WorldWideScience
1

1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

Warner, A.J.

1979-03-01

2

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2ergy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

3

Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

Tsuji, Ryuhei

1999-03-01

4

Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

1999-03-01

5

Oil and gas industry in the 1990s in the producer country of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plans for the development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are outlined. Oil dominates the economy, well over 80% of export earnings being derived from petroleum. The ideal would be for Nigeria to become a net exporter of processed gas and refined petroleum products and derivatives but not of crude oil thus reaping the maximum benefit of value added earnings. This goal is being pursued wherever possible. By 1996, Nigeria should possess all the major constituents of a modern oil industry state. The three modern refineries which have a total capacity of 445,000 barrels per day will have the necessary pipelines, depots and export terminals. Four petrochemical plants will produce a range of products. A gas condensate field will be in production for export and a number of plants will be producing liquefied natural gas, natural gas liquids, methanol and MTBE. To achieve these objectives for its petroleum industry, Nigeria has set up a structure for the management framework and has developed a national petroleum policy. The salient points of the policy are given. (UK)

6

Oil producers and trading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differing assessments of advice being offered to governments and national oil companies of the petroleum exporting countries are given by three commentators. The advice, coming from traders, consultants and the management of formal futures exchanges, is that oil exporters should make use of available trading instruments for the purpose of hedging in risk management; sometimes establishing forward and futures markets for their own crudes is also suggested. The first commentator offers two arguments in support of his view that the ''no-trading'' policy of oil exporters is costly and damaging to their interests. The third commentator does not favour the creation of a trading contract by producers for Arabian Gulf crudes. The idea of a producers' trading instrument is rejected more emphatically by the second commentator on the grounds that, unlike private companies, governments cannot credibly organize a market and trade in it; producers should trade in existing markets only with great care. (UK)

Roeber, J. (Joe Roeber Associates, London (United Kingdom)); Verleger, P. (Charles River Associates (United States)); Christmas, T. (International Petroleum Exchange (United States))

1995-02-01

7

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

2009-07-15

8

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

2009-07-15

9

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

10

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

11

The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of frequired, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

12

A proficiency test for some laboratories in Arab Countries for determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials contaminated soil reference sample with produced water in oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, results of first proficiency test exercise for radiochemical laboratories of some Arab counties using contaminated reference soil sample prepared by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The soil sample was collected from one of the highly radioactively contaminated lagoons with production water in the Syrian oil fields. Laboratories from six countries naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation have been participated in this test, viz. Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Jordan and Syria. The results have evaluated using statistical criteria to evaluate the performance of each laboratory in addition to the overall evaluation for each isotope. This evaluation has indicated that 57% and 86% of the results passed the criteria set for precision and accuracy applied for this test in relation to Radium-226 and Radium-228, respectively. These two isotopes are the most important isotopes in the oil industry. (author)

13

How do oil producers respond to oil demand shocks?  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes the response of international oil producers to demand-induced changes in the real price of oil during 1975-2011. The goal is to disentangle fluctuations in OPEC and non-OPEC production and to derive consistent estimates of the short-run price elasticity of crude oil supply at the country level. I find that oil producers hardly respond to demand shocks within the same month, and that the corresponding impact price elasticities of supply are not statistically different from ...

Gu?ntner, Jochen

2013-01-01

14

Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators-the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional)

15

Trends of the gulf oil-producing countries, EU, and majors coping with variation in international balance between supply and demand of oil; Sekaitekina sekiyu jukyu kozo no henka ni taiosuru wangan san`yukoku, EU oyobi meja no doko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a record in 1993 on research of rationalization of oil distribution entrusted by the Resources and Energy Agency. The following trends were cached, and the two items (i.e., oil production policies of main countries of OPEC and recent trends of majors, and trends of EU`s energy policy and energy laws in Russia) were studied. In future, a rise in demand in developing contries and large dependence on the Middle East caused by limitation of surplus production increase by non-the Middle East and non-OPEC countries are predicted. In spite of a large estimated amount of oil, there are some cases where economics and technologies limit maintenance of production ability. And global environmental problems, and increase in LNG demand, and privatization of the oil industry by part of oil-production countries (e.g., the Central South American countries) will effect closely on strategies between oil-producting countries and enterprises in the Western bloc. There is a possibility of rapid development of new oil and LNG by Western capitals in Russia. 47 refs., 46 figs., 48 tabs.

NONE

1994-12-01

16

Oil exporting countries need nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

17

Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

NONE

2007-11-29

18

Oil producers facing a common challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

19

Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: > Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. > Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. > Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. > Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

Toft, Peter, E-mail: peter.toft@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

20

Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab

21

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume.

22

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

23

Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

24

Yemen - the next big player? [as an oil producer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1993 should be the year in which United Yemen finally starts to fulfil its potential as a significant oil producer. In recession for three years, the country desperately needs the revenues and has spared no effort in its attempt to provide the right financial climate within which international oil companies can operate. But the last three years, in terms of revenues from actual oil production, have been disastrous, with production from the much-touted Shabwa fields persistently deferred and with the overall climate for the oil industry clouded by a border dispute with Saudi Arabia that prompted at least one western major, BP, to suspend operations for a while. (author)

25

Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ? We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ? The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ? The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ? The OPCE Middle n this century. ? The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ? These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

26

Crude Oil Prices and Stock Markets in Major Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence on Decoupling Feature  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates common cyclical features between crude oil market and stock markets in major oil exporting countries including Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait. The results of the paper indicate, at low oil prices (below $40 per oil barrel) Saudi and Abu-Dhabi markets share common cyclical feature with oil market, but they digress from the oil market as oil prices rose above $40 per barrel. The decoupling feature indicate the capital markets and oil market respond in different pattern ...

Onour, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

27

Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)

28

A survey of oil demand elasticities for developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil, with thirty per cent of the world market for global energy sources, remains, despite its main rivals - coal, gas and electricity - and the problems of turbulent markets, the most important source of energy worldwide. This paper looks at oil consumption patterns in the world's developing countries in order to predict oil demand in these dynamic economies. Econometric work on total oil demand is surveyed in part 1. The second section of the paper looks at oil demand in the industrial, residential, commercial and transportation sectors of these economies. Conclusions drawn in section 3 predict that oil demand will grow faster than income in developing countries and that price changes will have little effect on demand. (UK)

29

Environmental Conservation And Sustainable Development In Oil Producing Communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the impact of oil and gas exploration, development and production on the environment and local environmental standards and guidelines are highlighted and compared to prevailing environmental conditions in some of the oil producing communities. The effect of environmental pollution on the sustainable development of oil producing communities is analyzed. The responses of the inhabitants of oil producing communities to environmental degradation in detail. So also are the reactions of the oil producing companies and the Federal government. Special emphasis is placed on the activities of relevant governmental institutions in oil producing areas. Finally, a strategy for ensuring environmental conservation and sustainable development in oil producing communities is proposed

30

Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

NONE

1995-05-01

31

Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

2010-09-15

32

Oil market in the 1990s: implications for ESCWA countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, prepared for the ESCWA Expert Group Meeting in Amman, Jordan, 20-23 November 1989, concerns the outlook for oil markets in the coming decade and the implications of certain market trends for the ESCWA countries, including both the energy exporting and energy importing members of ESCWA. It is argued that increasing oil consumption may well bring world oil production close to physical capacity before the end of the 1990s, thereby provoking an increase in real oil prices. It is further argued that the uncertainty surrounding this scenario is asymmetric; it is more likely that real oil prices will rise than that they will remain stable or fall. Other major trends, including enhanced worldwide concern for the environment and the bilateralization of world trade, also will affect ESCWA countries. The authors conclude that member countries should expand petroleum exploration activities, improve the operating efficiency of their national oil companies, bring domestic energy prices into line with world markets, expand natural gas development and marketing efforts, participate in multilateral trade negotiations, and expand co-ordination in all energy matters. (Author)

33

Recent developments in the oil spill response, arrangements in four Mediterranean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the existing national arrangement for intervention in case of oil spills in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain, Libya, Egypt) are analyzed. These plans were considered by AGIP for incorporation in the Contingency Plans for offshore operations conducted by its subsidiaries in these four countries. More recent development for improvement of these arrangements (example Oil sector Plans in Egypt) are taken into account together with the oil spill cases more likely susceptible to produce a further increase of the existing capabilities. In addition to the cases which have been extensively dealt with in the specialized Newsletters and Bulletins (Khark 5, Aragon spills), this paper also deals with the less known spill of December 1989 in the Egyptian waters of Gulf of Suez. The accident involved a Philippine ship and the GUPCO's platform Sidki, representing an emblematic case of the problems of the heavy use of the Gulf of Suez as a water way and oil production area

34

Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes

35

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

36

Oil And The Macroeconomy : Empirical evidence from 10 OECD countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact ofoil price on Industrial production, real effective exchange rate, long term interest rate and inflation rate for a sample of ten OECD countries using quarterly data for the period 1970q1-2011q1.The impact of oil price shock on industrial production is negative and occurs with a lag of one year. However, the impact has weakened considerably compared to the 1970s. The impact on real effective exchang...

Al-ameri, Leyth

2012-01-01

37

Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production  

OpenAIRE

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

Knutsen, Trine

2011-01-01

38

Study of the possibility of producing aviation oil (Type MK-8) from high paraffin Baku oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technology for producing aviation oil type MK-8 from Sangachalac petroleum is developed. It is that the oil, which is not inferior to commercial oil, can be produced by using processes of absorption refining and deep deparaffinization. An optimum amount of antioxidation additive (topanol for MA-8 oil) is found. It is shown that this oil with 0.5 topanol assures production of highly stable MK-8 type oil according to GOST6457-66.

