo a soak period, and the well is returned to production. Thereafter, production may be continued until the percentage of visbroken crude oil in the produced fluids is less than 12 percent and the above cycle may be repeated.

Hunt, W.C.

1984-08-14

82

METHOD FOR PRODUCING FATTY ACID ALKYL ESTERS USING MICROORGANISMS HAVING OIL-PRODUCING ABILITY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a method for producing fatty acid alkyl esters using microorganisms having an oil-producing ability, and more particularly to a method for producing fatty acid alkyl esters which comprises: culturing microorganisms having an oil-producing ability and accumulating oil in large amounts degrading the produced oil to produce free fatty acids through autolysis in the microorganisms and performing an alkyl esterification of free fatty acids. The method according to the present invention can convert oil accumulated in microorganisms such as triacyl glycerol which is an oil generally produced by microorganisms to fatty acid alkyl esters with high conversion efficiency through a metabolic engineering approach. Therefore, the present invention is useful for the industrial production of fatty acid alkyl esters which have recently been identified as a biodiesel.

LEE SANG YUP; CHOI YONG JUN

83

Aggregate energy and oil demand in less developed countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A continuation of rapid growth in energy demand in less developed countries (LDCs) would have important policy implications for both energy importing and exporting nations. This article presents the econometric models for estimating demand for aggregate energy and oil products for the selected 15 major energy-consuming LDCs. The estimated long-run income elasticities are, in most cases, greater than unity. The energy price elasticities, being all statistically significant, are nevertheless numerically small. The forecasting results show that aggregate energy demand and oil demand would likely increase at relatively high rates in comparison with most of the industrialized nations. The forecasts are, of course, dependent upon the assumptions of gross domestic product (GDP) growth, population growth, energy prices, and economic structure variables. This article also offers some explanations for the plausibility of relative high forecasted growth of energy demand in LDCs.

Chern, W.S.

1987-01-01

84

Liaohe field becomes China's premier heavy oil producer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that Liaohe oil field is spudding into China's energy spotlight after producing 99 MMbbl (271,230 bopd) in 1990, or about 10% of the country's total. Located in northeast Chinga's Liaoning province, Liaohe ranks behind only the Daqing and Shengli producing areas in output. Oil production at Liaohe has increased by about 7.3 MMbbl (20,000 bpd) to 7.5 MMbbl (20,550 bpd) annually since 1984, posting the best growth rate among all oil fields in the country. Since production began 20 years ago, the field has yielded 868.5 MMbbl of oil and 911.1 Bcf of natural gas. More noteworthy, however, is the fact that Liaohe produces about two-thirds of China's heavy oil and condensate. Now the third largest producer behind Daqing and Shengli oil fields, Liaohe's output, with help from directional drilling, is coming into its own just in time to meet China's growing demand for heavy oil products.

Shanyuan, L.

1991-11-01

85

The Influence of Oil Prices on Stock Market Returns: Empirical Evidence from Oil Exporting and Oil Importing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impact of oil price fluctuations on the stock markets and the interest ratesfrom oil importing and oil exporting countries. To this end, Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models are estimatedand pairwise Granger Causality tests are performed to the stationary series in order to analyse the short-termrelationships among the variables. Also, the Johansen approach for multiple equations is carried out in order totest for cointegration among the series. Finally, the existence of cointegration set the estimation of VectorError-Correction Models (VECMs) to investigate the long-term links between the financial variables and the oilprices. The major findings of this paper include: first, the interaction between the oil prices and the stockmarkets is much stronger than with the interest rates in the short and in the long-run. Second, the impact on oilimporting countries is more significant than on oil exporting countries. Finally, it might be possible that thefluctuations in oil prices have different effects on developed and developing countries.

Dimitrios Asteriou; Augustinos Dimitras; Andrea Lendewig

2013-01-01

86

Oil Prices and Financial Markets Activity: Empirical Evidence from Some MENA countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses empirically the effects of oil prices on financial markets activity of some MENA countries (Middle East & North Africa).We have chosen this subject to study aiming to find out and explain if there is a relationship between international oil prices and the prices of the listed securities in the financial markets of Middle East and North Africa. The countries that will be in the sample of analysis are Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis, we targeted these countries of this geographical area based on specific characteristics of these countries as they are oil importers; in the meantime they have sharing borders with big oil exporting countries.

Marwan Al-Nahleh; Khaled Al-Zaubi

2011-01-01

87

Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

1990-01-01

88

Interest and exchange rate policies in oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kuwait economy illustrates how the basically free market operates among the oil-exporting countries and the problems that develop when private capital is not free to move in the international market. Kuwait's monetary and fiscal policies are designed to keep domestic interest rates low, which are, in turn, affected by the international-exchange-rate mechanism. Comparisons between the Kuwaiti Dinar (KD) and other currencies at two- and five-year periods indicate the relative appreciation and depreciation of the KD. The conflicting objectives of low interest rates and a stable currency affect investment speculators, but policies can take advantage of stages in the business cycle to influence speculators' behavior. 2 tables, 2 charts. (DCK)

Al-Nakib, B.

1980-05-01

89

Energy outlook for oil-exporting and oil-importing developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The special nature of the developing countries' economies which are characterized commonly by the low industrial base, the predominant agricultural sector, the high rate of non-commercial energy utilization, and the extreme sensitivity towards international developments necessitates a distinction in the approach used in the assessment of the energy outlook of these countries. Financial, economical, social, and organizational problems appear to be more interactive than technical problems in the assessment of the energy strategies of these countries. The outlook presented in this paper gives due consideration to the implication of these factors on the economic and energy situations of these countries during the period under consideration. The increase in demand for energy and oil, although moderate, is expected to be about 50% (10 mboe/d) and 39% (4.5 mboe/d) over the 1984 level by the year 2000, respectively. In spite of the clear difference between the growth in energy and oil consumption, the latter would continue to dominate the energy scene in these countries with over 53% share in the total energy mix, by the end of the period. The outlook for energy supply is foreseen to continue to be comfortable. 2 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

Faraj, S.H.; Miremady, A.; Michaux, J.; Hamad, A.; Saiki, K. (eds.)

1987-01-01

90

Producing succinimide additives for motor oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Washing and dispersing properties of succinimide additives to motor oil make them highly desirable. Their production involves a complex, two-stage process. Various succinimide products were examined to determine optimum domestic forms. Oligoolefins condensed with maleic anhydride without a solvent led to 20-25% precipitates, but xylene reduced this percentage to 0.3-0.5, retarded destruction of oligobutenes and reduced consumption of maleic anhydride from 10 to 6%. Reduction of high temperature and pressure processing also was beneficial. Optimum temperature range for production was established at 220-230/sup 0/C, ratio of polybutane:maleic anhydride at 1:1, and contact time at 10-12 hours. Mathematical analysis indicated 60% conversion of polybutane into the additive was necessary for rational production of alkenylsuccinic anhydride. Actual production of 13,000 tons per year is taking place at the Novopolotsk petroleum processing plant, for use in internal combustion and diesel engine oils.

Sklyar, V.T.; Glavati, O.L.; Popovich, T.D.; Garun, Y.Y.

1982-11-01

91

Tailored Oils Produced From Recombinant Heterotrophic Microorganisms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods and compositions for the production of oil, fuels, oleochemicals, and other compounds in recombinant microorganisms are provided, including oil-bearing microorganisms and methods of low cost cultivation of such microorganisms. Microalgal cells containing exogenous genes encoding, for example, a lipase, a sucrose transporter, a sucrose invertase, a fructokinase, a polysaccharide-degrading enzyme, a keto acyl-ACP synthase enzyme, a fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase, a fatty acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase, a fatty aldehyde reductase, a fatty aldehyde decarbonylase, and/or an acyl carrier protein are useful in manufacturing transportation fuels such as renewable diesel, biodiesel, and renewable jet fuel, as well as oleochemicals such as functional fluids, surfactants, soaps and lubricants.

FRANKLIN SCOTT; SOMANCHI ARAVIND; WEE JANICE; RUDENKO GEORGE; MOSELEY JEFFREY L; RAKITSKY WALT

92

TAILORED OILS PRODUCED FROM RECOMBINANT HETEROTROPHIC MICROORGANISMS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods and compositions for the production of oil, fuels, oleochemicals, and other compounds in recombinant microorganisms are provided, including oil-bearing microorganisms and methods of low cost cultivation of such microorganisms. Microalgal cells containing exogenous genes encoding, for example, a lipase, a sucrose transporter, a sucrose invertase, a fructokinase, a polysaccharide-degrading enzyme, a keto acyl-ACP synthase enzyme, a fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase, a fatty acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase, a fatty aldehyde reductase, a fatty aldehyde decarbonylase, and/or an acyl carrier protein are useful in manufacturing transportation fuels such as renewable diesel, biodiesel, and renewable jet fuel, as well as oleochemicals such as functional fluids, surfactants, soaps and lubricants.

FRANKLIN SCOTT; SOMANCHI ARAVIND; WEE JANICE; RUDENKO GEORGE; MOSELEY JEFFREY L; RAKITSKY WALT

93

REFINED VEGETABLE OIL AND A METHOD OF PRODUCING IT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a refined vegetable oil as well as a method of producing it. The method uses the combination of a polyol-containing solvent, such as glycerol, and an alkalizing agent for selectively extracting free fatty acids from the vegetable oil.

NORN VIGGO CREEMERS; NIELSEN LARS PREUSS

94

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

95

A process for producing carbonaceous matter from tar sand, oil shale and olive cake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many countries which do not produce oil are rich with other sources of energy that are not fully utilised, such as tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. Limited previous work was done on producing carbonaceous matter and separating volatile matter from combinations of tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. In this study, a process is designed and tested to produce carbonaceous matter from combinations of three materials mentioned above. Results indicate that the process is successful in producing carbonaceous matter. The minimum temperatures to achieve complete carbonisation was found to be 500degC for a minimum heating time of 1.5h. Carbonised materials were tested for their calorific values, which indicated a successful carbonisation process. The proposed process can be scaled up and automated, and is expected to be economically feasible. Moreover, the process allows for control of unwanted exiting polluting gases and volatile matter and therefore is environmentally safe. (Author)

Alkhamis, T.M.; Kablan, M.M. [Mu' tah Univ., Engineering Faculty, Karak (Jordan)

1999-10-01

96

Role of oil in shaping Mexico and Venezuela as semiperipheral countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the extent to which Mexico and Venezuela exercise semiperipheral behavior in their regional sphere of influence as a consequence of their possession of a strategic natural resource - oil. The principal task is to empirically examine the thesis that some Third World countries shift from a peripheral to a semiperipheral status when they possess certain natural resources essential to the industrialized or core countries. The theoretical framework upon which this study is based is presented. The development of the petroleum industry in Mexico and Venezuela is outlined, including a comparative description of the political development of both countries' industries as well as the amount of oil produced, exported, and in reserve. Information is presented about the demographic, political, and military characteristics of Mexico and Venezuela as semiperipheral countries. The economic setting, the internal stratification and trade capability bases of the semiperipheral status of Mexico and Venezuela are presented. Mexico's and Venezuela's economic and political role in the international relations of the region are discussed. A summary and analysis of the theory is supplied. It also synthesizes the empirical data which demonstrate Mexico's and Venezuela's semiperipheral control in their regional area of influence.

Perozo, J.J.

1984-01-01

97

Macroeconomic prospects for a small oil exporting country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains papers divided among four parts. The parts are: Booming Oil Sector, Structural Change and Macroeconomic Policy; The World Oil and Gas Market; Production, Profitability and Taxes; and Oil Revenues and Long-Term Macroeconomic Planning.

Bjerkholt, O.; Offerdal, E.

1985-01-01

98

Oil Dependencies and Peak Oil's Effects on Oil Consumption : A case study of six countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the year of 2007, the world has experienced historically high oil prices both in nominal and in real terms, which has reopened discussions about energy sustainability. We therefore found it interesting to research oil dependencies and elasticities for Brazil, China, Norway, South Korea, Swede...

Tekin, Josef; Hagman, Jens

99

Method for removing water from produced crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for removing emulsified water from a crude oil stream produced from a subterranean, oil-containing formation, the oil stream containing about 14 to about 65% by volume of emulsified water. The method consists of: (a) passing the crude oil stream containing emulsified water through a bed of a water-saturated hydrophilic coalescing medium selected from the group consisting of sand, crushed quartz, diatomaceous earth, porous silica and ground walnut shells, whereby the water coalesces and an oil phase, substantially free of water, and a water phase are formed; and (b) separating the oil phase containing less than 3 volume percent of water from the water phase by gravitational separation or centrifuging.

McMillen, J.M.

1986-06-03

100

Changes to the oil export structure of OPEC Member Countries - an analysis with the Gini coefficient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper's goal is to analyse the impact of changes to the oil export structure on economic growth in OPEC Member Countries. The Gini coefficient has been applied simultaneously as a measure of the annual changes in the structure of per capita oil exports, as well as of the annual share of oil exports among Member Countries. The analysis consists of a calculation of the concentration coefficients, a determination of their trend and an identification of the factors most influencing observed changes to the oil export structure in these countries. As a result, we find that economic growth, crude oil production, proven reserves, imports and time are the major factors influencing changes to the oil export structure. Considering the changed structure, in the context of differences in oil export distribution, we observe that economic growth and production have a positive impact on the distribution of oil exports and that proven reserves and imports have a negative impact.

Dahmani, A. [Cracow University of Economics (Poland). Dept. of Statistics

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Changes to the oil export structure of OPEC Member Countries - an analysis with the Gini coefficient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper's goal is to analyse the impact of changes to the oil export structure on economic growth in OPEC Member Countries. The Gini coefficient has been applied simultaneously as a measure of the annual changes in the structure of per capita oil exports, as well as of the annual share of oil exports among Member Countries. The analysis consists of a calculation of the concentration coefficients, a determination of their trend and an identification of the factors most influencing observed changes to the oil export structure in these countries. As a result, we find that economic growth, crude oil production, proven reserves, imports and time are the major factors influencing changes to the oil export structure. Considering the changed structure, in the context of differences in oil export distribution, we observe that economic growth and production have a positive impact on the distribution of oil exports and that proven reserves and imports have a negative impact

1998-01-01

102

Oil and Azerbaijan. A definitive assessment of this major world oil producing area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The immediate geographic, political and economic background to Azerbaijan`s oil industry is summarised. Against this background, recent developments and regional influences which will help shape the future of oil production in Azerbaijan are reviewed. Abundant oil reserves wait to be exploited but this small country is dependent on the cooperation of some of its immediate neighbours to bring this oil to market. However, there are long-standing, and in some cases, bitter regional conflicts which are likely to impede this cooperation. (UK)

Powrie, R. [comp.

1994-12-31

103

Institutional Quality, Economic Growth and Fluctuations of Oil Prices in Oil Dependent Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principle aim of this investigation is the study of fluctuations of oil prices impacts on economic growth of oil-dependent countries with respect to institutional quality. For this purpose we use panel cointegration methodology and error-correction model for 32 oil abundant countries covering the period 1975-2010. The result implies that fluctua- tions of oil prices impact on economic growth of countries depend on institutional quality index so that the impact of fluctuation is avoided by countries with sufficiently good institutions. More ever, the long-run ratio of investment to products effect is negative and small that shows the quality of investment projects is more importance than the quantity of them in the economic growth of these countries. The effect of trade openness on economic growth in the long-run is positive, statistically significant, and economically sizable.

Alireza Keikha; Ahmadali Keikha; Mohsen Mehrara

2012-01-01

104

Vertical integration of the oil-exporting countries. Die vertikale Integration erdoelexportierender Laender  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years a number of oil-exporting countries have been trying to extend their vertical integration on the petroleum market by seizing on production processes to be following simple oil drilling. Production comprises the installation of petroleum refineries and the establishment of a chemical feedstock industry. Besides, the respective countries are attempting to extend and intensify their influence on the distribution system. Among others, endeavours such as these are manifest in the establishment of oil tanker bases and in the countries participation in foreign distribution systems. The publication abstracted investigates into the motives of vertical integration strategies and tries to assess the economic causes of the aspirations of the oil-exporting countries in connection with the downstream sector. The publication also points out the effects of above developments and trends on the oil-importing countries.

Siebert, H.; Rauscher, M.

1985-05-01

105

Producers and oil markets; The example of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

Greaves, W.

1993-08-01

106

Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.)

2003-01-01

107

Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

2012-09-01

108

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe: a survey among national experts from 39 countries, February 2013.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a threat to healthcare delivery, although its extent differs substantially from country to country. In February 2013, national experts from 39 European countries were invited to self-assess the current epidemiological situation of CPE in their country. Information about national management of CPE was also reported. The results highlight the urgent need for a coordinated European effort on early diagnosis, active surveillance, and guidance on infection control measures.