Kuliyeu, R.Sh.; Samedova, F.I.

1982-01-01

39

78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...certain oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation...include loans, grants, income tax incentives, and the provision of goods and services for less than adequate...

2013-09-16

40

Energy and the oil-importing developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil-importing developing countries will need more energy during the 1980's to sustain development and to support their subsistence sectors. Development plans must be revised to reflect the potentially disastrous effects of high-cost oil on foreign exchange reserves and on national indebtedness. Energy use efficiency must be increased, and wider use must be made of domestic sources of energy-of conventional fossil and hydro sources and of new and renewable options such as biomass and other solar resources. The international community can help by careful management of world financial flows and trade agreements, expansion of capital assistance, and provision of technical assistance. The importance of improving levels of scientific and technical expertise in the less-developed countries is a challege to the worldwide scientific and engineering community. PMID:17783276

Dunkerley, J; Ramsay, W

1982-05-01

41

Oil Price and Economic Growth in Small Pacific Island Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the 14 Pacific Island countries (PICs, only Papua New Guinea has fossil fuel resources. None of the remaining 13 PICs has any energy sources. Consequently, all the 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Recent surges and volatility in oil prices have had serious economic re-percussions on economic growth. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the recently developed panel analysis procedures to five major PICs, namely Fiji, Samoa, Solomon islands, Tonga and Vanuatu with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, economic growth and international reserve are cointegrated. The study findings are that although in the long run there is no long run causality relationship between these variables, in the short run the causality linkage runs from oil prices and interna-tional reserve to economic growth. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on policy options.

T. K. Jayaraman

2011-05-01

42

Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

2008-07-01

43

Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

El-Anshasy, Amany A.

44

Pesticide and plasticizer residues in citrus essential oils from different countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residue analyses are very important in the quality control of citrus essential oils. Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, phosphorated plasticizers and chloroparaffins contamination were investigated by HRGC with FPD and ECD detectors in 120 citrus essential oils produced in Italy and in 70 from other countries in the crop year 2006-2007. Results showed that the largest pesticide quantities were found in oils from Brazil and Spain. The presence of such residues might be the result of an improper use of pesticide in citrus growing or of previous contamination of the extractors. However, the pesticide levels showed a measurable decrease in relation to past production years. The absence of phosporated plasticizers and chloroparaffins can be the result of either improvement of the procedures used during the production cycle or in the storage of the essential oils compared with previous years. PMID:20839646

Di Bella, Giuseppa; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Rando, Rossana; Arena, Gabriella; Pollicino, Donatella; Luppino, Rosario Rocco; Dugo, Giacomo

2010-08-01

45

The Global Financial Crisis and Equity Markets in Middle East Oil Exporting Countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper employs extreme downside risk measures to estimate the impact of the global financial crisis in 2008/2009 on equity markets in major oil producing Middle East countries. The results in the paper indicate the spillover effect of the global crisis varied from a country to another, but most hardly affected market among the group of six markets was Dubai financial market in which portfolio loss reached about 42 per cent. This indicates that Dubai debt crisis, which emerged on surface i...

Onour, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

46

Oil supply security: the emergency response potential of IEA countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the oil supply security and more particularly with the emergency response potential of International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. The first part describes the changing pattern of IEA emergency response requirements. It begins with the experience from the past, then gives the energy outlook to 2010 and ends with the emergency response policy issues for the future. The second part is an overview on the IEA emergency response potential which includes the organisation, the emergency reserves, the demand restraint and the other response mechanisms. The third part gives the response potential of individual IEA countries. The last part deals with IEA emergency response in practice and more particularly with the gulf crisis of 1990-1991. It includes the initial problems raised by the gulf crisis, the adjustment and preparation and the onset of military action with the IEA response.(O.L.). 7 figs., 85 tabs

47

Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ? Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ? Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ? There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

48

Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-r...

Mohsen Mehrara; Maysam Musai

2011-01-01

49

Microbiological quality of saffron from the main producer countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microbiological study of saffron spice was undertaken in the context of a European research project (Methodologies for Implementing International Standards for Saffron Purity and Quality, the acronym for which is SAFFIC), analyzing 79 samples obtained from the main producer countries, namely Greece, Iran, Italy, Morocco, and Spain. Current microbiological quality criteria are the same as for other spices, but saffron is added in minute quantities during the cooking process, so the health risk associated with microbial contamination might be lower. We did not detect Salmonella either by culture or by PCR methods in any sample, and Escherichia coli was only found in five samples. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently found (70.9% of the samples), but most of them belonged to species of probable environmental origin. Aerobic sporulated bacteria were also common, but only three samples contained Bacillus cereus at low levels (100 CFU g(-1), an acceptable value. Overall, microbial contamination in saffron was markedly lower than it was in other spices. PMID:19833050

Cosano, Inmaculada; Pintado, Concepción; Acevedo, Olga; Novella, José Luis; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Carmona, Manuel; de la Rosa, Carmen; Rotger, Rafael

2009-10-01

50

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

51

Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

52

Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study  

OpenAIRE

Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by small-scale processors cannot be utilized by the larger scale industries in Ghana or abroad because of its poor quality. There is an urgent need to explore the causes and to identify ways to addre...

Osei-amponsah, C.; Visser, L. E.; Adjei-nsiah, S.; Struik, P. C.; Sakyi-dawson, O.; Stomph, T. J.

2012-01-01

53

Oil Dependencies and Peak Oil's Effects on Oil Consumption : A case study of six countries  

OpenAIRE

Under år 2007 har världen upplevt historiskt höga oljepriser, både i nominella och reala termer, vilket återigen har lyft upp energiförsörjningen på agendan. Vi fann det därför intressant att undersöka oljeberoenden i Brasilien, Kina, Norge, Sydkorea, Sverige, USA och se hur dessa länders oljekonsumption kan påverkas av Peak Oil. Peak oil betyder att oljeproduktionen når sitt maximum och minskar därefter. För att kunna dra slutsatser har lämpliga statistiska verktyg använts ...

Tekin, Josef; Hagman, Jens

2007-01-01

54

The impact of oil price shocks. Evidence from the industries of six OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the studies about the macroeconomic consequences of oil price shocks have been focused on US aggregate data. In contrast to these studies, this paper empirically assesses the dynamic effect of oil price shocks on the output of the main manufacturing industries in six OECD countries. The pattern of responses to an oil price shock by industrial output is diverse across the four European Monetary Union (EMU) countries under consideration (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), but broadly similar in the UK and the US. Moreover, evidence on cross-industry heterogeneity of oil shock effects within the EMU countries is also reported. (author)

55

An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: ?Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. ? Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. ? Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

56

Continuous thermochemical conversion process to produce oil from swine manure  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermochemical conversion (TCC) of livestock manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. A batch TCC system that was previously developed successfully converted 70% of swine manure volatile solids to oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by ??? 75%. The necessary retention time to achieve an oil product was largely dependent on the operating temperature. The highest oil production efficiency was 80% of the volatile solids (or 70 wt % of the total solids). The average carbon and hydrogen contents were ??? 72 and 9%, respectively. The heating values for 80% of the oil products ranged from 32,000 to 36,700 kJ/kg. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition (Indianapolis, IN 6/22-25/2004).

Ocfemia, K.; Zhang, Y.; Funk, T.; Christianson, L.; Chen, S.

2004-01-01

57

DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditio...

Nourah Al Yousef

2013-01-01

58

Oil producing communities demand royalties from E and P companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing levels of the activities of oil exploration and producing (E and P) companies especially in the Niger delta region of Nigeria has led to a significant loss of habitat sometimes with disastrous environmental consequences. Compensations are seldom paid to victims of this process. Some communities now see the need to be paid royalties for oil drilled from their communities by E and P companies

59

Case study : producing heavy oil of Intercampo oilfield, Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Intercampo oil field in Venezuela is characterized by strong heterogeneity, substantial differentials in physical properties, middle-heavy crude oil, edge water and bottom water. Horizontal well technology has been used in the field to produce heavy and extra heavy oil for the past 3 years. Sand production has been the main problem. Forecasting sand production and the optimization of completion methods are therefore of great importance. This paper proposed a new sand control strategy and sand control technology that helps operators successfully overcome sand control challenges for horizontal well completions. Advanced well completion methods and optimized artificial lift technology have been used in horizontal wells in the Intercampo oil field. The target oil production rate was achieved because the new methods reduce pressure losses and improve well productivity for pre-packed screen tubing or other sand tubing with gravel packing. Combination sand control technologies (CSCT) include slotted liners, standalone and expandable screens, and gravel packs, including open hole, cased hole and frac packs. CSCT has met all necessary requirements of heavy oil production and has also provide for more effective and economical production. Since 1998, low API gravity heavy oil has been developed successfully and has been kept sand free for over 10 years. Good economic profit has been obtained because of long sand control life and high oil production rate in the reservoir. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

Dou, H.; Chen, H.; Chang, Y. [PetroChina, Langfang (China). RIPED

2009-07-01

60

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges. [With particular reference to Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author).

Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A. (PETRONAS (MY))

1992-01-01

61

Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

62

Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude poteat there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

63

Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

64

The closure of European nuclear power plants: a commercial opportunity for the gas-producing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The planned closure of nuclear power plants in Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands and their hypothetical closure in the United Kingdom and Switzerland - two countries where this question remains open - will require their replacement by other types of production capacity, mainly gas turbine combined-cycle power stations (GTCCs). The increase in efficiency of GTCCs and the lower carbon content of natural gas favour the use of gas for electricity generation over coal. However, carbon dioxide emissions are unavoidable and, in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, supplementary measures must be taken to compensate, where possible, for the resulting increases in emissions. The replacement of nuclear plants with a 35-40 year lifetime by up-to-date GTCCs will require some 62 billion cubic metres per year of natural gas, resulting in an emissions increase of about 130 million tonnes per year of CO2. The replacement of polluting coal-fired and oil-fired plants by GTCCs will reduce CO2 emissions, but will also require some extra 42 bcm/y of natural gas, at an (unrealistic) high cost. In short, gas-producing countries will benefit from the market breakthrough of their 'clean' fuel, thanks to the GTCCs, and gas demand will be reinforced by the abandonment of nuclear power. (author)

65

A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions  

OpenAIRE

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.

2013-01-01

66

Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

67

The future of National Oil Companies in Exporting Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of national oil companies depends basically on their ability to get integrated in the international oil industry. The first problem to be raised is the nature of the firm. Then the strategies conducted by the companies and the states are reviewed. (Author)

68

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis...Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular...or threatened with material injury by reason of subsidized imports...Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective...

2013-08-22

69

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry...Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular...

2013-07-10

70

The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

71

The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

Lizardi, Carlos Guerrero de; Padilla-Perez, Ramon [Focal (Canada)

2010-11-15

72

Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced. PMID:24002524

Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

2013-01-01

73

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns  

OpenAIRE

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of resi...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.; Rodrigues, L. R.

2013-01-01

74

CAPRI-downhole catalytic process for upgrading heavy oil : produced oil properties and composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted in which various analytical methods were used to examine the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) process and its catalytic variant, the CAPRI process. The objective was to determine the level to which these in situ processes can upgrade Wolf Lake heavy oil. The study involved the use of gas chromatography, elemental analysis, simulated distillation, micro activity test, and density and viscosity testing of an oil produced from the CAPRI process. The analytical measurements provided a good indication of what the potential might be for downhole upgrading in the reservoir. CAPRI produces a light oil, with low viscosity. It was determined that the produced oil can be easily converted into gasoline and diesel fractions with a higher conversion compared to what could be obtained with normal virgin bitumen vacuum gas oil. It was also shown that there are significant environmental benefits related to in situ removal of heavy metals and reduction of sulphur in the oil. 8 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

Greaves, M.; Xia, T. [Bath Univ., Bath, England (United Kingdom)

2001-06-01

75

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

76

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries

77

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

78

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. PMID:19505758

Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

2009-10-30

79

More countries in recession: Oil supply looking for demand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation.

1993-01-18

80

More countries in recession: Oil supply looking for demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation

81

A novel and innovative process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands extraction by adsorption (OSEAD) was created in October 2006 to develop an innovative hydrocarbon extraction technology from oil sands. It has since grown by taking control of a lead, zinc and silver mine in Morocco. This paper discussed the novel and innovative OSEAD process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil. The paper provided a description of the oil sand samples and discussed lab testing. The adsorption and desorption phases were both outlined. The main properties of the agent were identified. A summary of the test work results was also presented. The optimized OSEAD process includes an ore preparation step involving mixing of oil sand and water at ambient temperature; an adsorption step involving addition of agent to the sand/water mix; a phase separation step; a desorption step; and a tailings treatment step. It was concluded that the laboratory test work performed on Canadian oil sands is conclusive in demonstrating the capacity of the OSEAD process to efficiently adsorb heavy and viscous hydrocarbon at ambient temperature and with limited amount of water addition. 11 figs., 1 appendix.

Denivelle, C. [OSEAD, Paris (France); Fourt, J.F. [Truffle Capital, Paris (France)

2009-07-01

82

Ecological factors in selecting technological processes for producing base oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Besides a comparison and evaluation of the technological and economic conditions, the selection of a technological process for the production of base oils requires an examination of ecological factors. The heightened development of industry is fraught with environmental contamination and therefore in building each new industrial plant an ecological part of the project is performed, in which proof is cited that the entry of the new plant into operation will not lead to environmental contamination. The processes of producing base oils are compared in volume and composition of the wastes and according to their harmful effect on the environment. From a comparison of the examined processes, it is possible to conclude that the process of two staged hydropurification from an ecological perspective is the most suitable since a minimum level of environmental pollution is achieved when it is combined with waste gas and water purification processes.

Puric, V.; Cizmic, V.; Meles, A.; Podkrajsek, M.

1983-01-01

83

Process for producing a lubricating oil from a residual feedstock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the process for producing a lubricating oil from a residual feedstock the petroleum residuum is subjected to deasphalting with propane at 60-90/sup 0/, deparaffination to a preset pour point, and hydrorefining on a catalyst of Ni-Mo or Co-Mo on aluminum oxide at 320-370/sup 0/ and a H/sub 2/ partial pressure of 4-7 MPa. Example -- the feedstock is a vacuum residue from Romashkin petroleum with the following properties: density 1022 kg/m/sup 3/ at 20/sup 0/, viscosity 304 cSt/100/sup 0/, softening point 40/sup 0/, coking residue 14.7%. Deasphalting with propane was carried out at a temperature at the top of the column of 88/sup 0/ and at the bottom of the column of 75/sup 0/, a pressure in the column of 3.8 MPa, and a propane: feedstock volume ratio of 7:1. After deparaffination with an acetone-toluene mixture to a pour point of -12/sup 0/ the feedstock was subjected to hydrorefining on a Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 345/sup 0/, a H/sub 2/ partial pressure of 5 MPa, and a space rate of 1 h-/sup 1/. A raffinate with the following properties is obtained: density 904.1 kg/m/sup 3/ at 20/sup 0/, viscosity 165.3 cSt/50/sup 0/, 20.14 cST/100/sup 0/ viscosity index 81, flash point (open crucible) 258/sup 0/, pour point -8/sup 0/, coking residue 0.42%, and aniline point 105.2/sup 0/. The resulting oil can be used for preparing compressor oils, as a base oil for preparing viscous motor oils, and the like.

Nater, P.; Bucko, M.; Kabes, V.; Kopernicky, I.; Kotek, J.; Kukel, J.; Revus, M.; Runa, A.; Smid, J.; Toman, V.

1980-09-15

84

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-onsistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

85

Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

86

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

Unknown

2003-04-30

87

Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ? Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ? Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

88

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

89

Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

90

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

91

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Ireland 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Ireland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

92

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

93

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

94

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

95

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

96

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

97

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

98

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

99

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

100

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

101

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

102

Oil spill hazards at the upstream level: a risk management paradigm for a developing country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper documents the experience of recent oil spills internationally and in Nigeria and proposes an appropriate system of risk management. In the best of circumstances, externality problems are difficult to handle; they are even worse in developing countries with weak sociopolitical institutions and where transnational companies tend to have lower operating standards. Typically, a company would invest in spill prevention up to the point where the marginal benefit just equals marginal costs. In a situation where spill detection and clean up enforcement are weak, as is the case in many developing countries, investment in prevention will tend to be low. Consequently, an insurance-type oil spill contingency fund, financed through an oil tax, is proposed. (author)

103

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale  

OpenAIRE

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using mi...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.

2012-01-01

104

Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

105

Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a s approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

106

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

2011-12-01

107

Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In generally, there is a phenomenon of “free rider” in the establishment of national oil reserves for different countries, which means that they have the tendency of underestimating the strategic oil reserves. This paper attempts to explain this phenomenon from the perspective of non-cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice.

yang, junan; Cong, Ronggang

2014-01-01

108

EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the 'EIA vocabulary' eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their 'Eastern' counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

109

The impact of oil prices on GDP in European countries: An empirical investigation based on asymmetric cointegration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the existence of a long-term relationship between oil prices and GDP in 12 European countries. To account for the fact that economic activity responds asymmetrically to oil price shocks, we propose an approach based on asymmetric cointegration. Our results show that, while standard cointegration is rejected, there is evidence for asymmetric cointegration between oil prices and GDP in the majority of the considered European countries

110

Enhanced oil recovery under laboratory conditions using biosurfactant-producing microorganisms  

OpenAIRE

Oil recovery comprises a primary phase, which produces oil using the natural pressure drive of the reservoir, and a secondary phase, which includes the injection of water to improve the flow of oil to the wellhead [1,2]. While primary recovery produces 5-10% of the original oil in place, recovery efficiencies in the secondary stage vary from 10% to 40% [1]. Most of the unrecovered oil (up to two-thirds of the total oil reserves) is trapped in the reservoir pores by high capillary forces [2]. ...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.

2011-01-01

111

Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles. (author)

112

Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles. (author)

Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2008-05-15

113

Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

114

77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-02-14

115

77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-04-02

116

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

117

The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains. Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity and costs associated with the certification. Small honey producers associations were not able to fulfil some of the FLOCERT criteria. The criterion relating to the preservation of the environment is only partially met by the associations studied.

Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.