Glasner C; Albiger B; Buist G; Tambi? Andrasevi? A; Canton R; Carmeli Y; Friedrich AW; Giske CG; Glupczynski Y; Gniadkowski M; Livermore DM; Nordmann P; Poirel L; Rossolini GM; Seifert H; Vatopoulos A; Walsh T; Woodford N; Donker T; Monnet DL; Grundmann H

2013-01-01

109

METHOD FOR PRODUCING OLEFINIC MONOMERS FROM BIO OIL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method of producing olefinic monomers for the production of a polymer. The invention particularly relates to the production of tall oil-based biopolymers, such as polyolefins. In the stages of the method bio oil, with a content of over 50% of fatty acids of tall oil and no more than 25% of resin acids of tall oil, and hydrogen gas are fed into a catalyst bed (7) the oil is catalytically deoxygenated in the bed by hydrogen the flow exiting the bed is cooled down and divided into a hydrocarbon-bearing liquid phase (10) and a gas phase and the hydrocarbon-bearing liquid (13) is subjected to steam cracking (4) to provide a product containing polymerizing olefins. The deoxygenation in the bed can be followed by a catalytic cracking or, with a suitable catalyst, the deoxygenation and cracking can be simultaneous. The separated hydrogen-bearing gas phase can be circulated in the process.

HARLIN ALI; PENTTINEN TAPANI; RAESAENEN JARI; AALTONEN OLLI

110

Crude oil Windfall Profit Tax. Part 3. Defining the producer of crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Defining the producer of crude oil is important for 3 reasons. (1) The identity of the producer determines who is liable to pay the Windfall Profit Tax. (2) The tax rate applicable varies, depending upon the identity of the producer because special rates apply to certain producers and certain producers are exempt. (3) Certain administrative procedures vary, depending upon the identity of the producer; that is, certain administrative burdens are imposed upon the producer of crude oil. In addition to identifying the producer, problems are defined which arise in determining how many barrels of oil and, therefore, how much Windfall Profit is attributable to each producer. This is especially a problem in the area of net profits interests, which is discussed also.

Parker, E.A.

1981-01-01

111

Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced.

Knight JG; Clark A; Mather DW

2013-07-01

112

An overview of oil and grease determination in produced water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water discharges are monitored under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program, and one of its provisions limits oil and grease concentration in the water. This paper summarizes the results of studies conducted by EPA and API to compare results obtained using different solvents (Freon or n-hexane) in the gravimetric technique for EPA reporting as specified in Method 413.1 (current compliance method, Freon extraction) and Method 1664 (proposed new method, n-hexane extraction) and discusses the impact of the new method. The outline of an ongoing API project on techniques for measuring oil and grease content of produced water for overboard disposal will also be discussed.

Johnson, S.J.; Steen, A.E.; Bansal, K.M. [and others

1996-11-01

113

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges. [With particular reference to Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author).

Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A. (PETRONAS (MY))

1992-01-01

114

Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

Park, Jungwook [Energy Efficiency Division, Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Gwacheon (Korea); Ratti, Ronald A. [Department of Economics, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

2008-09-15

115

Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

2008-01-01

116

Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. The findings imply high vulnerability of oildependent countries to oil revenues volatility. To insulate the economy from oil revenue volatility requires institutional mechanisms de-linking health expenditures decisions from current revenue.

Mohsen Mehrara; Maysam Musai

2011-01-01

117

Development prospects of the capital-surplus oil-exporting countries. [Monograph  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to assess the political and economic factors that are likely to determine, in the next five years, the absorptive capacity for investment and consumption in the capital-surplus oil-exporting countries; this permits an evaluation of the prospective size of their oil surplus under specific assumptions of oil export volume and oil prices. Starting with an analysis of the notion that the volume of oil production, beyond a specific point for each country, is of a discretionary nature, the paper proceeds to review the experience of the oil-surplus countries during the last seven years in absorbing oil income and creating a domestic income base for the post-oil era. The results of this experience and its side effects (in the form of inflation and immigrant labor) and their political and economic implications are reviewed in the context of different resource endowments and societal structures with a view to understanding the likely development and expenditures the governments will take. The paper concludes with a prognosis of likely levels of total oil income, domestic absorptions, and oil surpluses for the six countries. 4 references, 26 tables.

Habluetzel, R.

1981-01-01

118

Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries; Comparative analysis between Indonesia and Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author).

Watanabe, Chihiro; Widayanti, Tjahya (Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Graduate School of Policy Science)

1992-10-01

119

Oil prices and stock markets. What drives what in the Gulf Corporation Council countries?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Konya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values to study the sensitivity of stock markets to oil prices in GCC (Gulf Corporation Council) countries. Using two different (weekly and monthly) datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21 October 2008, and from January 1996 to December 2007, we show strong statistical evidence that the causal relationship is consistently bi-directional for Saudi Arabia. Stock market price changes in the other GCC member countries do not Granger cause oil price changes, whereas oil price shocks Granger cause stock price changes. Therefore, investors in GCC stock markets should look at the changes in oil prices, whereas investors in oil markets should look at changes in the Saudi stock market. (orig.)

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO, CNRS, UMR 6221

2010-01-15

120

The future of National Oil Companies in Exporting Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of national oil companies depends basically on their ability to get integrated in the international oil industry. The first problem to be raised is the nature of the firm. Then the strategies conducted by the companies and the states are reviewed. (Author).

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Analyzing the oil refining industry in developing countries: A comparative study of China and India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil refining industry is a critical link in the energy chain in many developing and industrialized countries, transforming crude oil into transport fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel), residual fuel oil (widely used as a fuel in industry and the electric power sector), and other products such as kerosine, frequently for lighting an cooking usages. Three to four decades ago, the demand for oil products in most developing countries was centered to a few large cities; thus, few refineries were built in these regions. But because of the astonishing economic growth in many developing nations, demand for oil products has increased rapidly. As a result, the refining industry has expanded rapidly in such countries, even in cases were there is no domestic crude oil production. Oil product demand and refinery expansion in Asian developing countries in particular have experienced significant growth. Between 1976 and 1993, oil product demand and refinery capacity in that region (excluding Japan) increased annually an average of 5.2 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively, whereas the comparable figures for the world as a whole remained virtually unchanged during the same period. The substantial gains in Asia`s crude oil production in the 1970s is believed to have facilitated this refinery expansion.

Tang, F.C.

1994-12-31

122

Feed mixed emulsifying oil and its producing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a mixed emulsified oil for feed. The described mixed emulsified oil is made up by using corn oil, soybean oil, coconut oil, palm oil, peanut oil, rice bran oil, cotton seed oil and hydroxylated modified soybean lecithin according to a certain mixing ratio through a certain preparation process. Said invention also provides the concrete steps of its preparation process.

SONGLIN MENG

123

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping...from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country...

2013-07-10

124

Exploring oil market dynamics: a system dynamics model and microworld of the oil producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter focuses on the development of a simulation model of global oil markets by Royal Dutch/Shell Planners in order to explore the implications of different scenarios. The model development process, mapping the decision making logic of the oil producers, the swing producer making enough to defend the intended price, the independents, quota setting, the opportunists, and market oil price and demand are examined. Use of the model to generate scenarios development of the model as a gaming simulator for training, design of the user interface, and the value of the model are considered in detail. (UK)

Morecroft, J.D.W. [London Business School (United Kingdom); Marsh, B. [St Andrews Management Institute, Fife (United Kingdom)

1997-11-01

125

Organoclay cost effectively removes oil from produced water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An organoclay-based method can economically treat produced water that is reinjected into formations. Organoclay refers to bentonitic clay platelets modified with quaternary amine. Operators can dispose of the spent organoclay in landfills, as long as it is nonhazardous, or ship it to asphalt producers or fuel blenders. Activated carbon is regenerated or incinerated if it is hazardous. Operators reinject produced water into formations either for water disposal or waterflooding to recover additional oil. In either case to minimize formation plugging, it is important to remove oil and other materials from the water. If removing metals, the media must be designed carefully for each situation. The paper discusses disposal regulations, on-site treatment train, and water disposal economics.

Alther, G. [Biomin Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1997-04-14

126

The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

2010-01-01

127

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia.

Raal A; Orav A; Arak E

2007-05-01

128

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The...

G.I.Onwuka; B.I. Akaerue

129

Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper uses a multiple regression model derived from an adaptation of Nerlove's partial adjustment model to estimate both the short-run and long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in 23 countries. The estimates so obtained confirm that the demand for crude oil internationally is highly insensitive to changes in price. (author)

2003-01-01

130

Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses a multiple regression model derived from an adaptation of Nerlove's partial adjustment model to estimate both the short-run and long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in 23 countries. The estimates so obtained confirm that the demand for crude oil internationally is highly insensitive to changes in price. (author)

Cooper, J.C.B.

2003-03-01

131

A method for producing fuel from fish oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is proposed for producing fuel from fish fat in which low quality products formed in the industrial canning of fish oil are first dehydrated and purified, then heated to the required temperature, reducing the viscosity in this manner, and then the low viscosity product is mixed with the required volume of heavy oil. An installation is proposed which includes a centrifuge in which the dehydration and removal of the impurities are performed; a heating tank, pumps, which regulate the feeding of the low viscosity product and the heavy oil; a pipeline in which these streams are combined, a stream mixer in the form of a cylindrical tank with a rotating, bladed turbine located inside, the external surface (Pv) of the blades of which is equipped with channels for the passage of the mixture. The method provides for the production of an inexpensive, high calorie fuel used in boilers as an example.

Miura, S.

1982-08-21

132

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12

133

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

Ramirez, P. Jr. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, WY (United States)

1994-12-31

134

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 ?g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 ?g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

1994-11-03

135

Economic consequences of increasing oil prices on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International inflation has brought about especially adverse consequences on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries in the 1970s. These nations experienced exceptionally high inflation rates. The inflation therein was mainly of an import-cost push type and was fueled by excessive monetary expansions, economic stagnation, and inflationary expectations. Increasing oil prices, in particular, contributed to import-cost push inflation. The terms of trade tended to deteriorate as a result of the rising import prices relative to export prices. Deterioration in the terms of trade caused financial resources to flow out from these nations to the oil-exporting developing countries. Consequently, their balance of payments deficits grew and their external debt began to accumulate. The rising prices of fuel and energy-capital intensive inputs undermined the ability of the oil-deficit developing countries to promote agricultural development. This inability is likely to increase their dependence on imported food in the immediate decades. The energy crisis thus brought about an economic disequilibrium in the world economy. The income gap between the oil-deficit developing countries and the oil-exporting developing nations has substantially increased since 1973. A theoretical analysis in this thesis is supported by empirical studies.

Pourgerami, A.

1982-01-01

136

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Finely dispersed oil-in-water emulsions with a long-term stability, based on oil mixtures containing an organic cosmetic active agent can be obtained if (A) an oil body with (B) 0.5 to 30 wt %. of a non-ionic emulsifier with a hydrophile-lipophile balance of 10 to 18 and (C) or 0.1 to 30 wt % of a co-emulsifier from the group of fatty alcohols with 12 to 22 atoms or the partial esters of polyoles with 3 to 6 C atoms with fatty acids with 12 to 22 atoms and (D) an organic cosmetic active agent selected from the group of deodorizing agents, perfume oils and light-protective factors, provided that i) the sum of components (A) and (D) amounts to 10 to 90 wt % and ii) the proportion of the component (D) amounts to 5 to 100 wt % in relation to the oil body (A), is emulsified in the presence of 8 to 85 wt % of water at a temperature above the melting point of the mixture of components (A) to (D) and the emulsion is heated to a temperature within or above the phase inversion temperature range, or the emulsion is produced at this temperature, after which it is cooled to a temperature below said phase inversion temperature range and possibly further diluted with water.

FÖRSTER Thomas; CLAAS Marcus; KÜHN Axel; WACHTER Rolf; WADLE Armin

137

Analysis of producing vegetable oil as an alternate fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale, on-farm oil production and extraction were evaluated for four oilseed crops produced in full-season or double cropping systems. Economic feasibility was determined by calculating the per-liter cost of vegetable oil based on total costs of production and processing as well as credits for feeding values of the oilseed residues. Per-liter costs ranged from a high of $1.76 for soybean oil (no-till, full-season soybeans) to a low of $0.97 for the conventionally tilled winter rape/soybeans cropping system (processing labor not included) for a 25% vegetable oil/diesel fuel mix for a typical 240-ha farm. When processing labor charges were included, all per-liter costs were increased accordingly. Total energy and fuel energy inputs and outputs were analyzed for winter rape, soybean, sunflower, and peanut oils. All four oilseeds yielded a positive energy balance. The total energy output-to-input ratio ranged from 2.62 for conventional tillage sunflower to 7.47 for no-till soybeans. The fuel energy output-to-input ratio ranged from 1.43 for conventionally tilled full-season soybeans to 13.52 for the no-till winter rape/sunflower cropping system. (J.C.R.)

Farsaie, A. (University of Maryland, College Park (USA)); DeBarthe, J.V.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Lessley, B.V.; Wiebold, W.J.

1985-11-01

138

METHOD OF PRODUCING OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Described is a method of producing finely dispersed oil-in-water emulsions with long-term stability, based on oil mixtures with a high proportion of polar oil constituents by emulsifying, in the presence of 8 to 85 % by wt. of water, at a temperature above the melting point of the mixture, the following constituents A to D: (A) 10 to 90 % by wt. of a polar oil, (B) 0.5 to 30 % by wt. of a non-ionic emulsifier with an HLB value of 10 to 18, (C) 0 to 30 % by wt. of a co-emulsifier selected from the group comprising fatty alcohols with 12 to 22 C-atoms and the partial esters of polyols having 3 to 6 C-atoms with fatty acids having 12 to 22 C-atoms and (D) 0.01 to 50 % by wt. of an interface moderator selected from the group comprising the tocopherols, the guerbet alcohols having 16 to 20 C-atoms and a steroid having 1 to 3 OH-groups, and heating the emulsion to a temperature within or above the phase-inversion temperature range , or producing the emulsion at this temperature, and then cooling the emulsion to a temperature below the phase-inversion temperature range and, optionally, diluting with water.

FÖRSTER Thomas; CLAAS Marcus; WACHTER Rolf; TESMANN Holger

139

Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign.

Gu Zhaolin; Qiu Jian; Li Yun; Cai Guoguang

2003-10-01

140

Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign. (author)

Zhaolin Gu; Jian Qiu; Yun Li; Guoguang Cai [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China). School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Disclosures concerning oil and gas producing activities and the FASB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The usefulness of currently required disclosures concerning oil and gas producing activities has been a subject of considerable controversy for some time. One response to this controversy is that the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), with the support of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has embarked upon a project intended to readdress the basics of this issue. Many of those concerned with this problem indicate that not only are currently required disclosures not optimally useful, they additionally seem to be too numerous. One of the initial steps in the FASB's project of developing a more useful and less voluminous set of required disclosures concerning oil and gas producing activities was the issuance of a formal invitation to comment. This article summarizes and discussed that document and its implications.

Alford, R.M.; Benjamin, J.J.; Strawser, R.H.

1982-06-01

142

Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign.

2003-01-01

143

Performance of cross-country oil pipelines in western Europe: Statistical summary of reported spillages, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents statistical data relating to spillages from cross-country oil pipelines reported for calendar year 1994 with comments and comparisons for the five-year period 1990 to 1994 and an overall comparison since 1971. The statistics detailed in this report refer not only to oil industry owned onshore cross-country pipelines and associated pumping/delivery stations but in addition cover those cross-country pipelines owned by non-commercial bodies. The costs comprise direct costs of the spillage incidents for pipeline repair and site clean-up/restoration, and exclude any consequential costs such as loss of income or legal costs.

Berry, K.G.; Bianchini, M.; Muller, B.; Pries, P.; Lyons, D.

1995-11-01

144

Processing for producing hydrocarbon oils from plastic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for producing a hydrocarbon oil of low pour point from plastic waste material. It comprises: thermally cracking molten plastic waste material in the liquid phase and contacting the thermal cracking products with an intermediate pore size zeolite at a temperature from 200{sup 0} to 340{sup 0}C in the vapour phase to effect a catalytic cracking of the thermal cracking products.

Fukuda, T.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, S.; Sato, H.; Hirota, T.

1989-07-25

145

OIL PRODUCING MICROBES ADN METHOD OF MODIFICATION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are compositions and methods related to a eukaryote of the order Thraustochytriales and family Thraustochytriaceae which when cultured produce quantities of unsaturated fatty acids, such as omega 3 (n-3) and/or omega 6 (n-6) oils, such as DHA, EPA and DPA, capable of being purified and used as all such compositions are used and more, because of their means of production.

RADIANINGTYAS HELIA

146

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-64456 (Iran)

2007-05-15

147

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

2007-01-01

148

Oil price development and structural changes in the OPEC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After some statements on the consequences of the oil price increase, two hypotheses on pricing (Ricardo/Hotelling hypothesis and cartel hypothesis) are studied with a view to their empirical relevance. The structural effects of different price expectations are derived and discussed.

Bruch, M.; Dicke, H.; Glismann, H.H.