118

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

2013-10-15

119

Producing electricity from Israel oil shale with PFBC technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of Israeli oil shale combustion at atmospheric pressure in the AFBC commercial boiler manufactured by Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Finland) and in the pressurized test facility of ABB Carbon AB (Finspong, Sweden) confirm suitability of fluidized-bed technologies in case of oil shale. The results approve possibility to use the PFBC technology in case of oil shale after solving of some problems connected with great amounts of fine fly ash. (author)

120

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of resumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

121

Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

122

The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

123

Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlinedlined

124

Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

125

The formation of stable dispersions of crude oil and produced water: The influence of oil type, wax & asphaltene content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constituents in oil can have a major influence on the separation of mixtures with produced water. In most cases this results in a reduction in the separation rate and the capacity of separation trains. In this paper the effects of wax, asphaltene content and water cut on the separation of different oils are examined.

Davies, G.A.; Nilsen, F.P.; Gramme, P.E.

1996-12-31

126

The impact of oil price increases on the market for nuclear power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 1973, the Agency concluded a market survey of nuclear power in fourteen selected developing countries throughout the world. The results of this survey have been reported in fourteen country reports and a general report and also in a summary report presented at the Seventeenth Regular Session of the Agency's General Conference. These results indicate that in the fourteen countries surveyed, about 60,000 MW(e) of nuclear plant capacity might be put into operation during the period 1980 to 1989. Most of this nuclear capacity would be in the form of units of 600 MW(e) or larger since under the assumed economic conditions, nuclear units in the 200-400 MW(e) size range were generally found to be uneconomical compared to oil-fired plants. (author)

127

Energy efficiency developments in IEA countries 30 years after the oil crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents findings from a study that examines how energy efficiency and factors such as economic structure, income, lifestyle, climate, prices and fuel mix have shaped developments in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries since the first oil price shock in 1973. The results show that IEA countries have made significantly progress in energy efficiency since 1973. However an alarming finding is that energy savings rates across all sectors and in almost all countries have slowed since the late 1980s. This indicates that the oil price shocks in the 1970s and the resulting energy policies did considerably more to control growth in energy demand and CO2 emissions than energy efficiency and climate policies implemented in the 1990s. Energy price developments offer some explanation of these long-term trends. The lower prices that followed the high price period of 1973-1986, combined with the fact that energy intensities were already significantly reduced resulted in considerably lower energy expenditures for both industry and private consumers from the mid 1980s. The energy share of total production cost in some industries fell by as much as 50% from the early 1980s until the late 1990s. Similarly, the share of energy costs for stationary uses in IEA household budgets fell by 20-50% over the same period, while the fuel cost per kilometre driven by private cars fell between 20% and 60%, depending on the country. The slowing rate of energ on the country. The slowing rate of energy efficiency improvements is the primary reason for the weaker decoupling of CO2 emissions from GDP growth since 1990. Failing to accelerate improvement of energy efficiency would thus have serious implications for many countries prospects of controlling growth in future emissions

128

Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent. Integrated treatment system is vital for treating palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent.

A.Y. Zahrim

2014-01-01

129

Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

2010-05-04

130

Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery. PMID:20652442

She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

2011-01-01

131

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01

132

Sbaa basin: A new oil-producing regino in Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discovery of a paraffinic oil in 1980 in the Adrar area, the west part of the Algerian Sahara within the Sbaa half-graben depression, opens a new oil- and gas-bearing region in Algeria. The oil and gas fields are located on highly faulted structures generated by differential movements of basement blocks. Oil deposits are connected with tidal sandy sediments of Strunian and Tournaisian age and occur at depths of 500 to 1,000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft). Gas and wet gas deposits are related to sandstone reservoirs of Cambrian-Ordovician age at depths of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,920 to 6,562 ft).

Baghdadli, S.M.

1988-08-01

133

Oil Price Effects on Economic Growth : A Comparison between the BRIC countries and the Western World  (G7)  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether economic growth in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) can be explained by changes in the oil price, with a focus on selected macroeconomic variables. We will also investigate if there are any differences in oil price effects on economic growth between the BRIC countries and the western world (G7). The model used is a Koyck transformation model developed by Leendert Marinus Koyck in 1954, which converts a distributed lag mo...

Nilsson, Andreas; Sundqvist, Adam

2010-01-01

134

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

135

Causes of cost overrun in construction projects in developing countries: Gas-oil construction industry of Iran, a case study  

OpenAIRE

Cost overrun in construction projects is a common issue affecting project performance, and Gas-Oil construction projects in Iran are no exception. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire conducted to identify and evaluate the relative importance of the significant factors contributing to the Gas-Oil construction industry of Iran as a case study for developing countries. The survey respondents included project owners, contractors and consultants involved in Iranian Gas-Oil construct...

Derakhshanalavijeh, Roya; Teixeira, Jos M. Cardoso

2014-01-01

136

Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

2008-07-01

137

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

2006-01-01

138

Oil prices, inflation and interest rates in a structural cointegrated VAR model for the G-7 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices, and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) a stationary money demand, as suggested by the classic theory of money, can be identified for most countries; ii) according to the estimated coefficients of the structural part of the model, for all countries except Japan and U.K. the null hypothesis of an influence of oil prices on the inflation rate cannot be rejected. Inflation rate shocks are transmitted to the real economy by increasing interest rates; iii) impulse response analysis suggests, for most countries, the existence of an instantaneous, temporary effect of oil price innovations on prices; iv) impulse response functions indicate different monetary policy reactions to inflationary and growth shocks; v) the simulation exercises directed to estimate the total impact of the 1990 oil price shock indicate that for some countries (U.S.) a significant part of the effects of the oil price shock is due to the monetary policy reaction function. For other countries (Caneaction function. For other countries (Canada, France and Italy), however, the total impact is offset, at least in part, by an easing of monetary conditions. (author)

139

The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also lint only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

140

Cost effectiveness of palm oil in comparison to other oils and fats in the country with special emphasis on lower income group  

OpenAIRE

Fats and oils in the form of vegetable oils are integral part of diet and comprise of an important source of calorie density and micronutrients in human diet. The per capita edible oil consumption in India (14.5 kg in 2012-2013) has been steadily rising over the decades but is still short of the average worldwide consumption in the developed countries. Especially the below poverty line population lags far behind in terms of per capita edible oil consumption and therefore is a major reason for...

Singh, R. P.

2014-01-01

141

Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

2011-01-01

142

78 FR 4125 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petitioner''), a domestic producer and Petitioner in the underlying investigation of this case, and Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``WSP''), a producer of subject merchandise from the People's Republic of China...

2013-01-18

143

Optimal design of a novel oil-water separator for raw oil produced from ASP flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil recovery can be greatly enhanced with the ASP (Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer) flooding technology by increasing sweeping efficiency and displacing efficiency. But the emulsification of the residual chemical in the recovered oil from ASP flooding makes it very difficult to separate water from oil. To make the oil-water separation of ASP products more efficient to meet the discharge standards, some improvements need to be made on regular oil-water separators. Based on the physical properties of ASP products in Daqing Oilfield, novel packing and newly designed Crude oil-water separator are studied in this paper. Orthogonal test is used to optimize the design of the novel separator, including the structure and material of coalescent packing, as well as the operating conditions. Experiment results suggest that the separation efficiency of the new type separator is higher than 98%. Both the outlet oil phase and the water phase have met the corresponding standards. Oil concentration in the discharge water is reduced to 600 mg L{sup -} {sup 1} and average drop size is about 6 {mu}m. It can be easily concluded that the new type separator has a better performance on the oil-water separation of ASP products. At the end of this paper, the drop size distribution (DSD) in the outlet water is analyzed to provide data for the wastewater treatment process following the crude oil-water separation. (author)

Zhang, Lu-hong; Zhang, Dan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Hai-tao; Xu, Li-juan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Distillation Technology, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

2007-11-15

144

On the feasibility of monetary union among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: does the symmetry of shocks extend to the non-oil sector?  

OpenAIRE

GCC countries’ output is heavily dichotomized into oil and non-oil. Oil shocks have similar effects on all member countries but little is known about their responses to non-oil shocks. This paper sets out to determine (1) whether aggregate demand (AD) and non-oil supply shocks (AS) are symmetrical across these countries to justify their suitability for monetary union; and (2) whether there is any commonality of shocks with the United States and the three major European countries, namely Fra...

Louis, Rosmy; Balli, Faruk; Osman, Mohammad

2008-01-01

145

Monetary Union Among Arab Gulf Cooperation Council (AGCC) Countries: Does the symmetry of shocks extend to the non-oil sector?  

OpenAIRE

AGCC countries' output is heavily dichotomized into oil and non-oil. The oil shocks have similar effects on all member countries but little is known about their responses to non-oil shocks. This paper sets out to determine whether (1) aggregate demand (AD) and non-oil supply shocks (AS) are symmetrical across these countries to justify their suitability for monetary union; and (2) whether there is any commonality of shocks with the United States and the three major European countries, namely ...

Louis, Rosmy; Balli, Faruk; Osman, Mohammad

2008-01-01

146

THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point characterizes natural resources, especially of oil and mining of precious metals. Therefore, we can say that the power exerted on natural resources determines the ranking of countries of the world economic power and living standards of the population. Use of natural resources as an effective weapon in the economic consolidation became state policy and the expansion of exploration and exploitation in foreign lands required the development of complex regulations. Therefore, this study aims at presenting an analytic perspective of foreign law - specific states with relevant impact on the exploitation of natural resources - and the presentation of some features of international law.

C?t?lina Georgeta DINU

2014-05-01

147

Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry.