1983-06-01

149

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. PMID:19505758

Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

2009-05-19

150

Characterization and upgrading of bio-oils produced by RTP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-oils are complex mixtures of organic substances. They contain many different chemical functions. This makes extremely difficult the characterization of the various compounds, when starting directly with the oil. The authors propose a more convenient analytical approach based on liquid-liquid fractionation, followed by a detail chemical characterization of each fraction. This is done by high performance techniques such as FTIR, 13{sub C} and 1{sup H} NMR and GC/MS-MS. This procedure was applied to oils produced by RTP (rapid thermal processing), that contain up to 40% oxygen. Using 13{sub C} NMR, the authors found the following functions: ether 26.5%, aromatic {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} substituted 14%, carboxyl 7% and carbonyl 5%. These oxygenated functions present different reactivities in catalytic hydrotreating. The knowledge of their relative percentages is essential to evaluate the hydrogen consumption in the two possible alternatives for upgrading the oils and to select the most favorable one: simple stabilization or full hydrorefining with elimination of nearly all oxygen.

Maggi, R.; Laurent, E.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

1993-12-31

151

The impact of the oil industry on the indigenous population in the oil-producing areas of Nigeria: As measured by ecological factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exploration and exploitation of the petroleum resource has created some of the largest fortunes and has helped to achieve some of the most impressive economic growth and development, yet little or no attention has been directed to its impact on the producing areas, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the oil industry on the inhabitants of the oil-producing areas as measured by certain ecological factors. The factors considered were education, health, housing, power, roads, water, and pollution. The selected socio-economic factors are thought to influence the social well being of the inhabitants.

Ikein, A.A.

1988-01-01

152

Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp) showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

2005-01-01

153

Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not.

Rabe, E.L.M.

2006-05-15

154

Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not.

2006-01-01

155

Policies for transfer of technology to developing countries: the case of Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries constitute a particular case among the developing countries. Two main characteristics contribute to this position: (1) availability of financial resources to purchase needed technology, particularly for surplus countries; (2) scarcity of labor, entrepreneurship and managerial skills. This study proposes policy measures for these countries which would serve their national economic, social, and political goals given the above characteristics. The treatment of the subject contains three main aspects: (1) the social, cultural and institutional factors affecting transfer of technology; (2) the strategies which these countries can follow to achieve better methods of technology transfer. These include technology assessment, technology bargaining, research and development and information; (3) economic and industrial policies regarding foreign direct investment, licensing agreements and management contracts as alternative mechanisms for acquisition of foreign technology. Transfer of technology was found to be influenced by other factors beyond financial costs and factors of production. These factors include the scale of production or product technology, the size of domestic markets, accessibility to international markets, local technological infrastructure, absorptive capacity and government regulations regarding foreign direct investment.

Bamakhramah, A.S.

1981-01-01

156

Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

157

Method for producing vacuum oil fried convenient egg  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a manufacturing method for vacuum fried instant egg, which is characterized in comprising steps of: 1) making egg liquid, which is breaking fresh eggs, stirring uniformly for egg liquid making 2) making egg crepe, which is heating the egg liquid for egg crepe making 3) cutting, which is cutting the egg crepe into shapes of sheet and thread 4) dewatering by vacuum oil frying 5) cooling and packaging. The instant egg produced thereby not only avoids defect cause by high temperature frying or baking, but also has advantages of the vacuum fried instant egg such as short dewatering drying time, low oil content, short watering time, low nutrition loss, great mouth feeling, capability of being eaten as instant noodles, wide application scope, suitability for boiling, convenience for matching with other dishes, long preservation period, easiness for storage, transportation, and being eaten during combat readiness, disaster relief.

CHENGYU ZANG

158

Ecological factors in selecting technological processes for producing base oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Besides a comparison and evaluation of the technological and economic conditions, the selection of a technological process for the production of base oils requires an examination of ecological factors. The heightened development of industry is fraught with environmental contamination and therefore in building each new industrial plant an ecological part of the project is performed, in which proof is cited that the entry of the new plant into operation will not lead to environmental contamination. The processes of producing base oils are compared in volume and composition of the wastes and according to their harmful effect on the environment. From a comparison of the examined processes, it is possible to conclude that the process of two staged hydropurification from an ecological perspective is the most suitable since a minimum level of environmental pollution is achieved when it is combined with waste gas and water purification processes.

Puric, V.; Cizmic, V.; Meles, A.; Podkrajsek, M.

1983-01-01

159

A novel and innovative process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands extraction by adsorption (OSEAD) was created in October 2006 to develop an innovative hydrocarbon extraction technology from oil sands. It has since grown by taking control of a lead, zinc and silver mine in Morocco. This paper discussed the novel and innovative OSEAD process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil. The paper provided a description of the oil sand samples and discussed lab testing. The adsorption and desorption phases were both outlined. The main properties of the agent were identified. A summary of the test work results was also presented. The optimized OSEAD process includes an ore preparation step involving mixing of oil sand and water at ambient temperature; an adsorption step involving addition of agent to the sand/water mix; a phase separation step; a desorption step; and a tailings treatment step. It was concluded that the laboratory test work performed on Canadian oil sands is conclusive in demonstrating the capacity of the OSEAD process to efficiently adsorb heavy and viscous hydrocarbon at ambient temperature and with limited amount of water addition. 11 figs., 1 appendix.

Denivelle, C. [OSEAD, Paris (France); Fourt, J.F. [Truffle Capital, Paris (France)

2009-07-01

160

A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

M. Metin Artukoglu

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations.

NONE

2007-01-15

162

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana undertakes a review of petroleum taxation in selected countries around the world and seeks to fashion a way for Ghana’s infantile petroleum industry. In other words, the study seeks to facilitate a smooth tax regime and policy for Ghana. The study is based on literature arising from desk research as well as through telephone interviews. Petroleum taxation regimes of the countries under study portend to mitigate the current inconsistencies and resulting contentions from tax payers in Ghana.Key words: Oil and gas; Petroleum; Crude oil; Hydrocarbon; Upstream petroleum operations; Taxation; Tax legislation; Royalty; Income tax

Emmanuel B. Amponsah; John A. Enahoro; Abdallah Ali-Nakyea

2012-01-01

163

Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

Zamani, M.

2005-06-01

164

Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

2005-01-01

165

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries.

Chander M; Subrahmanyeswari B; Mukherjee R; Kumar S

2011-12-01

166

DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) Dynamic OLS (DOLS) procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

Nourah Al Yousef

2013-01-01

167

Accounting for interest costs by oil and gas producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In October 1979, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 34, entitled Capitalization of Interest Cost. In general this statement requires that interest cost be capitalized as an integral part of the cost of an asset in certain situations contingent on the nature of the asset being acquired and the nature of the acquiring company's capital structure. Subsequent to the issuance of SFAS No. 34, the FASB has amended and interpreted the document four times. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the authoritative conclusions in these documents as they apply to oil and gas producers.

Munter, P.; Ratcliffe, T.A.

1982-12-01

168

The political role of national oil companies in the large exporting countries : the Venezuela case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper starts by defining the role of mining companies vis-a vis the landlords in a modern economy. Then it examines the role international oil companies played in exporting countries. Finally the role of national oil companies is analyzed following the same scheme : what is their contribution to the development of a new landlord-tenant relationship, nationally and internationally ? ''Petroleos de Venezuela'' is taken as an example. (Author). 27 refs.

1994-01-01

169

Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ? Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ? Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

2012-01-01

170

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

Unknown

2003-04-30

171

Simulation of demand (or consumption) of fuel and lubricating oils in countries of Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demand on fuel and lubricating oils mixtures is estimated in transport sector of the Asia countries. Model of demand is constructed with help of co-integration structures and error correction model for definition of fuel and lubricating oils mixtures elasticity. Researches have been conducted with use of program complex in operational medium of the Windows-95. Co-integrating vectors for demand on gasoline were defined by all of considered countries (beside Thailand), for demand on diesel fuel - for Indonesia and South Korea.

1997-01-01

172

The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

Arbod, G

2007-02-15

173

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

174

Some implications of oil revenues for the domestic economy in oil-exporting countries: an application to Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes the consequences of oil revenues accruing to the governments of OPEC countries for some aspects of their domestic economy. It is argued that government domestic budgetary decisions hold the key as to what amount of the foreign exchange counterpart of such revenues are monetized domestically. First, the implications of oil revenues for the structure of domestic output is analyzed within the framework of a simple neo-classical two-sector model of production. Then a simple macro-model is developed to test the implied consequences of oil revenues for the domestic price level and the non-oil balance of trade. It is shown that oil revenues will generate a tendency for domestic production to become increasingly concentrated in the non-traded goods sector. This conclusion is shown to be consistent with the observed Nigerian situation. Finally, the macro-model is subjected to empirical estimation, using Nigerian data. The empirical results obtained show that the domestic price level and the non-oil balance of trade are significantly affected by oil revenues.

Ozo-Eson, P.I.

1982-01-01

175

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

176

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

177

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

178

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

179

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

180

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

 
 
 
 
181

Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it repr...

Chen Brian K; Seligman Benjamin; Farquhar John W; Goldhaber-Fiebert Jeremy D

182

The generation, use and disposal of waste crankcase oil in developing countries: a case for Kampala district, Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste crankcase oil (WCO), the oil that is removed from motor engines during an oil change, is frequently discarded into the environment, resulting in pollution of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In some developing countries, this common hazardous material is not properly managed. In Uganda little is known about its generation, utilization, and disposal. These factors were investigated using in-depth interviews of a sample of mechanics from 379 motor repair garages and 109 fuel stations in the Kampala district. Most garages (94%) and fuel stations (96%) in the study area offered oil-changing services. On average, each garage produced 62 l, and each fuel station produced 134 l of WCO per week. In garages 35% was sold, 16% poured on the ground, 18% taken by vehicle owners and 31% given away for free. At fuel stations, 49% was picked by private collectors, 27% sold, 4% poured on the ground, 2% burnt, 13% taken by vehicle owners, and 6% given away for free. Uses of WCO included coating roofing timber and fencing posts, use in timber cutting, marking play grounds, and pest control in animals. Its disposal involved burning, and pouring in the environment. Lack of policy and information for proper handling of WCO contributed to the poor management of WCO exhibited.

Ssempebwa JC; Carpenter DO

2009-01-01

183

Characteristics of a lubricating oil base stock produced from Rundle shale oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shale oil derived from the pyrolysis of shale from the Rundle, Queensland deposit has been processed by two stages of distillation, atmospheric and vacuum, and two solvent extraction processes, using n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) for de-aromatisation and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for de-waxing, to produce a significant yield of low viscosity, high viscosity index product in the lubricating oil range. The products derived from the processing together with some petroleum derived lubricating oil base stocks have been analysed for elemental composition, viscosity and viscosity index and by chromatography. The results show that the NMP extraction reduces the aromatic content of the vacuum distillate and that a high grade wax is produced in the de-waxing stage. The de-aromatised, de-waxed product has a viscosity at 40{degree}C of 12.48cSt and vicosity index of 143. It requires only the removal of a small amount of residual alkanes to give it a similar chromatogram to, but of lower molecular weight than the petroleum derived lubricating oil base stocks that were also analysed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Sergeant, G.D.; Stubington, J.F.; Barrett, D.; Philipps, I. [University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Fuel Technology

1995-01-01

184

The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains. Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity and costs associated with the certification. Small honey producers associations were not able to fulfil some of the FLOCERT criteria. The criterion relating to the preservation of the environment is only partially met by the associations studied.

Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.

185

Energy-policy responses, strategies, and planning in the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the past developments and the present conditions of the oil market, emphasizing the structural changes that have led to the sharp decline in OPEC's production and share in the world oil supply and the difficulties that the Organization faces in maintaining order in this market. It also analyzes the consequences of the oil price gyration and particularly the price decline of 1986. Moreover, it considers various issues related to the oil-market stability and measures that are required to maintain order in this market. It is pointed out that the events of 1986 were the result of a number of factors such as the steady changes in the supply and demand patterns since the mid-1970s, particularly the growth of high cost non-OPEC supplies at the expense of OPEC oil, the policy measures of consuming countries in respect of substitution, conservation and taxation of petroleum products and, in some cases, taxation of imported crude. The major aim of OPEC's policy has been to ensure an equitable export income for Member Countries commensurate with the value and depletable nature of crude oil on the one hand and the financial requirements of their socio-economic development on the other hand. 13 figures, 2 tables.

Samii, M.V.; Idemudia, T.; Michaux, J.; Hamad, A.; Saiki, K. (eds.)

1987-01-01

186

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2007-05-01

187

Analysis of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax: with an emphasis on the independent producer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax of 1980 describes how the tax burden falls on various classifications of oil, the lowest rate falling on newly discovered oil. Certain producers and kinds of production are fully exempted, and special treatment is given to independent producers. The procedures for computing and collecting taxes and the conditions for refunds are outlined. (DCK)

1980-06-01

188

The medium- and long-term energy outlook: Energy balances in oil-importing and oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high level technical seminar held in Luxembourg from 17 to 19 March 1987 on the medium and long term energy outlook was jointly organized by the European Commission (EC), the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) and the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The objective of the Seminar was to have an informal exchange of views and information between officials and experts from the EC, OAPEC and OPEC member countries. This objective was fully achieved. One hundred participants from the staffs of the three organizing bodies, from their member states administrations, and from academic institutions had informal exchanges of views on four main subjects: medium and long term energy supply and demand outlook; energy policy responses, strategies and planning; oil market situation - impact on development and future supplies; and outlook for the refining industry and trade oil products. A final panel composed of representatives from the oil, financial and academic worlds concluded the Seminar by discussing the following theme: ''Energy balances - Interdependence and international cooperation.'' Selected papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Michaux, J.; Hamad, A.; Saiki, K. (eds.)

1987-01-01

189

Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. METHODS: The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries). Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. RESULTS: In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115]), whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49]) but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]); stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0])). Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. CONCLUSIONS: Increased palm oil consumption is related to higher IHD mortality rates in developing countries. Palm oil consumption represents a saturated fat source relevant for policies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease burdens.

Chen BK; Seligman B; Farquhar JW; Goldhaber-Fiebert JD

2011-01-01

190

From Oil Crisis to Climate Change. Understanding CO2 Emission Trends in IEA Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OECD CO2 emissions from fuel combustion increased 13% between 1990 and 2001. This signals an important shift since, over the 1973 to 1990 period, emissions only increased by 3.4%. As a result, CO2 emissions from energy use (fuel combustion) contributed 81.1% of total OECD greenhouse gas emissions in 2001 compared to 77.7% in 1990. As these figures make clear, reducing CO2 emissions from fuel combustion constitutes a key challenge to combat climate change. Developing and successfully implementing the most efficient policies for reducing CO2 emissions requires a good understanding of how factors such as income, prices, demography, economic structure, lifestyle, climate, energy efficiency and fuel mix affect energy use and resulting CO2 emissions. This paper presents selected results from the analysis of CO2 developments included in the IEA publication 'From Oil Crisis to Climate Challenge: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries'. The paper gives a brief overview of aggregate CO2 emission trends and of how recent developments in selected IEA countries compare to emissions levels implied by the Kyoto targets. A deeper understanding of the aggregate trends is provided by showing results from a decomposition analysis and by discussing developments in key end-use sectors. The full publication presents a more detailed analysis of how various factors have shaped energy use patterns and CO2 emissions since 1973. The analysis draws on a newly developed database with detailed information on energy use in the manufacturing, household, service and transport sectors. The database represents the most disaggregated information available on a consistent basis across countries and sectors. The study uses quantitative measures to illustrate the forces that drive or restrain energy use. These measures - or indicators - include: activities such as manufacturing output or heated-floor-area of homes; structural developments such as changes in manufacturing output mix or changes in the mix of transport modes; and energy intensities for sub-sectors and end-uses. Energy intensity is defined as energy per unit activity, representing the energy used to produce some output or provide a service. At a disaggregated level, changes in this indicator are closely related to changes in energy efficiency. The decomposition approach used in the IEA study disentangles the impacts that changes in activity, structure, and energy intensities have on total energy use in each sector. For example, the analysis reveals that in some countries changes in manufacturing structure (the mix of goods produced) have been as important as changes in energy intensities in determining manufacturing energy use developments. The decomposition approach is also used to explain trends in CO2 emissions. In this case, the energy decomposition is expanded with factors representing changes in fuel mix. To analyse trends at an economy-wide level, the results of the sector decomposition are re-aggregated into measures that represent the impact each component has had on changes in a country's total energy use and CO2 emissions.

2003-01-01

191

More on the Impact of Oil Price Shocks on Stock Market Returns: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

Mohamed El Hédi AROURI; Amina Lahiani; Makram BELLALAH

2010-01-01

192

On the short-term influence of oil price changes on stock markets in GCC countries: linear and nonlinear analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the short-run relationships between oil prices and GCC stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets may be susceptible to oil price shocks. To account for the fact that stock markets may respond nonlinearly to oil price shocks, we ...