Samek, O.; Zemánek, P.; Jonáš, A.; Telle, H. H.

2011-10-01

148

Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry

149

75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

...of residual oil above the levels...assumed in our analysis. According...provide in our analysis for biodiesel-produced...glycerin co-product produced from...of different markets with different...residual oil, diesel fuel, natural gas,...

2010-09-28

150

Potential use of produced oil sample analysis to monitor SAGD performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil viscosity and compositional gradients can affect the performance of steam injection recovery processes. In this study, reservoir simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of viscosity variation with depth on steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes and produced oil characteristics. The 2-D reservoir model consisted of a reservoir with a 40 m clean sand matrix, overtopped with interbedded shales and sand. The oil phase was comprised of 2 pseudo-components representing top and bottom bitumens. Viscosities and concentrations of the pseudo-components were calculated using linear mixing rules. Four different viscosity distribution scenarios were examined. Conceptual 3-D models were then constructed to examine the characteristics of produced oil samples in scenarios with shale barriers extending down the well directions and blocking parts of the reservoir. Results from the simulations showed that produced oil characteristics are related to the in situ profiles of reservoir flow barriers. Produced oil characteristics can be used in conjunction with oil rates, surface heave and other data to predict steam chamber development and detect the presence of baffles and barriers. The relationship between the SAGD steam chamber and variations in produced fluid characteristics were accurately characterized by the simulations. It was concluded that the approach can be used to monitor SAGD steam chamber growth. 10 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

Li, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Nexen Petroleum International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wollen, C. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[OPTI-Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yang, P.; Fustic, M. [Nexen Petroleum International, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-10-15

151

Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

FLAVIA POP

152

Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

153

Epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These ?-lactamases hydrolyse almost all ?-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination. PMID:24955354

Djahmi, Nassima; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Pantel, Alix; Dekhil, Mazouz; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

154

Detection of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the baltic countries and st. Petersburg area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the bla NDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Pai, Kristiine; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

2014-01-01

155

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

David B. Burnett

2004-09-29

156

Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production. PMID:21353534

Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

2011-04-01

157

Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author)

158

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

David B. Burnett

2005-09-29

159

WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muço, 1984; Osmani, 1993, considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in using Albanian olive oils, because of the absence of quality norms. In this frame one of the possible solutions will be the promotion of the olive oil as a territory product.(PDO, PGI

Etleva Muca(Dashi

2012-10-01

160

Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg?1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg?1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de saponificación ligeramente inferiores y altos valores de índice de yodo en comparación con VCNO. La composición en ácido láurico (55,8%, ácidos grasos de cadena media (69,65% y triglicéridos de cadena media (59.27% fueron significativamente mayores en VCNO. Los fitoesteroles, compuestos fenólicos y tocoferoles + tocoferoles fueron 83,7; 54,9 y 81,4 mg; 9,4; 1,8 y 2,1 mg; 4,9; 2,8 y 4,0 mg, para UCNOs, VCNO y RBDCNO, respectivamente, siendo para los aceites UCNOs significativamente mayores que para VCNO y RBDCNO. Estos resultados mostraron que UCNOs tienen más fitonutrientes en comparación con VCNO y RBDCNO.

Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

2015-03-01

161

Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

Wynn, L. K.

1985-01-01

162

Oil Prices, Inflation and Interest Rates in a Structural Cointegrated VAR Model for the G-7 Countries  

OpenAIRE

Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. While several authors have considered the direct channels of transmission of energy price increases, other authors have argued that the economic downturns arose from the monetary policy response to the inflation pre...

Manera, Matteo; Cologni, Alessandro

2005-01-01

163

Oil, a dream comes true. 1; Abudabi no sekiyushi. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first half part of the oil history in Abu Dhabi was summarized. Abu Dhabi became a member of oil-producing countries in 1962, which is far behind 1859 when the oil industry was born. The reasons why countries along the Persian Gulf became members of oil-producing countries with a delay are the intervention of World War, a severe natural environment, the fact that the oil production could not be predicted, etc. The history of oil development in the mid-east region by the time Abu Dhabi became the oil-producing country is overviewed. First, Iran came to produce oil, where an Englishman acquired the oil concession in 1901. The accumulated amount of production from the first oil field in the mid-east (current NIOC) exceeds 1.4 billion barrels. Then, Iraq became the member of oil-producing countries, and the conflict for developing oil at the beginning of the 20th century between England and Germany was fierce. A huge Kirkuk oil field with 6 billion barrels of minable oil reserve was found by the geology investigation in 1925. Late comers to oil-producing countries are Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and neutral zones in the chronological order. It took 45 years from the time Iran first began to produce oil to the time when oil is developed at the neutral zone. It took additional five years before Abu Dhabi joined the member of oil-producing countries. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Iwasa, S.

1995-06-01

164

Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO2 per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

165

[Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].  

Science.gov (United States)

A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion. PMID:21229744

Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

2010-10-01

166

A Long-Run Dynamic Analysis of FDI, Growth and Oil Export in GCC Countries: An Evidence from VECM Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates a long-run dynamic relationship of GDP, crude oil export and FDI inflows in GCC countries; The United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait. The methodology adopted is based on Error Correction Model (VECM which involves 195 stationary balanced observations over the period 2000-2010. Two major objectives were tested, which are; Impulse response function and Variance Decomposition method. The empirical analysis shows that a shock of FDI inflows will cause a parallel negative influence on the oil export and GDP.  As well as FDI inflows are highly linked to GDP compared to oil export. 

Ahmed Saddam

2014-03-01

167

Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

2000-01-12

168

Industrialized countries and the oil price crisis: how are they coping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ways in which Japan, France, the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the German Federal Republic reacted to the 1973 oil crisis were surveyed. The contrasts in their individual responses to this situation were very sharp, putting in the background the few collective measures agreed to in the OECD and in the International Monetary Fund. Each country's response can be seen to have been shaped by its intellectual tradition, by its resources, and by its total geo-political and geo-economic situation. The author concludes that ''France turned to its diplomats and its arms salesmen, using flair and its new-found economic dynamism; Germany left the field to the big guns of its heavy industry, still keeping its head down politically; Japan decided it was a matter of discipline, and of adjusting policy towards a greater emphasis on social goals; the United States behaved like the super power it is. All of these countries decided to tighten belts at home. Britain alone went off on an expansionary tack, because its economists and Chancellors wanted to show the world the way forward, and because of the bias towards expansionism that has been the hallmark of its economic policy, and the reason for its low growth, since the war.'' (MCW)

Pringle, R.

1975-03-01

169

The strategic interaction between the government and international oil companies in the UK: An example of a country with dwindling hydrocarbon reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 2011 UK tax rise on hydrocarbon exploitation activities obviously increases short term tax revenues however the longer term effects are less clear. The strategic interaction between the UK government, a producer and a shipper has been analyzed in a game theoretical model. A complex interaction between players is expected given (1) dwindling resources and large decommissioning liabilities and (2) the fact that much of the hydrocarbons produced in the North Sea are exported through an infrastructure with shared ownership. The 2011 UK tax adjustment will most likely result in value destruction for the government, producers and shippers. Our analysis suggests that governments are unlikely to ultimately benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities at the expense of International Oil Companies. In countries with unstable tax regimes, such as the UK, International Oil Companies will adopt their strategies in anticipation of future tax changes. Their adopted strategy is a function of decommissioning liabilities and remaining reserves as well as whether they are producers, shippers or producers and shippers. The ultimate payoff of a government is a function of the remaining reserves and total decommissioning liabilities, but also depends on the distribution of these value metrics between producers and shippers. - Highlights: ? The 2011 UK hydrocarbon tax increase is likely to cause overall value destruction. ? Governments are unlikely to benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities. ? Differences in payoff functions of producers and shippers control the game. ? The distribution of reserves and decommissioning cost is a key factor in the game

170

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

2001-06-15

171

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower thaase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

172

Prediction of the antioxidant activity of extra virgin olive oils produced in the Mediterranean area.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemical characterisation was conducted on 75 commercial extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) produced in the years 2011-2012 in Southern Italy from five different olive monovarieties (Coratina, Leccino, Maiatica, Ogliarola del Vulture and Ogliarola del Bradano). The possibility of estimating the antioxidant activity of EVOO by using a chemical index as predictor of this property was considered. In order to build up and validate an antioxidant activity predictive model, the relationship between the antioxidant activity and the chosen chemical parameters was systematically investigated. The results indicated that oil antioxidant activity, measured as IC50, could be satisfactorily predicted, for olive oils from the considered region, by using a simple index, such as the K225 value of oil samples, which represents a spectrophotometric index of the compounds responsible for oil bitterness measured at 225nm. PMID:25660881

Condelli, Nicola; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Galgano, Fernanda; Russo, Daniela; Milella, Luigi; Favati, Fabio

2015-06-15

173

Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a majorigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

174

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

Kanokrat Saisa-ard

2014-04-01

175

Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review  

OpenAIRE

Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm o...

Zahrim, A. Y.

2014-01-01

176

Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty o price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

177

Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs  

OpenAIRE

This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

Lei, Guowen

2012-01-01

178

Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de Chromobacterium mientras que los más polares se obtienen usando las preparaciones de lipasa de hongo «Lilipase A-10». La polaridad del producto está también influenciada por la temperatura del proceso aunque la forma de su efecto es distinta para las diferentes lipasas.

Zaher, F. A.

1998-12-01

179

The Causal Relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index: Empirical Evidence from Selected European Countries  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index for the five selected European countries, using seasonally adjusted monthly data from August 1995 to December 2007. Toda and Yamamoto causality test (1995) are employed to investigate causality. The results indicate that there is a unidirectional causality between producer price index and consumer price index, running from producer price index to consumer price index in Finlan...

Akcay, Selcuk

2011-01-01

180

The use of flotation technology in produced water treatment in the oil & gas industry  

OpenAIRE

Produced water quality has become an increasingly large area of concern for the oil production industry. A great deal of scientific research has been carried out to determine the consequences of long term exposure of produced water on the environment. Some of this research has given alarming results. It is reported that some of the toxic components in produced water may cause irreversible damage to the surrounding environment. Because of this potential risk, very considerable efforts are bein...

Atarah, Justine Justice Apegase

2011-01-01

181

Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os óleos florais como recompensa a polinizadores estão presentes em onze famílias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na história evolutiva das plantas floríferas. Estes são produzidos em glândulas tricomáticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de óleo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas espé [...] cies produtoras de óleo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espécies nos gêneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que não produz óleo floral. Nós apresentamos uma revisão de todas as espécies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuição geográfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de óleo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de óleo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinização bem-sucedida, sendo a interação entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptação abelha/planta na Região Neotropical. Algumas espécies dependem somente do óleo coletado em espécies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras também podem coletar em várias fontes de óleos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glândulas de óleo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que são em sua maioria espécies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaçados biomas de vegetação aberta da América do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

2013-12-01

182

Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers [...] for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP) and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

Izabel Cristina da Silva, Grem; Bianca Natividade Barreto, Lima; Wiliam Ferreira, Carneiro; Yure Gomes de Carvalho, Queirós; Claudia Regina Elias, Mansur.

183

A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

2011-07-01

184

Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

Burnham, A K

2003-08-20

185

Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

186

The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

187

Light-gravity crude oil is produced in the Gulf of Suez mine property; Suezuwankoku de keishitsu genyu wo sanshutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TEIKOKU OIL announced that an output of crude oil 3114BPD and natural gas NISSAN 270000m{sup 3} was confirmed from the trial pit No.1 well in Gulf of Suez girth Ashrahy mine property (Egypt zight bay northeast 4 km) in Egypt which the TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum invested with Japan National Oil Corp. on 10th has participated. 60% and TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum possess 40% on interests of this mine property in IEOC Co.. The oil quality of the crude oil which produces this time is 43.5 degrees and light type in the API. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-07-01

188

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27

189

Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

Oluduro, Olubayo

2012-12-01

190

Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifyture research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

191

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21

192

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale

193

Arab petroleum stakes: Big lucks and big risks for producers countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actually, four among ten exported petroleum barrels come from Arab countries, in ten years it will be six among ten barrels which will come from Arab countries. But to be beneficial these export increase must be accompanied by a prices increase. It is not actually the case because of the Usa position which prefer a cheap petroleum, but it would be necessary to put right prices until $28/barrel from here until 2000

194

The formation of Stable Dispersions of Crude oil and Produced Water: The Influence of Oil Type, Wax and Asphaltene Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constituents in oil can have a major influence on the separation of mixtures with produced water. In most cases this results in a reduction in the separation rate and the capacity of separation trains. In this paper the effects of wax, asphaltene content and water cut on the separation of different oils are examined. The principle conclusion is the importance of water concentration in the feed mixture entering a separator train. The phase composition has an overriding influence on the nature of the dispersion, particularly the drop size distribution. For each oil tested, there was a critical water cut below which very little separation was accomplished. This critical water cut increased as the operating temperature decreased in line with theoretical predictions. This parameter was observed to increase rapidly as the operating temperature decreased below the wax appearance temperature. Wax stabilizes the dispersion. A similar effect on stability of dispersions was observed when asphaltenes were present in the oil phase. The control of the water concentration in the feed mixture at or slightly above the critical water cut is proposed as a desirable factor to optimize the separation. 7 refs., 18 figs., 1 table

Davies, G.A.; Nilsen, F.P.; Gramme, P.E.

1996-12-31

195

Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

196

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29

197

WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probable candidate for financial crisis.

Nadhem Selmi

2014-04-01

198

Impact on world oil prices when larger and fewer producers emerge from a political restructuring of the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate how a redistribution of oil reserves among a (probably reduced) set of producers affects OPEC's oil extraction policies and thus international crude oil-prices. The empirical investigation shows that this impact is fairly small, as long as OPEC members do not cooperate. Only cooperation will have a substantial impact. (author)

199

Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

200

Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister: Address to US independent producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of Energy Detente is designed to promote better understanding of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) through its self-image and its view of the world. The OPEC News Agency coverage and other OPEC materials are tapped to illustrate some key points in a speech about energy security from Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister. This paper from His Excellency Ibrahim M. Nazer is offered in an effort to share his message from the world's largest oil exporter to the world's largest oil consumer. This issue also provides selected statistics and statements from OPEC, both to put Saudi Arabia's statements in context of its commitment to OPEC and to reveal the striking similarity between the country's and the organization's positions. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the U.S. Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of March 23, 1990; Hemisphere, March 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

1990-04-06

201

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Litsea cubeba seed to produce bio-oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Litsea cubeba seed was conducted over different temperature (250-350°C), time (30-120 min), reactor loading (0.5-4.5 g) and Na2CO3 loading (0-10 wt.%). Temperature was the most influential factor affecting the yields of product fractions. The highest bio-oil yield of 56.9 wt.% was achieved at 290°C, 60 min, and reactor loading of 2.5 g. The presence of Na2CO3 favored the conversion of the feedstock but suppressed the production of bio-oil. The higher heating values of the bio-oil were estimated at around 40.8 MJ/kg. The bio-oil, which mainly consisted of toluene, 1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-benzene, fatty acids, fatty acid amides, and fatty acid esters, had a smaller total acid number than that of the oil obtained from the direct extraction of the starting material. It also contained nitrogen that was far below the bio-oil produced from the HTL of microalgae, making it more suitable for the subsequent refining. PMID:24140857

Wang, Feng; Chang, Zhoufan; Duan, Peigao; Yan, Weihong; Xu, Yuping; Zhang, Lei; Miao, Juan; Fan, Yunchang

2013-12-01

202

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

1996-02-01

203

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

Charles Ogugua Nwuche

2011-02-01

204

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered [...] (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Charles Ogugua, Nwuche; James Chukwuma, Ogbonna.

2011-02-01

205

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

OpenAIRE

In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Charles Ogugua Nwuche; James Chukwuma Ogbonna

2011-01-01

206

A study of the effect of pumps and desanding cyclones on oil droplets in produced water  

OpenAIRE

The production of petroleum resources includes co-producing water. This water contains oilproducts and needs to be treated before discharge to sea or re-injection into the reservoir. Theamount of produced water increases with the age of a field, as does often the amount of solids.The pressure of the reservoirs will decrease with time.The primary equipment for treating produced water is the hydro cyclone. It’s operated with alower limit with regards to oil droplet size of ~10 ?m although sm...

Vikan, Anne Marie Haugnes

2011-01-01

207

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2008-08-15

208

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

209

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90 in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 µm were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

HELMAR SCHUBERT

2000-11-01

210

Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

1993-07-01

211

A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs.

Ball, C.

2005-09-01

212

Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

2011-05-15

213

Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. ? Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. ? The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. ? Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. ? The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow impr, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

214

Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of???1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

2014-01-01

215

Potential impact of production chemicals on the toxicity of produced water discharges from North Sea oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production chemicals are used on offshore oil production platforms to prevent corrosion and scale formation, and to assist oil-water separation. A proportion of these chemicals may enter the marine environment via the produced water discharge. This study investigated the potential impact of 11 oil field production chemicals on the toxicity of the produced water discharge. The Microtox(r) system was used for toxicity assessment of the chemicals, both directly in aqueous preparations and following their partitioning between oil (crude and low toxicity mineral base oil) and North Sea brine. For the majority of the chemicals tested, the toxicity of the aqueous phase to the test organism following partitioning against crude oil, was not significantly altered by the presence of process chemicals when used in their normal field dosage concentrations. However, there was evidence that certain chemicals could increase the partitioning of oil components into the aqueous phase by an order of magnitude, when applied at high dosage concentrations. (Author)

216

Energy security. The external legal relations of the European Union with energy producing countries  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyzes in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy. T...

Haghighi, Sanam Salem

2006-01-01

217

Energy consumption, emissions and economic growth in an oil producing country  

OpenAIRE

This study is aimed to examine the causal relationship between economic growth, energy consumption and emissions in Bahrain. As required by the Kyoto Protocol where Bahrain has ratified in 2006, it is to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study uses Toda and Yamamoto’s (1995) approach to investigate the relationship. The finding regarding the relationship is crucial as it will justify appropriate steps should be taken by Bahrain to reduce emissions without affecting her national ou...

Ismail, Mohd Adib; Mawar, Murni Yunus

2012-01-01

218

Drilling rigs for the oil industry produced by the Glinik factory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1983 marks the one hundredth anniversary of the Glinik factory for producing tunneling machines and drilling rigs in the city of Gorlica. The most important product of the plant is drilling rigs for the oil industry. A description and a characterization are cited of the drilling rigs of the impact type. Despite the fact that the midsixties saw a drop in the interest in impact type drilling rigs, today the plant continues to produce them in several altered and improved types. Basic attention is given to rotary type drilling rigs, the N16, N25 and N40, which have a maximum capacity of 500 to 2,000 kilonewtons. In order to demonstrate the design and productive capabilities of the plant, a brief listing of information is cited about the drilling rigs used in industries other than the oil industry.