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Fouquau, Julien

193

The optimal currency invoicing for oil: The case of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analytical framework presented in this thesis deals with an important issue for the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). These economies depend on oil revenues as the main source of income. Both government and private spending rely heavily on the oil sector. Analyzing this invoicing policy without considering the behavior of the exchange rates between the currencies of these countries and those of their major trading partners would be misleading. The present model adopts an integrative approach aimed at choosing a currency or a basket of currencies for invoicing oil, and determining how the choices of the same arrangements of alternative arrangements adopted for pegging the domestic currencies can affect the welfare function adopted for the choice of currency(s) for invoicing oil. This welfare function is based on stabilizing the real, rather than the nominal, value of oil revenues. The historical perspective has demonstrated close correlations between inflation rates, money growth rates and oil revenues in the GCC economies. The dependence of these economies on oil revenues as the major source of income, has been argued to be the decisive factor that has resulted in their currencies being pegged to the dollar. The results from the estimation, however, do not support a peg to the dollar, nor invoicing oil in dollars. Other single currencies have failed to fulfill the optimality condition, thus favoring pegging to a trade-weighted basket of currencies, and an invoicing scheme for oil which is based on a basket of currencies. Trade shares prove to be important, since deviations from purchasing power parity are passed via them. Despite the different levels of stability resulting from alternative combinations of peg and invoice choices, statistical evidence concludes that there are no significant differences amongst the resulting variances of the real value of oil revenues in terms of the domestic currencies of the GCC member states.

Alsowaidi, S.S.

1990-01-01

194

The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

Marga PEETERS

2011-01-01

195

Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

2012-03-31

196

Oil and gas situation in Gulf countries, Middle East. 3; Chuto wangan shokoku no sekiyu gas jijo. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas situation in some United Arab Emirates (UAE) member countries and in Qatar is reported. The report involves the political and economic trends, oil exploitation and production, oil consumption, oil refining, oil export, natural gas exploitation, natural gas export, and natural gas production and consumption. In each member country of the UAE, in principle, the emir is privileged to grant the oil related right to the party who negotiates with the emir directly. In Abu Dhabi, where more than 90% of all the oil reserve in the UAE is in existence, decisions relative to oil are totally subject to Supreme Petroleum Council (with the Crown Prince acting as chairman), and ADNOC (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company) is under the management of the council. In Qatar, QGPC (Qatar General Petroleum Corporation) executes various jobs in and out of the country related to the oil and gas industries, such as exploration, exploitation, production, refining, shipment, and selling. The oil and gas related policies followed by UAE countries (Abu Dhabi and Dubai) and by Qatar are also described. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Tanimoto, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-09-01

197

77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-02-14

198

77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-04-02

199

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

2009-01-01

200

Short- and long-term effects of accidental oil pollution in waters of the Nordic countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the present report is to support Nordic Countries with environmental impact assessments of accidental oil spills in Nordic areas, in the work to control and reduce the cause of these effects. The Nordic Seas have specific habitats with specialised key-species which have different sensitivities to oil spills. This report studies the short- and long-term effects of accidental oil spills in these habitats. Birds and questionably marine mammals are under greatest threat from both short- and long-term effects. The plankton community will also be affected, but is quickly re-established. The impact on pelagic fish is negligible in short term but not in a long time perspective, and benthic fauna will be practically unaffected by short-term effects. They can however in a long-term suffer significantly from settled oil slicks. In the foreseeable future the number of minor oil spills is likely to increase, as will the risk for major accidents. Thus there is a strong need for mapping and identifying important and sensitive species and habitat. With senistivity atlases for the Nordic seas and coastal areas precautious measures can be implemented to reduce the magnitude of the short- and long term impact from an oil spill. (au)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Global climate change and the role of the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article places emphasis on the role of oil in the energy-environment debate. The attitude of OPEC to the greenhouse effect is outlined. Sound economic justification should be sought before any major environmental step is taken. For many years OPEC has sought to encourage an equitable global energy policy, increased energy conservation and the rational development of other energy sources. Any environmental policy which is adopted must accommodate the interests of both developed and developing countries.

Salmon, R. (OPEC, Vienna (Austria))

1992-03-01

202

Evaluation of oil-producing algae as potential biodiesel feedstock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study attempted to connect the dots between laboratory research and the outdoors. Chlorella sp. NJ-18 was selected among seven oil-producing algae cultivated in this study because it had the highest lipid productivity. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for cultivating this Chlorella strain were optimized indoors. This strain was incubated outdoors in a 70 L photobioreactor, containing the favorable nitrogen (8.32 mM urea) and phosphorus (0.18 mM monopotassium phosphate) concentrations. Semi-continuous cultivation was performed by harvesting 30 L biomass and replacing it with fresh medium. The maximum biomass and lipid productivity acquired outdoors were 91.84 and 24.05 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, biomass productivity could be maintained at a high level throughout the cultivation process when using the semi-continuous mode, whereas it decreased dramatically in batch cultures. More than 95% of the total fatty acids obtained were C16 and C18, which are the main components for biofuel.

Zhou X; Ge H; Xia L; Zhang D; Hu C

2013-04-01

203

Producing electricity from Israel oil shale with PFBC technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of Israeli oil shale combustion at atmospheric pressure in the AFBC commercial boiler manufactured by Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Finland) and in the pressurized test facility of ABB Carbon AB (Finspong, Sweden) confirm suitability of fluidized-bed technologies in case of oil shale. The results approve possibility to use the PFBC technology in case of oil shale after solving of some problems connected with great amounts of fine fly ash. (author)

2000-01-01

204

New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs.

2006-01-01

205

The impact of oil-export dependency on a developing country; The case of Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large oil export sector is often considered to be a potential spur to diversification and full modernization in third world countries, especially when a central government controls and plans the use of oil revenues with such goals in mind. We evaluate this proposition by developing a 12-equation Keynesian econometric model of the Algerian economy. The model's equations, estimated using ordinary least squares, are robust with strong R-squares, significant t-tests for the independent variables, and reasonable Durbin-Watson statistics. Historical simulations track the true variables rather closely. Our RMSEs (percentage) are in general better than those in most studies of less-developed countries, ranging from 7 to 21%. Our results indicate that there has been a growing dependency of most major economic sectors on oil revenues, both before and after nationalization. Improvements in oil exports will, ceteris paribus, lead to elastic increases in luxury imports and domestic consumption, and inelastic increases in domestic investment. Thus, the goals of diversification, modernization and industrialization will not be met under the current set of policies in Algeria. (author).

Heidarian, J. (World Bank, Washington, DC (USA)); Green, R.D. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (US). Dept. of Economics)

1989-10-01

206

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

2011-01-01

207

The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

1994-01-01

208

Performance advantages of cetane improvers produced from soybean oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synthesized nitrate derivatives of soybean oil provide a valuable additive that increases the cetane of diesel fuel. This paper presents fundamental data on how the components of soybean oil contribute differently to product performance. Performance is comparable to commercial cetane improvers. These products substantially reduce nitrogen contents as compared to 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and incorporate relatively low cost renewable feedstocks in their production. (author)

Suppes, G.J.; Tshung, T.T.; Mason, M.H.; Heppert, J.A. [University of Kansas, Lawrence (United States)

1999-07-01

209

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING FUEL FROM VEGETABLE OIL BY USING ORE CATALYST  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for producing fuel by cracking vegetable oil in a pure state or mixed with a residual hydrocarbon oil, which is obtained from a pyrolysis process, using a dolomite catalyst. The residual hydrocarbon is produced by the pyrolysis of plastic waste, such as of one or more of polyethylene, polystyrene or polypropylene. The mixture of vegetable oil and the residual hydrocarbon oil is first subjected to a semi- batch catalytic cracking reaction over a very low cost dolomite catalyst to obtain high quality oil for fuel, which comprises mainly light and heavy naphtha. Moreover, the catalytic cracking reaction is conducted at operating temperatures lower than 450 DEG C.

SRINAKRUANG JUMLUCK

210

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs.

Gudiña EJ; Pereira JF; Costa R; Coutinho JA; Teixeira JA; Rodrigues LR

2013-07-01

211

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01

212

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24

213

METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VALUE AROMATICS AND OLEFIN FROM LIGHT CYCLE OIL PRODUCED BY A FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a method of producing aromatic products (benzene/toluene/xylene) and olefin products from petroleum fractions obtained by fluid catalytic cracking, and, more particularly, to a method of producing products comprising high-concentration aromatic products and high value-added light olefin products from light cycle oil obtained by fluid catalytic cracking.

KIM CHEOL JOONG; KIM TAE JIN; KIM DO WOAN; KIM SUNG WON; OH SANG HUN; PAKR SAM RYONG; OH SEUNG HOON; LEE YOON KYUNG; KIM GYUNG ROK; JUNG HONG SEOK; KIM EUN KYOUNG; LEE BYOUNG IN; CHOO DAE HYUN

214

The formation of stable dispersions of crude oil and produced water: The influence of oil type, wax & asphaltene content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constituents in oil can have a major influence on the separation of mixtures with produced water. In most cases this results in a reduction in the separation rate and the capacity of separation trains. In this paper the effects of wax, asphaltene content and water cut on the separation of different oils are examined.

Davies, G.A.; Nilsen, F.P.; Gramme, P.E.

1996-12-31

215

Oil inventory capacity in selected countries and estimates of global inventory fluctuations: 1978 to 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of this project has been to determine the feasibility of constructing a data base on world primary secondary, and tertiary oil storage capacity. This objective was inspired by the view that surges in stock levels - i.e. sudden changes in the amount of oil storage owners desire to hold - can have a substantial impact on supply, demand, and prices in the world oil market. Those interested in improving their understanding of the market would benefit from a better picture of the storage situation. This report presents the fruits of research into the storage scene in seven industrial countries: the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands. One finding of this project is that it is indeed possible to construct a useful data base. A major obstacle, however, is the poor quality of information on secondary and tertiary capacity in some countries. The cooperation of government and industry is essential to overcome this handicap. Our research was greatly aided by such cooperation.

Krapels, E.N.

1983-07-01

216

Energy efficiency developments in IEA countries 30 years after the oil crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents findings from a study that examines how energy efficiency and factors such as economic structure, income, lifestyle, climate, prices and fuel mix have shaped developments in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries since the first oil price shock in 1973. The results show that IEA countries have made significantly progress in energy efficiency since 1973. However an alarming finding is that energy savings rates across all sectors and in almost all countries have slowed since the late 1980s. This indicates that the oil price shocks in the 1970s and the resulting energy policies did considerably more to control growth in energy demand and CO2 emissions than energy efficiency and climate policies implemented in the 1990s. Energy price developments offer some explanation of these long-term trends. The lower prices that followed the high price period of 1973-1986, combined with the fact that energy intensities were already significantly reduced resulted in considerably lower energy expenditures for both industry and private consumers from the mid 1980s. The energy share of total production cost in some industries fell by as much as 50% from the early 1980s until the late 1990s. Similarly, the share of energy costs for stationary uses in IEA household budgets fell by 20-50% over the same period, while the fuel cost per kilometre driven by private cars fell between 20% and 60%, depending on the country. The slowing rate of energy efficiency improvements is the primary reason for the weaker decoupling of CO2 emissions from GDP growth since 1990. Failing to accelerate improvement of energy efficiency would thus have serious implications for many countries prospects of controlling growth in future emissions.

2005-06-04

217

An Empirical investigation of the effects of major exogenous shocks on the growth of non-oil and oil-exporting developing countries from 1965 to 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the period of 1965-1985, non-oil developing countries (NODCs) and oil-exporting developing countries (OXDCs) faced numerous shocks which had a significant effect on their economic growth. This research deals with an empirical investigation using time-series analysis to study the effects of export earnings, export and import prices, and international interest rates on the economic growth of non-oil and oil-exporting developing countries. The model is a conventional specification type based on the functional relationship between economic growth and external factors plus capital and labor inputs. The model was tested for twenty-five non-oil and nine oil-exporting developing countries. The results point to exports as being the most-important factors in NODCs' and OXDCs' economic growth. The findings indicate that as NODCs' export earnings increase, growth expands. The empirical results for oil-exporting developing countries indicate that exports are the most important factor in their economic growth, and that the growth of export earnings will expand OXDCs' economic growth.

Rahimbrougerdi, A.

1988-01-01

218

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

Yousefi, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Wirjanto, T.S. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics

2003-11-01

219

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

2003-01-01

220

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia.

Yousefi, Ayoub [Department of Economics, Business and Mathematics, King' s College, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 2M3 (Canada); Wirjanto, Tony S. [Department of Economics, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada) N2L 3G1

2003-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia.

2003-01-01

222

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

Unknown

2002-05-31

223

Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other purposes. The properties like kinematic viscosity, acid number, specific gravity, Cetane number, etc of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standard but the yield quantity was comparatively low (80.50%) because of the high free fatty acid content in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The overall efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke diesel engine coupled with a electric generator was high (24.38%) at maximum load conditions compare to raw Jatropha Curcas oil and petro diesel as fuels which gives only 19.6% and 20.11%, respectively shows the possibilities of using biodiesel produced as a fuel in diesel engine.

Sanjay Gandhi Bojan; Senthil Kumaran; Sam Chelladurai

2011-01-01

224

Method for producing distillable hydrocarbonaceous fuels and carbonaceous agglomerates from a heavy crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is disclosed for producing a distillable hydrocarbonaceous stream and carbonaceous agglomerates from a heavy crude oil by charging the crude oil and finely divided carbonaceous solids to a rotary kiln with the crude oil and carbonaceous solids being charged in a weight ratio from about 0.6 to about 1.5. The crude oil and finely divided carbonaceous solids are tumbled in the rotary kiln at a temperature from about 850/sup 0/ to about 1000/sup 0/ F for up to about 30 minutes to produce a vaporous stream and agglomerate particl containing a residual portion of the crude oil and finely divided carbonaceous solids. The agglomerate particles are separated into a product portion of a desired particle size range and a recycle portion; grinding the recycle portion to produce the finely divided carbonaceous solids and heating the finely divided carbonaceous solids prior to recycling the carbonaceous solids to mixture with the crude oil.

Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

1982-02-09

225

PC pump innovator : Oil Lift's products now in about 20 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pump reliability is particularly important internationally because maintenance is often less available and more costly. This article discussed the international expansion of Oil Lift, a company which has products in approximately 20 countries. When Oil Lift was started, opportunities still existed on the surface equipment side of PC pumps that had not been addressed. Stuffing boxes were prone to regular crude leakage, which generated cleanup bills and production shut-downs while they were fixed. In addition, PC pump drives were belt-driven, creating additional problems because stuffing boxes were located below the drives, making them awkward to service. The article discussed how Oil Lift designed gear drives mounted below the stuffing box, thereby reducing failures from approximately every 2 months on average to every 2 years without maintenance. It was concluded that Oil Lift carefully considers whether it should operate directly in a region or select a locally-based distributor. A foreign distributor is usually the preferred approach for the company, since creating an overseas office is expensive. A foreign distributor can offer established relations with customers and should understand the local business culture. 1 fig.

Byfield, M.

2009-11-15

226

Content and composition of the essential oil of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from some European countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from different European countries were determined. A total of 39 components were identified, representing over 92% of the total oil yield. The principal biologically active compounds in chamomile oils were bisabolol oxide A (3.1-56.0%), alpha-bisabolol (0.1-44.2%), bisabolol oxide B (3.9-27.2%), cis-enyne-bicycloether (8.8-26.1%), bisabolon oxide A (0.5-24.8%), chamazulene (0.7-15.3%), spathulenol (1.7-4.8%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (2.3-6.6%). In 8 chamomile samples from 13, bisabolol oxide A (27.5-56.0%) was predominant (among them in three Estonian samples). alpha-Bisabolol (23.9-44.2%) was predominant in the samples from Moldova, Russia and the Czech Republic. The sample from Armenia was rich in bisabolol oxide B (27.2%) and chamazulene (15.3%). The oils were obtained in yields of 0.7-6.7 mL kg(-1) and the minimum limit of 4 mL kg(-1) stated by the European Pharmacopoeia was exceeded only in 13 samples from 13 analysed drugs.

Orav A; Raal A; Arak E

2010-01-01

227

Debt-related problems of the non-oil less-developed countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The non-oil less-developed countries (NOLDCs) tripled the value of their external debt between 1975 to 1980 at the same time their resource transfer was held to 2% of gross national product (GNP). While the growth in debt burden to meet interest payments and acquire new financial assets grew twice as fast as GNP, the net of new assets to interest payments effectively made the real interest zero. This balance could deteriorate if oil prices rise again at the same time world trade and exports also deteriorate. Concerns among commercial banks and US regulators that the NOLDCs are poor risks may limit and possibly ration future recycling of funds to the NOLDCs. The present effective zero interest rate and, consequently, the economic growth of NOLDCs is dependent on continued inflation. (DCK)

Long, M.; Veneroso, F.

1981-04-01

228

Long-term relationship between oil revenue and government expenditure in the GCC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper uses the Engle-Granger method of co-integration and the Johansen-Juselius maximum-likelihood technique of co-integration to test the long-term relationship between government expenditure (for both consumption and investment purposes) and oil exports in the oil-producing members of the GCC. The regression results suggest that, using the Engle-Granger method, the null hypothesis of no co-integration could only be rejected in the case of Oman. However, the Johansen technique suggests the existence of a unique co-integrating vector, and hence long-term relationship between the two variables in Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There is no evidence of a long-term relationship between government expenditure and oil exports in the case of Kuwait. (Author)

2000-01-01

229

Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

2008-07-01

230

METHOD OF PRODUCING VALUABLE AROMATICS AND OLEFINS FROM HYDROCARBONACEOUS OILS DERIVED FROM COAL OR WOOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to a method of producing aromatics and olefins from oils derived from coal or wood, including partially saturating and cracking the oils derived from coal or wood in a hydrogenation & reaction area, separating them depending on the number of carbons, recirculating heavy oils having 11 or more carbons to the hydrogenation & reaction area, feeding oils suitable for producing BTX to an aromatic separation process and a transalkylation process to recover aromatics, and feeding hydrocarbonaceous components having 5 or less carbons to a light separation process, thus obtaining olefins.

KIM HONG CHAN; KIM YONG SEUNG; KIM SUNG WON; OH SANG HUN; LEE HYUCK JAE; CHOO DAE HYUN; KIM CHEOL JOONG; KIM GYUNG ROK; NOH MYOUNG HAN; KOH JAE SUK; CHOI HYUN CHUL; KIM EUN KYOUNG; LEE YOON KYUNG; LEE JONG HYUNG; CHOI SUN; OH SEUNG HOON; KOH JAE HYUN; LEE SANG IL; LEE SEUNG WOO

231

77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...small entities. Most of the handlers are large corporations involved in the international trading of essential oils and the products of essential oils. In addition, the Committee estimates that 15 of the 32 Scotch spearmint oil producers and 26...

2012-09-17

232

The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

1997-01-01

233

Petroleum taxation in oil-importing countries and the attitude of OPEC. Shohikoku no sekiyu kazei to OPEC no doko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper sums up OPEC countries' opinions on environmental taxes and the present situation of taxation in developed countries. It shows hour by hour what OPEC asserts against planning of the environmental taxes in developed countries such as OECD. They assert that petroleum taxation in developed countries is huge in amount, the developed country side has begun to control the world petroleum market, and they are against environmental taxes. The paper also states the present situation of petroleum taxation in EC, the U.S. and Japan. Taxation in European countries is high in amount. As for the tax share in the petroleum product price, the governments of oil-importing countries have been increasing their tax shares from 38% to 54% of the price for the ten years. The amount of tax for gasoline and automobile light oil per 1l in the U.S. is lower than in EC countries, but that in 1990 was 32.9% of the retail price with signs of an increase. The tax amount in Japan totals 47% including petroleum related taxes. In developed countries, the time when commitments on global warming prevention come into effect is coming near and the circumstances hastens the environmental taxation. Explanations to make OPEC countries understand the situation of the developed country side are necessary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Takeishi, R. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

1992-11-01

234

Oil prices, inflation and interest rates in a structural cointegrated VAR model for the G-7 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices, and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) a stationary money demand, as suggested by the classic theory of money, can be identified for most countries; ii) according to the estimated coefficients of the structural part of the model, for all countries except Japan and U.K. the null hypothesis of an influence of oil prices on the inflation rate cannot be rejected. Inflation rate shocks are transmitted to the real economy by increasing interest rates; iii) impulse response analysis suggests, for most countries, the existence of an instantaneous, temporary effect of oil price innovations on prices; iv) impulse response functions indicate different monetary policy reactions to inflationary and growth shocks; v) the simulation exercises directed to estimate the total impact of the 1990 oil price shock indicate that for some countries (U.S.) a significant part of the effects of the oil price shock is due to the monetary policy reaction function. For other countries (Canada, France and Italy), however, the total impact is offset, at least in part, by an easing of monetary conditions. (author)

Cologni, Alessandro [IMT Institute for Advanced Studies, Lucca (Italy); Manera, Matteo [Department of Statistics, University of Milan-Bicocca (Italy); Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy)

2008-05-15

235

Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

2006-10-01

236

Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries; La rente petroliere et le developpement economique des pays exportateurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

Aoun, M.C. [Paris Dauphine Univ., 75 (France)

2008-09-15

237

Production and oxidative stability of a soybean oil containing conjugated linoleic acid produced by lipase catalysis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soybean oil with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was produced by a lipase?catalyzed transesterification with soybean oil and the ethyl ester of the acid. The product, soybean oil–CLA was purified by molecular distillation, and its oxidative stability was investigated. The maximum content of the CLA in the soybean oil was 36.2% under the optimal biocatalytic conditions of 60C, 140?U Lipozyme RM IM (from Rhizomucor miehei) per gram reaction mixture and a 3:1 molar ratio of the conjugated linoleic acid ethyl ester to soybean oil. In comparison to soybean oil, the modified soybean oil with CLA was slightly decreased (P?>?0.05) in oxidative stability, but it increased fivefold with the addition of tert?butylhydroquinone to a final concentration of 100?mg/Kg oil. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can play roles in application of anticancer and antiatherogenic. Unfortunately, CLA (and/or its ethyl ester) has an irritant effect on stomach, and studies of the sensory characteristics have revealed that the milk contained 1% or 2% CLA exhibited low intensities of a “grassy/vegetable oil” flavor. However, these problems can be easily solved by incorporating CLA into triacylglycerol. This work incorporated CLA into soybean oil by tranesterification of soybean oil and CLA?ethyl ester. The modified soybean oil enriched with CLA has potential application in milk and dairy products in supplementing of CLA.

YANG B; WANG W; ZENG F; LI T; WANG Y; LI L

2011-12-01

238

PROCESSES FOR PRODUCING VIRGIN COCONUT OIL. COCONUT COOKING OIL AND RAW MATERIAL FOR COCONUT BIODIESEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virgin coconut oil, cooking oil and coconut oil for biodiesel are obtained by irradiating fresh coconut milk with microwave. Depending on the desired end-product, the optimum set up of microwave power, time and temperature are electronically controlled accordingly. Virgin oil requires a microwave power setting of 50 to 1500 Watt at a frequency of 300 MHz to 20 GHz and a temperature range of 40 to 60 DEG C for a period of 10 to 60 minutes, while cooking oil requires a temperature range of 60 to 80 DEG C and coconut oil for biodiesel, between 80 and 100 DEG C, The oil is separated from the irradiated milk by gravitational or centrifugal means.

KHALID KAIDA; NURDIN RUDY; BASRI IZZATUL HIDAYAH; CHE MAN YAAKOB; RAMLI IRMAWATI

239

Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

2011-01-01

240

HOME APPLIANCE FOR RECYCLING EDIBLE OIL RESIDUES AND PRODUCING BAR SOAP  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to help reduce the disposal of used cooking oil in the environment, the claimed machine allows the total recycling of oil residues introduced therein, transforming this environmentally harmful residue into a raw material for the production of bar soap used for general cleaning purposes. Through the saponification process, this appliance enables any adult to produce good-quality soap in a practical, safe and economic manner, and at the same time avoids the disposal of used oil in the environment.

ROMULO GUERRA CARMO

 
 
 
 
241

Accounting for product financing arrangements by oil and gas producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has developed the Statement of Financial2 Accounting Standards (SFAS) Nos. 47 and 49 to help practitioners in accounting for and disclosing product financing arrangements in the oil and gas industry. SFAS No. 47 is a disclosure document only, while SFAS No. 49 specifies the accounting treatment for certain arrangements. The authors describe and give examples to show how practitioners can implement the substantive provisions of the documents.

Munter, P.; Ratcliffe, T.A.

1983-03-01

242

19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones  

Science.gov (United States)

...Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones Appendix...Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones ...This choice will be important if a relative value calculation on the privileged...

2009-04-01

243

Monetary approach to the balance of payments of the major oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to apply the monetary approach to the determination of international reserve flows to major Arab oil-exporting countries. These are Iraq, Kuwait, Libya and Saudi Arabia. Well-defined and stable demand for and supply of money functions must exist for the monetary approach to have predictive power for reserve flows. This study found that the demand for real balances in the designated countries was a stable function of real income and the rate of inflation. In examining the money supply process, the main determinations of the monetary base and hence the money supply proved to be net foreign assets and government expenditures. This thesis extends the empirical analysis of international reserve flows by providing empirical tests of a two-area model for the small country case. The empirical results supported the main propositions of the monetary approach to the balance of payments about the effect of the demand for and the supply of money on reserve flows. The growth in domestic price, domestic income, and world money supply exerted a positive impact on the reserve flows, while the growth in world income, interest rates, money multiplier and domestic assets had negative impact. The results also supported the validity of the assumption concerning unified world goods markets.

Haifa, S.J.

1984-01-01

244

Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

Kalmoor, M.A.

1988-01-01

245

Oil prospecting and production in the countries of west Africa balance and propects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The countries of west Africa have quite different situations for hydrocarbons resources. Nigeria is sure to be able to renew its resources for a long time. Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo and Angola belong to medium sized producers who, as time passes, will have certain difficulties in maintaining their production. For the non-producing countries, today's international economic situation is hardly favourable to a resumption of prospecting in non proven basins. The results obtained these last years in the world show that few new petroleum zones have been discovered particularly in Africa. This has led many companies to fall back on proven petroleum zones and to conduct explorations there which are becoming more difficult, more expensive, with narrowe aims, but with higher success rates.

Portal, G.

1989-01-01

246

Country Analysis Briefs: Algeria, May 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algeria is an important exporter of oil and natural gas and is a member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 2008, Algeria produced 1.42 million bbl/d of crude oil. Algeria was the fourth largest crude oil producer in Africa...

2009-01-01

247

Energy and the economy in oil-exporting countries: general-equilibrium analysis and application to Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key energy-policy dilemma faced by many oil-exporting countries concerns how to allocate energy resources between exports and domestic use. Standard economic analysis recommends border energy pricing as the optimal solution, given no distortions elsewhere. However, distortions in oil-exporting countries, such as monopoly power in export markets, oil quotas, import tariffs, capacity constraints in domestic energy supply, and import restrictions, have direct consequences on the efficient pricing and use of energy resources. We develop an economy-wide optimization model of an oil-exporting country focusing on optimal resource allocation, which is used to calculate the optimal energy prices in the presence of several distortions. The model is used to estimate the optimal prices for oil products, natural gas, and electricity in Venezuela, and to evaluate the impacts of energy price adjustments on energy consumption and the overall economy. It was found that subsidies in the domestic energy market have been extremely large and that a substantial reduction, but not elimination, of the subsidies would bring large benefits to the economy. The approach offers a general methodology for energy pricing policy analysis in oil-exporting countries that can be used in practical applications.

Smith-Perera, R.E.

1987-01-01

248

Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

FLAVIA POP

2011-01-01

249

Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

2004-09-30

250

Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa F-2, was used to recover oil from refinery oily sludge in laboratory and pilot-scale experiments. The optimum values of carbon to nitrogen ratio, temperature, sludge-water ratio and inoculum size for oil recovery were determined as 10, 35 °C, 1:4 and 4%, respectively. An oil recovery of up to 91.5% was obtained with the equipping of draft tubes during the field pilot-scale studies. The results showed that strain F-2 has the potential for industrial applications and may be used in oil recovery from oily sludge.

Yan P; Lu M; Yang Q; Zhang HL; Zhang ZZ; Chen R

2012-07-01

251

Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa F-2, was used to recover oil from refinery oily sludge in laboratory and pilot-scale experiments. The optimum values of carbon to nitrogen ratio, temperature, sludge-water ratio and inoculum size for oil recovery were determined as 10, 35 °C, 1:4 and 4%, respectively. An oil recovery of up to 91.5% was obtained with the equipping of draft tubes during the field pilot-scale studies. The results showed that strain F-2 has the potential for industrial applications and may be used in oil recovery from oily sludge. PMID:22609650

Yan, Ping; Lu, Mang; Yang, Qin; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Chen, Rong

2012-04-17

252

Process for producing a high quality lube oil stock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for converting a waxy hydrocarbon feedstock containing a substantial proportion of hydrocarbonaceous material boiling above about 650/sup 0/F into a high quality lube oil stock which comprises: (a) contacting the waxy hydrocarbon feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst in a dewaxing zone under conditions such that the pour point of the feedstock is reduced, the dewaxing catalyst comprising a molecular sieve containing pores defined by 10-membered rings of oxygen atoms; (b) contacting at least a portion of the effluent from the dewaxing zone with molecular hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst in a hydrocracking zone under conditions such that a further reduction in pour point is effected. The hydrocracking catalyst comprises at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metal components and Group VIII metal components on a support comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate Y zeolite having catalytic activity for cracking hydrocarbons and a porous refractory oxide comprising silica-alumina dispersed in a matrix of gamma alumina; and (c) recovering a high quality lube oil stock from the effluent of the hydrocracking zone.

Ward, J.W.

1987-03-10

253

Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author).

1992-01-01

254

Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author).

Wirl, F. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft)

1992-11-01

255

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

David B. Burnett

2004-09-29

256

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

David B. Burnett

2005-09-29

257

WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muço, 1984; Osmani, 1993), considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in using Albanian olive oils, because of the absence of quality norms. In this frame one of the possible solutions will be the promotion of the olive oil as a territory product.(PDO, PGI)

Etleva Muca(Dashi); Fatmir Guri; Elena Kokhti; Natasha Hodaj

2012-01-01

258

Study on group composition of oils produced by coprocessing of coal with catalytic cracking residues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The group composition of oils produced by coprocessing of Yanzhou bituminous coal with catalytic cracking residues (CCR) was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The oils consist of alkanes, aromatics and heteroatomic compounds, of which the heteroatomic compounds content is merely 0.5% to 2.0%. The results show that the ratio of coal to CCR, the alkanes content increases and aromatics content decreases. 1% Fe-base catalyst support on coal can obviously increase the alkane content of the oils. The oil prepared at the temperature of catalyst supported on coal can obviously increase the alkane content of the oils. The oil prepared at the temperature of 425{degree}C has lower alkanes content than that of 400{degree}C. The effect of pressure on the group composition is different at different periods. The reaction atmosphere shows little influence on the group composition at low initial pressure and low ratio of coal to CCR.

Linghu, W.; Zhang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yang, J.; Liu, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion at Institute of Coal Chemistry

2002-02-01

259

Characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oils produced from pretreated pine wood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pretreatment of biomass prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass feed stocks leading to a change in the mechanism of biomass thermal decomposition. Pretreatment of feed stocks prior to fast pyrolysis provides an opportunity to produce bio-oils with varied chemical composition and physical properties. This provides the potential to vary bio-oil chemical and physical properties for specific applications. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we applied six chemical pretreatments: dilute phosphoric acid, dilute sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated 10-year old pine wood feed stocks in an auger reactor at 450 degrees C. The bio-oils' physical properties of pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Mean molecular weights and polydispersity were determined by gel permeation chromatography. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Results showed that the physical and chemical characteristics of the bio-oils produced from pretreated pine wood feed stocks were influenced by the biomass pretreatments applied. These physical and chemical changes are compared and discussed in detail in the paper.

Hassan el-BM; Steele PH; Ingram L

2009-05-01

260

Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production.

Araujo GS; Matos LJ; Gonçalves LR; Fernandes FA; Farias WR

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production. PMID:21353534

Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

2011-02-03

262

Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

Tadjuddin, A.

1989-01-01

263

Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)

Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)

2009-01-15

264

Basic results of the prospecting and extraction of oil and gas in certain foreign countries during 1978-1979  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of a generalized summary of the results of oil and gas prospecting operations in many countries, it is shown that there still exist possibilities for finding new deposits in regions previously exploited. Attention is drawn to the large amounts of heavy oil accumulations found in semi-hard bitumens in a series of regions previously under exploitation. Such results are based upon new conceptions for deeply-bedded structures, the resulting ultra-deep drilling, and resulting access to more prospective gas and oil bearing deeply-bedded layers.

Kalinko, M.K.; Popova, A.I.

1980-01-01

265

Demulsifier for produced oil-in-water emulsions containing spent mud acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable oil-in-water emulsions in produced fluids from wells undergoing acidization treatments are demulsified by treatment of the produced fluids with a long chain carboxylic acid ester of a polyhydric alcohol such as sorbitan monolaurate, surbitan monopalmitate or sorbitan monooleate as a demulsification agent.

Royle, R.A.

1983-09-06

266

Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were studied separately at different values that including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The optimum operating conditions to be adopted for producing high quality automatic transmission fluid base oil were reactor temperature 290 oC, pressure 130kg cm?2, liquid hourly space velocity 0.4 h?1 and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio 800 Nm3 M?3. The effect of changing hydrofinishing temperature and liquid hourly space velocity on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) reactions as well as their thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Calculations of activation energy (Ea) and free energy of activation (?G) indicated that HDS was easier to occur than HDN and these reactions are more faster at higher temperatures. The effect of commercial and formulated additives on the quality of the hydrofinished oil was also studied. Automatic transmission fluid possessing the Dexron IID specification was produced by adding 7 wt% from Infenium T442 additive or by adding 9 wt% from Lubrizol ® 6701 D additive to the hydrofinished light dewaxed oil. Oils with the same efficiency were also produced using a formulated additive containing 4% viscosity index improver, 1.5% anti-oxidant and 1% anti-wear. The effect of increasing Infenium T442, Lubrizol R 6701 D and formulated additive percents on the protection efficiency of the automatic transmission fluid was studied through AC impedance technique. According to this technique, the effect of these additives on the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons can be negligible.