Domiczek, J.; Olszanski, R.; Raczkowski, J.; Szostak, L.; Wolwowicz, R.

1983-01-01

219

Producing High Quality Edible Oil by using Eco-Friendly Technology: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of health and environmental issues specifically related to the use of chemical ingredients in foods both in producing processes and as a preservative agent has encouraged the emergence of non-chemically processed products on the market. This condition is predicted to continue increasing with high market response. This review will discuss some developments, surrounding the edible oil extraction and purification technology, including some alternative to substitute conventional solvent extraction in order to produce a chemically free edible oil product. Enzymatic and ultrasound assisted/pre-treatment in aqueous, cold pressing and supercritical fluid extraction will be highlighted, as well as adsorptive refining and other processes as an alternative for purification technology.

Noor A. Febrianto

2011-08-01

220

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

Unknown

2001-05-01

221

Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s), which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs...

Chima Jack-Osimiri

2011-01-01

222

Nitrogen Starvation Induced Oxidative Stress in an Oil-Producing Green Alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3  

OpenAIRE

Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N) starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM). Th...

Zhang, Yun-ming; Chen, Hui; He, Chen-liu; Wang, Qiang

2013-01-01

223

Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures  

OpenAIRE

Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 2...

Pillay, Avin E.; Salih, Fadhil M.; Maleek, Muthana I.

2010-01-01

224

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus  

OpenAIRE

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

EdlayneGonçalez; MarciaOrtiz MayoMarques; RobertoCarlosFelicio

2014-01-01

225

Evaluation of produced water toxicity from an oil maritime terminal through Skeletonema costatum toxicity tests  

OpenAIRE

The liquid effluent from an oil maritime terminal, with produced water as the main component, had its toxicity evaluated through toxicity tests with the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Two previously treated effluent samples (effluents A and B), were provided by PETROBRAS for the experiments. Both samples presented high salinity (67‰ for effluent A and 62‰ for effluent B) and low pH values (6.2), whereas total sulphide, phenol and nutrient content, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon c...

Elizabeth Aidar; Sigaud-kutner, Teresa C. S.; Bicega, Ma?rcia C.; Schinke, Katya P.; Gianesella, Sania M. F.; Braga, Elisabete S.

1999-01-01

226

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

Yi-Wei Lin

2012-07-01

227

Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid to SFO was investigated. FO contained the largest amount of PUFA and RFO the lowest. However, SFO had a higher PV initially and during storage at 2degreesC, whereas the PV of FO was highest during storage at 20degreesC. The level of volatile oxidation products was highest in SFO during the entire storage period, and off-flavors were more pronounced in SFO. The lower oxidative stability of SFO was probably related to theinitially lower quality (regarding oxidation products), which is apparently a result of the long production procedure required. Addition of metal chelators did not reduce the oxidation of the SFO

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

2004-01-01

228

A survey of vaccines produced for OIE list A diseases in OIE member countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to determine the availability, country of origin, and manufacturer of vaccines for all Office International Des Epizooties (OIE) list A diseases. A large number of classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Newcastle disease vaccines were found. A limited number of vaccines was also located for African horse sickness, bluetongue, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, highly pathogenic avian influenza, lumpy skin disease, peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever, rinderpest, sheep and goat pox, and vesicular stomatitis. No African swine fever or swine vesicular disease vaccines were found. Experimental vaccines are not included in this survey. PMID:14677673

Roth, J A; Spickler, A R

2003-01-01

229

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

OpenAIRE

A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the s...

Yi-Wei Lin; Cherng-Yuan Lin

2012-01-01

230

Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns the organising of a company and another concerns relationships between companies. These frameworks are used for the analysis of producers and retailers, and for the relationships between them. Very interesting results have been found, and these have supported a new way of looking at management of organisations and management of relationships.

Skytte, Hans

231

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01

232

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

233

On managing adjustment to external shocks in oil importing developing countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper employs country specific multisectoral general equilibrium models of Turkey, Kenya and India to study the adjustment problems confronting these countries. The affects of liberal and interventionist policies on GDP and on incomes of different classes are analysed. The results show that liberal policies minimise the GDP losses and that farmers are relatively better off under these policies.

Gupta, Sanjeev; Togan, Su?bidey

1982-01-01

234

78 FR 77421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Country Tubular Goods from India, the Republic of Korea, the...Country Tubular Goods from India,'' dated concurrently with...of all entries of OCTG from India that are entered, or withdrawn...the calculations performed in connection with this preliminary...

2013-12-23

235

Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and ce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

236

A methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

The author has identified the following significant results. Results have shown that it is feasible to design a methodology that can provide suitable guidelines for operational production of small scale rural land use maps of semiarid developing regions from LANDSAT MSS imagery, using inexpensive and unsophisticated visual techniques. The suggested methodology provides immediate practical benefits to map makers attempting to produce land use maps in countries with limited budgets and equipment. Many preprocessing and interpretation techniques were considered, but rejected on the grounds that they were inappropriate mainly due to the high cost of imagery and/or equipment, or due to their inadequacy for use in operational projects in the developing countries. Suggested imagery and interpretation techniques, consisting of color composites and monocular magnification proved to be the simplest, fastest, and most versatile methods.

Vangenderen, J. L. (principal investigator); Lock, B. F.

1976-01-01

237

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

2013-01-01

238

Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

2009-01-07

239

Isolation and screening of native polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria from oil contaminated soils of Abadan refinery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Introduction : Environmental contaminations due to petrochemical plastic usage have forced researchers to search new biological methods for biodegradable polymer production. The aim of this study was to find native PHA producing bacteria from Abadan oil refinery in order to be used in biodegradable polymer production studies.   Materials and method s : For this purpose soil samples were harvested from oil sludge contaminated soil of Abadan refinery. After primary enrichment, screening of PHA producing bacteria was done by PHA- Detection agar and was confirmed by Sudan black and Nile Blue A staining methods. These isolates were identified based on phenotypic methods and sequencing of 16s rRNA. Polymer extraction was performed and optimized using different concentrations of HClO and SDS.   Results : As a result of this study 26 different bacterial isolates were obtained from which 17 isolates were PHA producer with different potentiality. Based on the polymer accumulation 4 isolates were selected for further studies. The efficiency of PHA production in these isolates was 75.53±5.08, 82±19.05, 81.06±6.92 and 79.86±11.84%. Based on sequence analysis in NCBI database, these isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus.   Discussion and conclusion : With respect to the results of this study it can be suggested that oil contaminated soils due to high C/N and C/P ratios and also different carbohydrate contents are suitable candidates for PHA producer bacteria isolation. So the native strains in such habitats with high carbon content can be optimized for industrial polymer production.

Hossein MOtamedi

2015-02-01

240

Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

241

Essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits obtained from different geographical areas of Europe were determined using capillary GC and GC-MS techniques. The essential oil content of the samples was 10.0-53.6 mL kg(-1) and did not confirm to the European Pharmacopoeia standard in 5 samples out of 14. A total of 21 compounds were identified and significant quantitative differences were observed among the samples. The major component was trans-anethole (76.9-93.7%); the other principal compounds in oils were gamma-himachalene (0.4-8.2%), trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (0.4-6.4%), p-anisaldehyde (tr-5.4%) and methylchavicol (0.5-2.3%). The highest content of trans-anethole (>90%) was found in the samples from Greece, Hungary, Scotland, Lithuania, Italy, and Germany (2 samples). Essential oil of aniseed from Estonia was rich in gamma-himachalene (8.2%) and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (6.4%). The sample from France contained the highest amount of anisaldehyde (5.4%) comparing with other samples (0-3.1%). beta-Bourbonene and alpha-farnesene are determined in anise oil for the first time. PMID:18266152

Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

2008-02-15

242

Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL?kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL?kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0?mL?kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5?mL?kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages. PMID:21827282

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2012-01-01

243

Study on the hydrodeoxygenative upgrading of crude bio-oil produced from woody biomass by fast pyrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of yellow poplar wood was subjected to HDO (hydrodeoxygenation) for the purpose of reducing water content as well as increasing heating value. HDO was performed in an autoclave reactor at three different reaction factors: temperature (250–370 °C), reaction time (40–120 min), and Pd/C catalyst loading (0–6 wt%) under hydrogen atmosphere. After completion of HDO, gas, char, and two immiscible liquid products (light oil and heavy oil) were obtained. Liquid products were less acidic and contained less water than crude bio-oil. Water content of heavy oil was ranged between 0.4 wt% and 1.9 wt%. Heating values of heavy oil were estimated between 28.7 and 37.4 MJ/kg, which was about twice higher than that of crude bio-oil. Elemental analysis revealed that heavy oil had a lower O/C ratio (0.17–0.36) than crude bio-oil (0.71). H/C ratio of heavy oil decreased from 1.50 to 1.32 with an increase of temperature from 250 °C to 350 °C, respectively. - Highlights: • Bio-oil was subjected to hydrodeoxygenation with Pd/C catalyst in supercritical ethanol. • Gas, char and two immiscible liquids (light/heavy oil) were obtained as final products. • Ethanol addition reduced the char formation during hydrodeoxygenation. • The heavy oil was characteristic to less acidic and less water content than bio-oil. • Higher heating value of the heavy oil was measured to 28.7–37.4 MJ/kg

244

Are rich countries immune to the resource curse? :evidence from Norway's management of its oil riches  

OpenAIRE

Abstract:Growth studies show, counter to intuition, that the discovery of a natural resource may be a curserather than a blessing since resource-rich countries grow slower than others. But it has beensuggested that Norway may be an important exception to the curse and that the curse does not afflictrich countries. This article addresses both issues, and introduces a new diagnostic test. Neighborcountries Denmark and Sweden are used to highlight Norway's relative development and to test forcur...