Gamal A.N Gohar; Mohamed S.E. Gayar; Abd I.H. El-Moneim; Marwan; Ahmed Aly

2006-01-01

267

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

2001-06-15

268

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

2001-01-01

269

Possible oil producing series in the depths of the world's oceans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution in the section of a sedimentary cap of producing margins of oil and gas resources and the concentrations of scattered organic matter (OV) are examined in a comparitive sense. The following conclusions are drawn: in major divisions (the Neogene, lower Cretaceour and Jurassic) there is a syngenetic nature of the oil in the sedimentary cap of producing margins; the distribution of hydrocarbons (UV) in the sedimentary rock basins of water bodies is subordinate to patterns which reflect their sedimentary and migratory origin; and the manifestation of sedimentary and migratory origin of accumulations of hydrocarbons on the shelves of passive and active producing margins varies.

Zabanbark, A.

1984-01-01

270

Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

Mazraati, M. [OPEC Secretariat, Vienna (Austria). Energy Studies Department

2005-09-01

271

Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

2005-01-01

272

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN TRANSIT AND THE RELEASE OF THE PARASITOID PHYMASTICHUS COFFEA (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE) IN SEVERAL COFFEE PRODUCING COUNTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is a major pest of coffee in many coffee-producing countries. Augmentative biological control may provide a viable alternative to chemical pesticides for controlling this pest. A colony of the parasitoid, Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulop...

273

Use of evaporation for heavy oil produced water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares the traditional physical-chemical produced water treatment methods with an alternate method which is currently being used in Alberta. The falling film, vertical tube, vapour compression evaporation method has been applied to both steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and non-SAGD applications. The method has both technical and economic advantages. The process reduces silica to sufficiently low levels to be used in a once-through steam generator (OTSG). Calcium and magnesium are also reduced in the lime softener, thereby lightening the load for the weak acid cation (WAC) ion exchange system. The chemicals added to the softener are lime and magnesium oxide. Both reduce silica content to manageable levels for the OTSG. It was shown that the overall life cycle costs are less for an evaporative produced water treatment system than for a traditional life softening/WAC approach. In addition, the new process does not create any softener sludge that requires disposal, thereby minimizing the number and volume of waste streams. 6 figs.

Heins, W.; Peterson, D. [Ionics RCC, Watertown, MA (United States)

2003-07-01

274

Underbalanced drilling: Issues of producing oil and gas while drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in engineering and technology have developed new blowout preventers, specialized surface fluids control equipment and well control techniques for under balanced drilling. The new technology makes under balanced drilling faster, safer and less expensive. These devices and techniques reduce the risk of blowouts, when drilling with air, gas or gas cut drilling fluids while producing the zone of interest. Improved penetration rates, increased bit life, drilling cost reduction and the prevention of formation damage are benefits of drilling under balanced and specially designed BOP stacks and well control products are necessary to ensure success. The following outlines the content of this paper: History and Development of Rotating Well Control for Under Balanced Drilling; Rotating BOP and Under Balanced Drilling BOP Stack, including Land Based Operations and Offshore Operations; Design and Technical Review; Safety; Operating Considerations; Field History, An Operator`s Perspective; and Advantages.

Tangedahl, M.J.; Axford, A.

1997-07-01

275

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

Tanasri Sihabut; Nikhom Laemsak

2010-01-01

276

FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Joint project for the technology development for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Saujiarabia jidosha seibi gijutsu kaihatsu kyodo project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of spreading the technology for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia, an investigational study was made of the actual state of the automobile utilization environment in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, air pollution is becoming a serious problem with the rapid progress of motorization, and measures for automobile maintenance technology should be taken such as the use of lead-free gasoline, spread of catalyst car and introduction of new engine technology. However, the number of able car mechanics with Saudi Arabian nationality is low, and they rely on workers from other countries for it. Further, usually people continuously drive cars at high speed under the severe environment where there are high temperature, solar radiation, dust, etc. As a result of the study, the following were cited as the maintenance technology of which the R and D are expected: technology for lead-free gasoline, basic education for electronics, technology for use of trouble diagnosis unit, technology of preventive maintenance supposing high speed traveling, technology for recycle use of parts, standards for maintenance of rubber parts, establishment of standards of maintenance of Saudi Arabia's own, making of technical books/data to be needed for training of Saudi Arabian engineers. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-07-01

277

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

278

Method for controlling bottom water coning in a producing oil well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of treating a producing oil well completed in an oil containing formation overlying and in contact with a formation water containing an aqueous fluid. The well has communication means with at least a portion of the oil formation, to form a water impermeable barrier below the communication means of the well to prevent aqueous fluid moving upward from the underlying aqueous fluid containing formation into the well. The method comprises: forming an acidified resin emulsion composition; and introducing the acidified resin emulsion composition through the well into the formation at a predetermined injection rate.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-05-05

279

The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By using a standard econometric approach, we find that the effects of different deregulation policies are substantial. We also analyse the impact of a policy based on autonomous energy-efficiency improvement. Finally, a combination of both policies is elaborated and quantified. Our results show that a policy geared at more rational use of energy would permit these countries to save enough oil to meet future increases in demand while maintaining stable production capacity. Furthermore, such an energy policy could result in additional oil revenues which would enhance their economic development. (author).

1995-01-01

280

The Causal Relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index: Empirical Evidence from Selected European Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index for the five selected European countries, using seasonally adjusted monthly data from August 1995 to December 2007. Toda and Yamamoto causality test (1995) are employed to investigate causality. The results indicate that there is a unidirectional causality between producer price index and consumer price index, running from producer price index to consumer price index in Finland and France and bidirectional causality between two indices in Germany. In the case of the Netherlands and Sweden, no significant causality is detected.

Selcuk AKCAY

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks.

1991-01-01

282

General-equilibrium analysis of government expenditures in an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing literature over the past few years regarding the adverse effect of an oil boom on oil-exporting countries, i.e., Dutch Disease, is the main motivation behind this study. The nature of the disease and the possible cure available to policy makers in an oil-exporting developing country like Kuwait is what this dissertation is set out to explore. The author constructs and implements a multi-sector Walrasian general equilibrium model to investigate the short- and long-term effects of an expansion in oil revenues on the growth and structure of the Kuwaiti economy for the period 1979 to 1989. In the short run, he found the Dutch Disease to be an inevitable consequence of an expansion in oil revenues, irrespective of the methods by which the government injects these revenues into the economy. In the long run, however, the composition of government domestic expenditures would be the principal determinant of relative sectoral growth of the Kuwait economy. In other words, the long-term systematic decline in the relative position of tradable sectors is not an inevitable consequence of a large inflow of oil revenues, but rather a choice that has to be made by policy-makers.

Alsabah, M.S.S.

1985-01-01

283

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Science.gov (United States)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27

284

Financial-statement disclosures of oil- and gas-producing activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In November, 1982, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 69, entitled Disclosures About Oil and Gas Producing Activities. SFAS No. 69 establishes a comprehensive set of disclosures for oil and gas producing activities by encompassing and amending several previously issued authoritative pronouncements. The purpose of this article is to analyze the new disclosure rules by tracing the development of the need for SFAS No. 69 and presenting the new disclosure requirments of the document. 6 references.

Ratcliffe, T.A.; Munter, P.

1983-06-01

285

Investigation of the usefulness of the financial statements as supplemented by oil and gas producing activities disclosures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Issuance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB) Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 69: Disclosures about oil and Gas Producing Activities - An Amendment of FASB Statements 19, 25, 33, and 39 (FASB No. 69) in November 1982 was the culmination of five years of activity on the part of both the FASB and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to improve the information value of oil and gas producers' annual financial reports. For fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 1982, FASB No. 69 and SEC Financial Reporting Release No. 9 require oil and gas producers to submit five oil and gas disclosure statements along with their annual financial statements. Oil and gas supplemental data include reporting on (a) proved oil and gas reserve quantities; (b) capitalized costs relating to oil and gas producing activities; (c) costs incurred in oil and gas property acquisition, exploration, and development activities; (d) results of operations for oil and gas producing activities; and (e) a standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows relating to proved oil and gas reserve quantities. This research study investigates whether the needs of two of the primary users of financial statements, the financial analysts and credit analysts, are being provided for adequately now that the financial statements, prepared by publicly traded oil and gas producers, must be accompanied by the five oil and gas disclosure statements.

Young, G.T.

1986-01-01

286

Analysis of financial contracting between multinational companies and developing countries for oil extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the alternative financial contracting concerning petroleum resource extraction between non-OPEC developing countries (NODCs) and international oil companies. Special attention is given to how fiscal terms may be structured in the cooperation agreement to: (1) take advantage of differences in ability to hear risks, and (2) provide incentives for investment decisions. The analytical framework developed is general. Discussion of petroleum development arrangements tends to be rather barren unless it is tightly focused on a specific set of circumstances. The approach is illustrated by conducting a case study of China's offshore petroleum development. The study begins with an analysis of interests of both parties and potential conflicts in cooperation. Alternative agreements-joint venture concessions (JVC), production-sharing contracts (PSC), and service contracts (SC) are then reviewed. A principal-agent model of analyzing these contractual forms is developed. To further examine the desirability of JVCs and PSCs, a computer simulation model is utilized. The cash flows generated by petroleum extraction and the allocation of them between parties under these two contracts is calculated. The basic result is that PSCs have economic as well as institutional advantages.

Tzang, D.

1986-01-01

287

Light-gravity crude oil is produced in the Gulf of Suez mine property; Suezuwankoku de keishitsu genyu wo sanshutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TEIKOKU OIL announced that an output of crude oil 3114BPD and natural gas NISSAN 270000m{sup 3} was confirmed from the trial pit No.1 well in Gulf of Suez girth Ashrahy mine property (Egypt zight bay northeast 4 km) in Egypt which the TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum invested with Japan National Oil Corp. on 10th has participated. 60% and TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum possess 40% on interests of this mine property in IEOC Co.. The oil quality of the crude oil which produces this time is 43.5 degrees and light type in the API. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-07-01

288

Estimation of the size of asphaltene aggregates produced by shear of crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated asphaltene aggregation in Russian Export Blend Crude Oil (REBCO) using a Couette device over a range of shear rates similar to that in pipelines transporting the crude oil. After each experiment an amount of n-heptane was added to a crude oil sample. A turbidimeter was used to observe the sedimentation behaviour of the obtained suspension. The behaviour was found to be highly dependent on the concentration of the crude oil in the mixture. The fractal dimension was determined upon analyzing the sedimentation velocity of asphaltene aggregates. The mutual dependence between the sedimentation velocity and the turbidity for different concentrations was also determined. The fractal dimension was shown to be very close to that of the diffusion limited process, suggesting that aggregates were formed during a secondary process induced by the addition of n-heptane. The earlier aggregates produced by shear of crude oil were monomers for the secondary aggregates. The affect of the shear rate on the settling velocity-turbidity relation was very weak, indicating that the size of asphaltene aggregates produced by crude oil shear does not change much with the shear rate.

Gmachowski, L.; Paczuski, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry

2008-07-01

289

Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig.

Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.

2000-07-01

290

Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig.

2000-01-01

291

Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.

2004-01-01

292

Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

2013-02-08

293

Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

Kumar S; Kaushik N

2013-01-01

294

Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

Oluduro, Olubayo

2012-01-01

295

Politics of abundance: resources allocation in the public sector in the developed and oil-rich countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation presents two models of resources allocation in the public sector. The first model, which assumes scarcity of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of the developed Western States, is tested against the data for Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. The second model, which assumes an abundance of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of oil-rich countries, is tested against the data for Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. Findings reveal that the allocation of resources in the public sector in Western countries followed a developmental pattern. Thus, before the 1970s, Western states allocated their budgets almost exclusively to defense and administration. They emphasized economic development until the administration. They emphasized economic development until the 1920s and social welfare programs since the 1930s. The emergence of social welfare and development as major categories of expenditures were separated by a substantial period of time. In contrast to the European experiences, the availability of non tax oil revenues promoted a relatively quick consolidation of state authority in the oil-rich countries. Consequently, oil-rich states were able to allocate large amounts of public resources to economic development and social welfare programs wither simultaneously or in quick succession without much concern for trade-offs.

Ahady, A.H.

1986-01-01

296

New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

Vance-Harrop Mabel H.; Gusmão Norma B. de; Campos-Takaki Galba Maria de

2003-01-01

297

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} to KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre-treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale. (author)

Haddadin, Malik S.Y.; Abou Arqoub, Ansam A.; Abu Reesh, Ibrahim [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Jordan University, Queen Rania Street, Amman, 11942 (Jordan); Haddadin, Jamal [Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P.O. Box 59, Mutah 61710 (Jordan)

2009-04-15

298

Halotolerant, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from oil-field injection water with properties potentially useful for in situ enhanced oil recovery. Conventional miscible flooding procedures use expensive synthetic detergents such as petroleum sulfonates that precipitate in high NaCl brines and adsorb to rock surfaces. The Bacillus sp. produced a biosurfactant when grown at 40 C in a sucrose mineral salts medium containing 5% NaCl. The biosurfactant was produced during the log phase of growth in the presence or absence of either crude oil or hexadecane. The surface tension of a 5% NaCl solution decreased from 74.0 mN/m to 27 mN/m when the surfactant was added. Interfacial tension of a 5% NaCl brine/octane mixture was as low as 0.43 mN/m when measured by a spinning drop tensiometer. The surfactant was extracted by acid precipitation at a pH of 2.0. The extracted surfactant exhibited optimal surface tension-lowering ability in 4-5% NaCl solutions between pH's of 6.0 to 10.0. The addition of calcium up to 340 mg/liter and incubation temperatures up to 100 C did not alter appreciably the surfactant activity. Mobilization of crude oil and oil bank formation occurred in a sandpack column after addition of the biosurfactant. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Clark, J.B.; Feero, J.M.; Revus, D.E.; Menzie, D.E.

1983-01-01

299

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale.

2009-01-01

300

Fast pyrolysis of bagasse to produce BioOil fuel for power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes in detail a fast pyrolysis process that converts a solid biomass waste, such as bagasse, into a liquid biofuel that can be used as a substitute for diesel oil to produce power in gas turbine engines and boilers. This technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated for more than 3,000 hours operation in DynaMotive Technologies' pilot plant. The process utilises a deep bubbling fluidised bed design combined with a novel BioOiI recovery system. The properties of BioOil produced from agriculture biomass waste feedstocks including bagasse and forest residues such as bark and wood will be given in detail, particularly in reference to their application as a fuel for gas turbine engines. Economics of a combined cycle power generation plant utilising pyrolysis liquid (BioOil) from biomass in a gas turbine engine is presented. (author)

Morris, K.W. [DynaMotive Technologies Corp., Vancouver (Canada)

2001-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

2009-04-15

302

METHOD FOR PRODUCING OILS AND FATS WITH A HIGH ANTIOXIDANT CONTENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a novel method for producing oils and fats with a high anti-oxidant content, as a result of the action of compounds of a phenolic nature, and more concretely, as a result of hydroxytyrosol and fatty esters of hydroxytyrosyl.

CERT VENTULA ARTURO; ROMERO SEGURA ANA; MATEOS BRIZ RAQUEL; ALCUDIA GONZALEZ FELIPE; ESPARTERO SANCHEZ JOSE LUIS; TRUJILLO PEREZ-LANZAC MARIANA

303

The strategic consequences of the oil price collapse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses the geopolitical consequences of the oil-price drop in such countries as Indonesia, Nigeria, Algeria, Mexico and Egypt. It also assesses the overall implications of the drop in oil prices on oil-producing areas.

Schuler, H.

1987-01-01

304

Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns the organising of a company and another concerns relationships between companies. These frameworks are used for the analysis of producers and retailers, and for the relationships between them. Very interesting results have been found, and these have supported a new way of looking at management of organisations and management of relationships.

Skytte, Hans

305

Issues in the appraisal of energy projects for oil-importing developing countries. World Bank staff working paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper develops a theoretical framework to evaluate the benefits and costs of energy projects in oil-importing developing countries (OIDCs). The framework is used to address various questions: How should the problems of energy dependency and vulnerability be reflected in a project appraisal. Are there externalities not captured in the market price of the resource. Should royalty values be included in cost-benefit calculations. Why do the real prices of exhaustible resources rise over time. Should several energy development projects be done simultaneously. What are the true costs of stockpiling oil. Is there a need for an international institution to act as coordinator directing a strategy for information gathering and project diversification across countries.

Anand, S.; Nalebuff, B.

1985-01-01

306

Performance of oil industry cross-country pipelines in western Europe: Statistical summary of reported spillages, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents statistical data relating to spillages from oil industry cross-country pipelines reported for calendar year 1993 with comments and comparisons for the five-year period 1989 to 1993 and an overall comparison since 1971. Similar studies for preceding years are available as a series of CONCAWE reports. The statistics detailed in this report refer only to oil industry onshore cross-country pipelines and associated pumping/delivery stations, i.e. offshore submarine pipelines (as distinct from estuary crossings by onshore lines) are excluded. The costs comprise direct costs of the spillage incidents for pipeline repair and site clean-up/restoration, and exclude any consequential costs such as loss of income or legal costs. Caution should be exercised if statistics recorded in this report are to be utilized for comparison or application to any specific pipeline system.

Berry, K.G.; Bianchini, M.; Muller, B.; Pries, P.

1994-11-01

307

Performance of oil-industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe: statistical summary of reported spillages - 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is the latest in a series of annual reports issued by CONCAWE reviewing the performance of oil-industry cross-country pipelines in Western Europe. It includes details of the pipeline network to which it refers, and analyses reported spillage incidents by cause and effectiveness of clean-up. Causes are categorized as: mechanical failure, operational error, corrosion, natural hazard and third party activity. The report concludes with a five-year comparison and trend analysis of reported spillages. It contains an overall map of the Western European oil-industry cross-country pipeline system and more detailed maps of the pipeline networks of the Le Havre-Paris, Golfe de Fos, Rotterdam-Europoort and Northern Italy areas.

Rudolph, E.K.; Bianchini, M.; Gilla, G.; Beuillard, C.; Brandt, J.

1987-01-01

308

Energy data reports: supply, disposition, and stocks of all oils by petroleum administration for defense districts and imports into the United States, by country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are presented on the supply, distribution, and stocks of crude oil, petroleum products and selected natural gas liquids. Information is tabulated by Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts. Also included is information on the percentage of refinery yields based on crude oil and net unfinished oil rerun. Imports of petroleum products and crude oil into the United States are tabulated by country of origin. (DMC)

1981-04-07

309

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

2008-01-01

310

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2008-10-01

311

Extent of replacement of methyl ester of rice bran oil by producer gas in Cl engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methyl ester of rice bran oil (MERBO), known as bio-diesel, is receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engine. Although MERBO has several advantages over fossil diesel, in the present scenario, the use of MERBO is restricted due to its high cost. Therefore, use of producer gas to fuel a CI engine along with MERBO seems to be the most interesting option for substitution of fossil diesel. In the present study MERBO was partially replaced by producer gas. The performance of CI engine was compared with fossil diesel partially replaced by producer gas in the CI engine. It was found that MERBO blended with producer gas give higher brake thermal efficiency than fossil diesel producer gas mixture. The addition of producer gas to MERBO has significantly reduced NO{sub x}, but it also increases the concentration of other pollutants. (author)

Singh, R.N.; Pathak, B.S. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Gujarat (India). Thermochemical Conversion Division; Singh, S.P. [School of Energy and Development, Indore (India)

2007-12-15

312

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Charles Ogugua Nwuche; James Chukwuma Ogbonna

2011-01-01

313

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Nwuche, Charles Ogugua; Ogbonna, James Chukwuma

2011-02-01

314

Does the WTO Increase Trade? The Case of U.S. Cocoa Imports from WTO-Member Producing Countries  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study analyzes U.S. cocoa bean imports from twenty-one major cocoa-producing and exporting countries during the pre- and post-liberalization period of 1970-2008 using the gravity equation and a linear one-way fixed effects model. The objective was to measure trade creation for a World Trade Organization (WTO) member that has undergone trade liberalization. Cocoa beans can serve as a proxy for any tropical commodity upon which a developing country heavily relies on for export revenue, such as is the case with cocoa for Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, for example. Our results find participation in free trade agreements (FTAs) and WTO membership do contribute to increased U.S. cocoa bean imports at the one percent and five percent confidence levels, respectively.

Yeboah Osei-Agyeman; Shaik Saleem; Wozniak ShawnJ; Allen AlbertJ

2011-07-01

315

Important influent-water quality parameters at freshwater production sites in two salmon producing countries  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Further growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture production is expected, and as a response to limited freshwater resources, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are increasingly applied in smolt production. Knowledge of the general composition and quality of inlet-water is important for designing water-treatment to obtain optimal water quality in both flow-through and RAS systems. Based on water quality surveys in Norway (96 water sources, 1999-2006) and Chile (120 water sources, 2006-2008) inlet-water quality was evaluated. Norwegian smolt production is characterized by almost exclusively utilizing surface waters as inlet-water sources, with lake inlets constituting 88% and river inlets 12%. This results in large seasonal variations in both temperature, and inlet-water quality. In Chile, production is based on inlet-water from groundwater wells (32%), natural springs (40%) and rivers (28%). Norwegian inlet-water quality shows significantly lower pH and buffering capacity. The content of total organic carbon and total nitrogen is generally higher in Norway, while the levels the main metals of concern, aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe), show large between-site variability in both countries. In low pH waters in Norway, the concentration of inorganic (labile) aluminium exceeds recommended level (10?g/L) in 15% of the samples. The Norwegian database documents highly variable production intensity in smolt production. The measured levels of carbon dioxide (CO?, 11.6±6.2mg/L) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, 499±485?gN/L) (mean±SD), exceed current legislative recommendations in 30% and 10.5% of the cases, respectively. RAS technology has the potential to improve a variable water quality if it proves reliable for the time intervals and production volumes needed. Thus, if necessary adjustments in water treatment to the local water quality are implemented, RAS production may well constitute a substantial part of smolt production in the future.

Kristensen T; Åtland Å; Rosten T; Urke HA; Rosseland BO

2009-09-01

316

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties. Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise

Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

317

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90) in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 µm were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

GORAN T. VLADISAVLJEVIC; SABINE BROSEL; HELMAR SCHUBERT

2000-01-01

318

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING SUGARS BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF PRETREATED EFB OIL PALM WASTE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a process for preparing pretreated EFB oil palm waste for enzymatic hydrolysis and makes it possible to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in the waste into soluble sugars. The method is intended for producing solutions of carbohydrates for the purpose of converting same into ethanol or other products of microbiological synthesis by further saccharification and combined fermentation. Empty Fruit Bunches, a waste product of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) which is usually left after the production of palm oil, are preferably used as the initial feedstock. The method is based on eliminating the interfering influence of biogenic silicon dioxide and polyphenols and also gradually enhancing the reactivity of the polysaccharides in the raw material by alternating mechanical activation and enzymatic hydrolysis.

KOROLEV KIRILL GEORGIEVICH; LOMOVSKY OLEG IVANOVICH; POLITOV ANATOLY ALEKSANDROVICH; GOLYAZIMOVA BERSHAK OLGA VIKTOROVNA; BYCHKOV ALEKSEI LEONIDOVICH

319

A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs.

Ball, C.

2005-09-01

320

A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Facies control on oil producing, naturally fractured reservoirs, a cast study: Block I, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Block I, Lake Maracaibo, oil producing intervals in the Cretaceous have been found to be facies controlled. Detailed studies of the cored sections in various wells have shown that facies Ls2, characterized by an oolitic grainstone, is the main producing reservoir. This facies has been interpreted as deposited as an oolitic shoal in a shallowing-upward sequence. Other facies such as Ls1, represented by a bioclastic rudstone, and Ls, composed of a mudstone, are also present but do not show significant oil production. The presence of subvertical, open, hairline fractures and centimeter-scaled wide, bridged fractures in facies Ls2 can explain its great producing capacity, while the presence of calcite mineralized fractures in Ls1 and absence of fractures in Ls account for the poor producing capability of these facies. In contrast to what has been reported in other case studies, the grainstone facies shows the most fracture density and open fractures. A facies model which predicts the lateral continuity of the facies present in Block I is proposed as a tool for oil exploration and exploitation for this area and other areas with similar sedimentological characteristics.

Rodriguez, A.; Marquez, X.

1988-02-01

322

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

1996-02-01

323

Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

1999-01-01

324

Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

1993-07-01

325

Oil and gas situation in Middle East Gulf countries. 2; Chuto wangan shokoku no sekiyu gas jijo. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the previous report on Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, this report describes the politics and economy of Iran and Iraq, and the trends of their oil/gas exploitation, production, consumption, refining, and export. Iran produced 3.6-million B/D in 1997. It is supposed difficult for Iran to attain the 3.9-million B/D production level determined by OPEC in January, 1998. The existing oil fields on the dry land are much advanced in age, and the oil reservoir pressure has been decreasing making it difficult to increase production. A large-scale introduction of advanced oil recovery systems will be necessary. There is a long-term program involving the said fields and the exploitation of off-shore fields, but the success will be greatly dependent on the participation of overseas oil corporations. Various measures have been implemented for oil and gas. They include a plan to open the exploitation to foreign investors on the basis of a buy-back contract, to adopt advanced oil recovery methods, and to enlarge the output to 7-million B/D by 2015. 11 figs., 9 tabs.

Tanimoto, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-08-01

326

Situation report for petroleum exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report incorporates the contents of fifteen individual situation reports for major petroleum exporting countries that were prepared from the Office of Energy Emergency Management Information System. The situation reports give a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each oil exporting country and are designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions - Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

Hermelee, A.; D' Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Smith, T.A.

1980-11-01

327

Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

2011-05-15

328

Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

Asshifa Md Noh N; Al-Ashraf Abdullah A; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim M; Ramli Mohd Yahya A

2012-01-01

329

Potential of producing high octane additives and hydrogen from biomass-derived oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early approach, the upgrading of biomass-derived oils (BDO) to hydrocarbons was carried out using typical hydrotreating catalysts such as Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The major drawback was the high operating cost due to the addition of hydrogen and high pressure requirements of the process. On the other hand, these studies have shown that the use of catalysts such as HZSM-5, HY, silicate, molecular sieves, silica-alumina and mordenite for upgrading such oils does not require hydrogen and can be performed at atmospheric pressure. Also, these studies have shown that the product slate can be dramatically altered by changing the characteristics or functionality of the catalyst. Furthermore, HZSM-5 and silica-alumina were found to be the most effective catalysts for producing aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, respectively. This presentation includes the upgrading of BDO over HZSM-5, silica-alumina and HS-Mix (a physical mixture composed of 20 wt % HZSM-5 and 80 wt% silica-alumina) catalysts. The BDO was produced by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of a commercial oak sawdust. The upgrading of the oil was performed at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed microreactor. Char, which was one of the products from this upgrading process, was found to be reactive. Steam gasification of this char was carried out at atmospheric pressure. The overall objective was to investigate the potential for the production of hydrogen and high octane additives from a biomass-derived oil.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Idem, R.O.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab.

1997-12-31

330

Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?; Energiestandort Deutschland - quo vadis?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [German] Eine gesicherte, ausreichende und stets verfuegbare Stromversorgung, wie sie in Deutschland gewaehrleistet wird, ist fuer unsere moderne Gesellschaft lebenswichtig. In Deutschland muss unter den Bedingungen liberalisierter Maerkte auch zukuenftig eine sichere, preiswuerdige und umweltvertraegliche Energieversorgung moeglich sein - mit gleichrangiger Behandlung dieser drei Faktoren bei energiepolitischen Entscheidungen im Sinne der Nachhaltigkeit. Eine heute feststellbare Ungleichgewichtung infolge politischer Praeferenzen kann langfristig das Gesamtziel der Optimierung aller drei Faktoren gefaehrden. Der deutschen Energiewirtschaft wurden wie in keinem anderen europaeischen Land unter anderem aufgrund von Marktliberalisierung, der Reduktion von Luftschadstoffen und den Vereinbarungen zu den laufenden Kernkraftwerken umfassende Anpassungsleistungen in hohem Masse abverlangt. Weitere stehen z.B. mit dem Emissionshandel bevor. Die Stromwirtschaft ist willens und dazu in der Lage, die ihr zukuenftig gestellten Aufgaben zu bewaeltigen. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer den erwarteten Ersatz beim Kraftwerkspark in Hoehe von ca. 40 000 MW Leistung in Deutschland, wobei der europaeische Rahmen mit einem Ersatzbedarf von ca. 200 000 MW zu beruecksichtigen ist. Dabei stehen Investitionen in Hoehe von 50 Mrd. Euro allein in Deutschland an, die nur bei ausreichender Planungssicherheit fuer die Kraftwerksbetreiber getaetigt werden koennen. Die Wahl effizienter und wirtschaftlicher Erzeugungstechnologien muss dabei moeglich sein. Ein ausgewogener Energiemix, wie von der Internationalen Energie Agentur (IEA) fuer Deutschland angemahnt, mit besonderem Stellenwert der heimischen Ressourcen und aller infrage kommenden Technologien muss in einem nationalen Energieprogramm von allen Beteiligten zusammengefuehrt werden. (orig.)

Rauscher, K. [Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)

2003-03-01

331

Producing High Quality Edible Oil by using Eco-Friendly Technology: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of health and environmental issues specifically related to the use of chemical ingredients in foods both in producing processes and as a preservative agent has encouraged the emergence of non-chemically processed products on the market. This condition is predicted to continue increasing with high market response. This review will discuss some developments, surrounding the edible oil extraction and purification technology, including some alternative to substitute conventional solvent extraction in order to produce a chemically free edible oil product. Enzymatic and ultrasound assisted/pre-treatment in aqueous, cold pressing and supercritical fluid extraction will be highlighted, as well as adsorptive refining and other processes as an alternative for purification technology.

Noor A. Febrianto; Tajul A. Yang

2011-01-01

332

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

Unknown

2001-05-01

333

Energy demand management and pricing in oil-exporting countries: Venezuela and Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The demand for energy in oil-exporting nations is important for its effects on both oil-exporting and oil-importing nations. Energy demand management takes place in the context of energy policy and national development plans, because the demand for energy is derived from the demand for other products, and because national goals are more important than those of a single sector. The energy demand management policies of Venezuela and Mexico are chosen for study because of Venezuela's historic importance as a world exporter, stable supplier of oil, and creator of OPEC, and because of Mexico's extensive oil reserves and special relationship with the United States.

Randall, L.

1986-01-01

334

The use of babassu oil as substrate to produce bioemulsifiers by Candida lipolytica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced an extracellular emulsifier when using babassu oil as its sole carbon source during batch and fed batch fermentations at 27 degrees C. Emulsification activity was detected after 60 h of growth in all conditions studied. The bioemulsifier was isolated after 144 h of fermentation from the best condition studied. The biopolymer seems to be a polysaccharide-protein-lipid complex.

Sarubbo LA; Porto AL; Campos-Takaki GM

1999-05-01

335

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Yi-Wei Lin

2012-01-01

336

Comprehensive disclosures for oil and gas producing activities of publicly owned enterprises: a summary and update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three accountants review the final disclosures procedures issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), which sought to consolidate and improve accounting disclosure requirements, as they apply to oil and gas producing activities. The Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 69 applies only to publicly held enterprises and only to annual financial statements. It does not address the issues of undeveloped acreage disclosure or the disclosure requirements for nonpublic enterprises, although there is a distinct possibility that all producers will be bound by the requirements ultimately. 5 figures.

Alford, R.M.; Shearon, W.T.; Strawser, R.H.

1983-03-01

337

Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered.

Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

2004-04-01

338

Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered.

Faksness LG; Grini PG; Daling PS

2004-04-01

339

Oil companies in the international system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book examines the impact that leading oil companies have had on international relations in the twentieth century. It looks at the interplay between the companies and the governments of both the industrialized and the oil-producing countries.

Turner, L.

1983-01-01

340

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Structure and applications of a rhamnolipid surfactant produced in soybean oil waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soybean oil soapstock was utilized as an alternative carbon source for the production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI strain. The chemical composition and properties of the rhamnolipid mixture obtained were determined to define its potential applications. The chemical characterization of the rhamnolipid has revealed the presence of ten different homologues. The monorhamnolipid RhaC10C1) and the dirhamnolipid Rha2C10C10 were the main components of the mixture that showed predominance of 44% and 29%, respectively, after 144-h of cultivation. The biosurfactant was able to form stable emulsions with several hydrocarbons and showed excellent emulsification for soybean oil and chicken fat (100%). The rhamnolipid removed 67% of crude oil present in sand samples and presented antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Mucor miehei at 64 microg/mL and inhibition of Neurospora crassa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus at 256 microg/mL. The results demonstrated that the rhamnolipid produced in soybean oil soapstock can be useful in environmental and food industry applications.

Nitschke M; Costa SG; Contiero J

2010-04-01

342

Structure and applications of a rhamnolipid surfactant produced in soybean oil waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soybean oil soapstock was utilized as an alternative carbon source for the production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI strain. The chemical composition and properties of the rhamnolipid mixture obtained were determined to define its potential applications. The chemical characterization of the rhamnolipid has revealed the presence of ten different homologues. The monorhamnolipid RhaC10C1) and the dirhamnolipid Rha2C10C10 were the main components of the mixture that showed predominance of 44% and 29%, respectively, after 144-h of cultivation. The biosurfactant was able to form stable emulsions with several hydrocarbons and showed excellent emulsification for soybean oil and chicken fat (100%). The rhamnolipid removed 67% of crude oil present in sand samples and presented antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Mucor miehei at 64 microg/mL and inhibition of Neurospora crassa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus at 256 microg/mL. The results demonstrated that the rhamnolipid produced in soybean oil soapstock can be useful in environmental and food industry applications. PMID:19649781

Nitschke, Marcia; Costa, Siddhartha G V A O; Contiero, Jonas

2009-08-04

343

Lipid profile of in vitro oil produced through cell culture of Jatropha curcas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent increases in energy demands as a consequence of population growth and industrialization, and pollution caused during the extraction and combustion of fossil fuel sources have driven the development of new energy sources that do not cause pollution and are inexpensive and renewable. Consequently, it is necessary to develop alternative ways of generating biofuels that put less pressure on agricultural lands and water supplies, and ensure ecosystems conservation. In order to achieve the proposed goals related to energetic coverage and independence, several approaches have been developed, including biodiesel production using vegetal oils as feedstock. The aim of the current research project was to apply a nonconventional bioprocess for in vitro biomass and oil production of Jatropha curcas, for assessing different J. curcas varieties, where seed tissue was isolated and used for callus induction. Once friable callus was obtained, cell suspension cultures were established. The cell viability, fatty acid content, and characteristics were used to select the most promising cell line according to its fatty acid profile and ability to grow and develop under in vitro conditions. Oil produced by cell suspension culture of the Jatropha varieties studied was extracted and characterized by GC/MS. Differences encountered among Jatropha varieties were related to their fatty acid profiles, oil content (% on dry basis), and cell viability measurements (%). PMID:22970586

Correa, Sandra M; Atehortúa, Lucía

344

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

1991-01-01

345

Synthesis, characterization, and oil recovery application of biosurfactant produced by indigenous pseudomonas aeruginosa WJ-1 using waste vegetable oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bacterial strain was isolated and cultured from the oil excavation areas in tropical zone in northern China. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, WJ-1, was identical to those of cultured representatives of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentage lipid (?74%, w/w) and carbohydrate (?20%, w/w) in addition to a minor fraction of protein (?6%, w/w). The best production of 50.2 g/l was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 6.0% (w/v) glucose and 0.75% (w/v) sodium nitrate supplemented with 0.1% (v/v) element solution at 37 °C and 180 rpm after 96 h. The optimum biosurfactant production pH value was found to be 6.0-8.0. The biosurfactant of WJ-1, with the critical micelle concentration of 0.014 g/L, could reduce surface tension to 24.5 mN/m and emulsified kerosene up to EI(24) ?95. The results obtained from time course study indicated that the surface tension reduction and emulsification potential was increased in the same way to cell growth. However, maximum biosurfactant production occurred and established in the stationary growth phase (after 90 h). Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and mass spectrum analysis indicate the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The core holder flooding experiments demonstrated that the oil recovery efficiency of strain and its biosurfactant was 23.02% residual oil.

Xia WJ; Luo ZB; Dong HP; Yu L; Cui QF; Bi YQ

2012-03-01

346

Venezuelan oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

Martinez, A.R. (Graduate School of Administration of Hydrocarbons, Caracas Central Univ. (VE))

1989-01-01

347

Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

2009-01-07

348

The Contribution of Renewable Resources and Energy Conservation as Alternatives to Imported Oil in Developing Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report addresses the role of renewable energy sources and conservation in meeting the future energy demands of developing countries. It appears possible that renewable energy sources (biomass, solar, wind, small-scale hydro, and geothermal) could red...

P. F. Palmedo P. Baldwin

1980-01-01

349

Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

350

Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL?kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL?kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0?mL?kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5?mL?kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages.

Raal A; Orav A; Arak E

2012-01-01

351

Energetic potentialities of in vitro cultures of plant cells: crude oil produced by calli and cells of Euphorbia characias  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The content of crude oil produced by Euphorbia characias calli vary significantly with the basal medium used. Contrarily to what occurs in growing plants, both calli and suspended cells from this species show a positive correlation between biomass growth and specific crude oil production. Heterotrophic suspended cells from Euphorbia characias revealed crude oil contents of 4-5% of dry weight, similar to those found in growing plants during the spring. (Author)

Fernandes-Ferreira, M. (Univ. do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Dep. de Biologia); Ferreira, M.C.V. (Esc. Sec. Carlos Amarante, Braga (Portugal))

1994-08-01

352

Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

1995-12-31

353

Foreign direct investment strategies: Least-developed countries and foreign firms. A case study of Sudan and Chevron Oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The least-developed countries (LDCS) are politically underdeveloped. They often have autocratic authoritarian regimes that give less than appropriate attention to their societies' development. Being vulnerable and fairly unstable, such regimes are more occupied with their own survival than with developing pragmatic plans that cater to supplying their nations with missing economic resources needed through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Internal and external pressures on LDCS with such primitive political structures have greatly confused their leaderships and have resulted in the lack of institutionalization in these countries. Foreign firms normally choose to serve world markets through direct operations rather than exporting or licensing because the former maximize their gains more than the two other alternatives. This is why benefits to host countries may not match a host country's expectations when it allows FDI penetration. It is the contention of this research that Sudan failed to formulate a right policy towards FDI, and came short of maximizing its scarce resource returns. On the other hand, Chevron Oil, with a global overall profit-maximization strategy, succeeded in running its subsidiary in Sudan in accordance with its global outlook.

Tom, B.M.

1988-01-01

354

An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers.

Watson HK; Diaz-Chavez RA

2011-04-01

355

Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)]|[Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

2009-05-15

356

Oil-Sector indicators, 1988: US producers still exploring for clout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two of the world's greatest petroleum associations, (American Petroleum Institute and Independent Petroleum Association of America), have examined US supply, financial, and political vulnerabilities in light of sustained low oil prices and rising import dependency. An Energy Detente Cocktail mixing these and other separate perspectives -- such as foreign downstream investment and the Iran-Iraq post-war reconstruction -- is this issue's fare. This issue also contains the following: (1) refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, as of Nov. 11, 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, November 1988 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

1988-11-18

357

Win-win strategies between countries in the oil and gas industry; Win-Win Laenderstrategien in der Oel- und Gasindustrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stake of large international oil and gas companies in the world's raw material resources is declining, while the demand for fossil fuels is rising. At the same time these globally active companies are experiencing greater competition from state-owned oil and gas companies of developing and threshold countries, which often enjoy strong political support. Gaining access to the raw material resources of these countries will in future require new strategies which give greater consideration to the needs of these raw material countries than in the past.

Dier, M. [Accenture GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy fuer Europa, Naher Osten, Afrika und Lateinamerika; Haese, C. [Accenture GmbH, Kronberg (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy

2008-08-15

358

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

Fotouh, K.H.

1995-09-30

359

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2003-12-15

360

Use of inhibitors for scale control in brine-producing gas and oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field and laboratory work sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that calcium-carbonate scale formation in waters produced with natural gas and oil can be prevented by injection of phosphonate inhibitor into the formation, even if the formation is sandstone without calcite binding material. Inhibitor squeeze jobs have been carried out on DOE's geopressured-geothermal Gladys MaCall brine-gas well and GRI's co-production wells in the Hitchcock field. Following the inhibitor squeeze on Gladys McCall, the well produced over five million barrels of water at a rate of approximately 30,000 BPD without calcium-carbonate scaling. Before the inhibitor squeeze, the well could not be produced above 15,000 BPD without significant scale formation. In the GRI brine-gas co-production field tests, inhibitor squeezes have been used to successfully prevent scaling. Laboratory work has been conducted to determine what types of oil field waters are subject to scaling. This research has led to the development of a saturation index and accompanying nomographs which allow prediction of when scale will develop into a problem in brine production. Core samples from both fields were used in laboratory studies and analytical methods to analyze inhibitors in brine at a low levels were extended. A complete history of field development and the laboratory backup experiments is included in this paper.

Tomson, M.B.; Rogers, L.A.; Varughese, K.; Prestwich, S.M.; Waggett, G.G.; Salimi, M.H.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Determination of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel produced from yellow horn oil by LC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple and accurate HPLC method with refractive index detection was developed to determine the main fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel produced from yellow horn oil. Methyl linoleate, methyl linolenate, methyl arachidate, methyl stearate, methyl palmitate and methyl oleate were separated on a HIQ SIL C18W column using methanol as mobile phase. The method has good repeatability and precision, the intraday and interday RSD for both retention time and peak area was less than 3.2%. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 9) were less than 0.004 and 0.015 mg mL{sup -1}, respectively. (orig.)

Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Nai-Jing; Liu, Wei; Li, Shuang-Ming; Zhang, Su [Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Key Lab. of Forest Plant Ecology

2008-01-15

362

The effect of an in situ-produced oil shale processing water on metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of in situ-produced oil shale retort water on the metabolism of various substrates was studied both in vivo and in vitro. The induction observed in rats was classified as Type I due to an increase in metabolism of hexobarbital and ethylmorphine without subsequent increases in zoxazolamine metabolism. The maximal absorption of the cytochrome-P450-CO complex was observed to be 450 millimicron, also consistent with Type I inducers. Cytochrome P-450 levels were also significantly increased over controls.

Nelson KF; North DS; Payne GR; Anderson AD; Poulson RE; Farrier DS

1978-01-01

363

Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

2008-09-01

364

Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

Avin, R.M.

1986-01-01

365

Fungi isolated from produced water and water-soluble fraction of crude oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study was sought to determine the fungi present in the produced water (PW) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil as a preliminary approach to determining that fungi can survive in crude oil polluted water and their possible use in bioremediation. Different concentrations of PW and WSF of crude oil samples from Ughelli East Flow Station in Delta State of Nigeria were exposed to onion (Allium cepa) primordial cells at different concentrations for twelve days. Thereafter; samples of the PW and WSF were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar. Isolates of Thamnidium sp, Gelasinospora sp, Zygorhynchu. sp and Colletotrichum sp were found. Zygorhynchus and Colletotrichum were associated with PW while thaminidium and Gelasinospora associated with the WSF. There were changes in the pH and turbidity of the PW and WSF before and after exposure to Allium cepa cells. At 25% level of treatments there were significant differences in pH and turbidity values of the PW and WSF at P 0.01 before and after exposure to the plant. (author)

2011-01-01

366

Country Analysis Briefs: Azerbaijan, September 10, 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azerbaijan, wholly located within the South Caspian Sea basin, is among the oldest oil producers in the world. Oil and gas development and export is central to Azerbaijan's economic growth. The country is one of Caspian region's most important strategic e...

2013-01-01

367

Comprehensive utilization of the mixture of oil sediments and soapstocks for producing FAME and phosphatides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comprehensive utilization of the mixture of oil sediments (OS) and soapstock (SS) for producing FAME and phosphatides was investigated. A process consisting of three steps was employed for obtaining high conversion and by-product. In the first step, the OS-SS mixture was extracted with ethyl ether and the mixture was divided into three phases. The organic top phase contained triglycerides and phosphatides was extracted with cooled acetone and the acetone insoluble (phosphatides) was obtained. At the same time, triglycerides were separated also. In the second step, soap phase was then acidified with sulfuric acid to yield fatty acid. This ''high-acid'' acid oil was efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification. The esterification reaction has been carried out with 5:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) in the presence 3% H{sub 2}S0{sub 4} (wt.%) as an acid catalyst at 85 C for 5 h. FAME recovery under these conditions was 92.1% of theoretical. In the third step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification process converts the triglycerides to its mono-esters and glycerol. The optimized variables, 6:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1% NaOH (wt.%) reacted at 65 C for 1 h, giving a maximum ester yield of 94%. Five important fuel properties of FAME from the OS-SS mixture were found to be comparable to those of No. 2 diesel fuel and conforming to both the American and German standards for biodiesel. (author)

Jin, B.; Zhu, M.; Fan, P.; Yu, L.-J. [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2008-01-15

368

Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino). The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino). La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

Giacometti, Jasminka; Milin, Cedomila

2001-01-01

369

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Unknown

1999-10-31

370

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Unknown

2000-05-01

371

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Donald Duttlinger

1999-12-01

372

Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL.

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

373

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

Unknown

2002-11-01

374

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization efficiently has an impact on business economics as the focus remains on proven applicable technologies, which target cost reduction and efficiency gains.

Donald Duttlinger

2001-11-01

375

Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was the Portuguese Galega sp. Olives were picked and technologically handled under predetermined and supervised conditions. Olive oils produced were better classified when the sensory analysis by a panel was applied than when an electronic sensory analysis was performed, even after sensor optimization. This observation is in accordance with the fact that olive oil has a low volatility matrix and “flavor”, rather than aroma, can give a clearer characterization than electronic sensory analysis alone, where aroma is the main characteristic evaluated.El análisis sensorial y el análisis de aromas por medio de sistemas sensoriales electrónicos han sido utilizado para comparar aceites de oliva producidos a través de dos sistemas de extracción diferentes. Los métodos de extracción comparados han sido el sistema de prensas y el decantador de dos fases. Las muestras fueron producidas durante las cosechas del periodo 2002- 2004, y las aceitunas eran todas de la misma variedad portuguesa Gallega sp. Las aceitunas fueron seleccionadas y tratadas tecnológicamente bajo condiciones predeterminadas y supervisadas. Los aceites producidos resultaron mejor clasificados cuando fue aplicado el análisis sensorial por panel que cuando se utilizó el análisis con detección electrónica de aromas, incluso después de la optimización de los sensores. Esta observación está de acuerdo con el hecho de que los aceites son una matriz poco volátil y que es el “flavour”, más que el aroma, el que junto con el gusto puede proporcionar una caracterización mejor que la detección electrónica, en la que el aroma es la principal característica evaluada.

Vaz Freire, L. T.; Cabrita, M. J.; Gomes da Silva, M. D.R.; Costa Freitas, A. M.

2011-01-01

376

Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N) starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD) formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3. PMID:23874918

Zhang, Yun-Ming; Chen, Hui; He, Chen-Liu; Wang, Qiang

2013-07-16

377

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) functions as a cohesive national organization that implements industry's directives through active regional programs. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) organization includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. PTTC relies on 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) as its main program delivery mechanism to industry. Through its regions, PTTC connects with independent oil and gas producers--through technology workshops, resources centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY98, and its strategy for achieving further growth in the future.

Unknown

1998-10-31

378

Device for producing an oil/water emulsion. Einrichtung zum Herstellen einer Oel-Wasser-Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a device for producing an oil/water emulsion for operating an injection pump, particularly of a diesel engine, which a symmetrical turbulence chamber with tangential inlet and a narrowing axial outlet. To produce a fine homogeneous emulsion with a size of suspended water droplets in the region of 2 and 4 my, the axial end section of the turbulence chamber away from the outlet is surrounded by a coaxial annular duct, which is connected to it via tangential inlet slots to the turbulence chamber and into which an oil inlet duct opens tangentially. An electromagnetically-controlled water injection nozzle opens into the inlet end section of the turbulence chamber. The outlet of the turbulence chamber opens via an expanded section into a suction into a suction chamber of a radial rotor, which is situated in a pump chamber, which has an outlet duct in the area of the circumference of the radial rotor, to which a 'go' pipe going to the injection pump and a recirculation pipe going to an emulsion inlet duct can be connected, which also opens into the annular duct. An inlet duct opens at the side of the suction chamber of the radial rotor, to which a return pipe coming from the injection pump can be connected.

Ulrich, A.

1990-10-18

379

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

2012-07-04

380

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way.

Wang C; Tian Z; Wang L; Xu R; Liu Q; Qu W; Ma H; Wang B

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N) starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD) formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3.

Zhang YM; Chen H; He CL; Wang Q

2013-01-01

382

Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author)

2005-01-01

383

Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning.

Lomarat P; Phanthong P; Wongsariya K; Chomnawang MT; Bunyapraphatsara N

2013-05-01

384

Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning. PMID:23625419

Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

2013-05-01

385

The oil crisis and economic adjustments: Case studies of six developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book surveys the process of international economic and social change. Most of these changes have been described as 'economic adjustment,' and the author carefully analyses this term, its corrollaries, implications and varied interpretations. The focus is on energy-linked constrained and energy-determined aspects of adjustment. Whilst adjustment concerns global economic changes, this study is confined to developing countries, and within these a sample of six have been chosen for special scrutiny.

Mackillop, A.

1983-01-01

386

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

Unknown

2000-11-01

387

Engine performance and emission characteristics of marine fish-oil biodiesel produced from the discarded parts of marine fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emissions from combustion equipment. Because cultivated land is too limited to grow seed-oil plants sufficient to produce both food and biodiesel, non-land-based oleaginous materials have been considered important sources for the production of the latter. In this study, the discarded parts of mixed marine fish species were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Marine fish oil was extracted from the discarded parts of mixed marine fish and refined through a series of pretreatment processes. The refined marine fish oil was then transesterified with methyl alcohol to produce biodiesel, which was used thereafter as engine fuel to investigate its engine performance and emission characteristics. The experimental results show that, compared with commercial biodiesel from waste cooking oil, marine fish-oil biodiesel has a larger gross heating value, elemental carbon and hydrogen content, cetane index, exhaust gas temperature, brake fuel conversion efficiency, NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} emissions, and black smoke opacity and a lower elemental oxygen content, fuel consumption ra