Larsen, Erling Røed

2003-01-01

245

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2003-12-15

246

Structural characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2 isolated from oil reservoir water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactant-producing microorganisms inhabiting oil reservoirs are of great potential in industrial applications. Yet, till now, the knowledge about the structure and physicochemical property of their metabolites are still limited. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2, a newly isolated strain from an oil reservoir. The purification was conducted by silica gel column chromatography followed by pre-RP HPLC and the structural characterization was carried out by GC-MS combined with MS/MS. The results show that the biosurfactant produced by FIN2 is rhamnolipid in nature and its four main fractions were identified to be Rha-C10-C10(46.1 %), Rha-Rha-C10-C10(20.1 %), Rha-C8-C10 (7.5 %) and Rha-C10-C12:1(5.5 %), respectively. Meanwhile, the rarely reported rhamnolipid congeners containing ?-hydroxy fatty acids of C6, C9, C10:1 and C11 were also proved to be present in the rhamnolipid mixture produced. The rhamnolipid mixture exhibited a strong surface activity by lowering the surface tension of distilled water to 28.6 mN/m with a CMC value of 195 mg/l. PMID:24297330

Liu, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

2014-05-01

247

Circulating usage of partially-produced fluid as power fluid for jet pump in deep-heavy-oil production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Common artificial lift methods are not adequate for producing oil from wells deeper than 3000 metres. Jet pumping has been proposed as a more efficient artificial lifting technique for such wells since the low pressure fluid in the reservoir can be boosted and recovered by mixing it with a high pressure fluid pumped downhole from the surface. The advantages of the jet pumping method include its simplicity, lack of moving parts, small size, and ability to pump highly viscous fluids or fluids with strong corrosivity. Light oil can also be used as a power fluid in deep heavy oil wells because of the lower viscosity of the produced fluids and the reduced pressure loss in the production string. This paper proposed a new technique in which a portion of the produced fluid was combined with light oil to produce a fluid light-oil mixture for jet pumping in deep heavy oil wells. The main challenge was to determine the optimal ratio of the light oil that would minimize the amount of light oil needed for the power fluid while ensuring low viscosity of the fluid in the power string and reasonable well head power fluid pressure. The equilibrium viscosity of the mixed power fluid was determined using a newly constructed theoretical model, and an iterative method was used to calculate the optimal ratio of light oil to the mixed power fluid. The pressure loss and working performance of jet pumps is influenced by the viscosity and the ratio of light oil and the diluent rate ratio. Although the effects of temperature of the power fluid on the surface are not clear, the effect of reservoir fluid viscosity on well head pressure was found to be minor when the light oil viscosity (VLO) was low. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

Chen, S.; Li, H.; Zhang, Q. [China Univ. of Petroleum (China); He, J. [Tarim Petroleum Ltd. (China); Yang, D. [Society of petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

2005-11-01

248

Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

2015-04-07

249

Fungi isolated from produced water and water-soluble fraction of crude oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was sought to determine the fungi present in the produced water (PW) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil as a preliminary approach to determining that fungi can survive in crude oil polluted water and their possible use in bioremediation. Different concentrations of PW and WSF of crude oil samples from Ughelli East Flow Station in Delta State of Nigeria were exposed to onion (Allium cepa) primordial cells at different concentrations for twelve days. Thereafter; samples of the PW and WSF were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar. Isolates of Thamnidium sp, Gelasinospora sp, Zygorhynchu. sp and Colletotrichum sp were found. Zygorhynchus and Colletotrichum were associated with PW while thaminidium and Gelasinospora associated with the WSF. There were changes in the pH and turbidity of the PW and WSF before and after exposure to Allium cepa cells. At 25% level of treatments there were significant differences in pH and turbidity values of the PW and WSF at P 0.01 before and after exposure to the plant. (author)

250

Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

Milin, Cedomila

2001-12-01

251

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

2012-03-01

252

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil ...

Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi; Newton Müller Pereira; Rogério Gomes; Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

2013-01-01

253

Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author) ones. (author)

254

Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning. PMID:23625419

Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

2013-05-01

255

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

Unknown

2002-11-01

256

Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N) starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD) formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3. PMID:23874918

Zhang, Yun-Ming; Chen, Hui; He, Chen-Liu; Wang, Qiang

2013-01-01

257

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) functions as a cohesive national organization that implements industry's directives through active regional programs. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) organization includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. PTTC relies on 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) as its main program delivery mechanism to industry. Through its regions, PTTC connects with independent oil and gas producers--through technology workshops, resources centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY98, and its strategy for achieving further growth in the future.

Unknown

1998-10-31

258

Presence of some local source sediments within the oil- producing eocene limestones in the Western Coast of Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eocene fractured limestones are oil producing in the area of Bakr, Kareem, and Rahmi fields in the W. Coast of Gulf of Suez. The stratigraphic relations, the lithology, microscopic characters, general depositional conditions and occurrence of oil in these rocks are discussed. These Eocene limestones are of source facies and the production is occurring via fracture systems within. Oil-generating organic materials are found in local parts in the producing Eocene limestone, mainly in Bakr field. The rest of producing limestones in the total area are barren of any source sediments inspite of being of source facies. Therefore, amount of production from Eocene limestones of the fields mentioned could be explained by oil migrated from sources other than Eocene limestones in addition to the Eocene source sediments.

Girgis, G.F.; Faris, M.I.

1970-01-01

259

Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 60ere accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological contamination of soil environment of an industrial zone, which one can render parasitic influencing to health working, and also being diffused in nearest territory of a residential zone to create a health danger of the population. Therefore, the hygienic control in firms of a petroleum industry is necessary

260

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

Unknown

2000-11-01

261

Oil output's changing fortunes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

262

21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats...Substances § 172.225 Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids...

2010-04-01

263

Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

264

Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale  

OpenAIRE

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m de...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Soares, L. P.

2012-01-01

265

Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

None available

2000-04-12

266

Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

267

Use of baru (brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100 % wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100 % PDBF and four different levels of XG (0 %-PDBF cake, 0.1 %-X1, 0.2 %-X2 and 0.3 %-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality. PMID:25577329

Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

2015-03-01

268

Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

269

Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) ay BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

270

Subsidence over producing oil and gas fields, and gas leakage to the surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsidence over producing oil and gas fields, caused by a reduction of formation fluid pressure and consequent compaction of reservoir rocks, enhances existing fractures and creates new ones. A theoretical prediction of the whole set of associated deformation can not be completely reliable because of physical obscurity and incompleteness of the effective-stress theory and associated models and their inadequacy to describe the three-dimensional processes in a geological environment. Empirically, incompleteness of the overburden weight transmission to the compacting reservoir is obvious from the existence of vertical tensile strain and elongation of formation overlying the reservoir. All this emphasizes the importance of empirical approach. The authors reviewed field observations of subsidence deformations made by many authors

271

Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

Mohd Sahaid Kalil

2003-01-01

272

Characterization of rhamnolipids produced by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strain grown on waste oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa EBN-8 mutant rhamnolipids produced on waste oils were investigated using normal-phase thin layer chromatography and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Negative ion mode mass spectra yielded [M - H](-) ions and their fragment ions, which gave some indications on the sequence of rhamnolipid biosynthesis. Five rhamnolipid homologs [viz. RC(10)C(10) (m/z 503), RC(12)C(10) or RC(10)C(12) (531), RRC(10)C(8) or RRC(8)C(10) (621), RRC(10)C(10) (649) and RRC(12)C(10) or RRC(10)C(12) (677)] were detected in four rhamnolipid combinations under the different carbon sources. The prevalence of rhamnolipids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and one-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. We also observed some correlations between the tensioactive characteristics and structural chemistry of the rhamnolipid surfactants. PMID:20183494

Raza, Zulfiqar A; Khalid, Zafar M; Banat, Ibrahim M

2009-11-01

273

Technology of simultaneous purification of iron containing and hydrogen sulfide waters of oil-producing installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When iron-containing and H/sub 2/S-containing produced waters are mixed, and concentrations of the 2 reactants are equal, not all of the sulfide is precipitated. Complete removal of sulfides can be obtained by raising the pH to 8.0, and by having an excess of ferrous iron in solution. During normal mixing of sulfide and iron waters, some H/sub 2/S is adsorbed by iron sulfide. Water conditioning systems are described for handling sulfide and iron waters in the oil fields. One treating method utilizes NH/sub 4/OH and FeCl/sub 2/ to condition the water for underground injection.

Elanskii, V.L.; Sokolov, A.G.; Perevalov, V.G.

1974-01-01

274

Pseudomonas sagittaria sp. nov., a siderophore-producing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated CC-OPY-1(T), was isolated from an oil-contaminated site in Taiwan. CC-OPY-1(T) produces siderophores, and can grow at temperatures of 25-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0 and tolerate DPG), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and two unknown phospholipids (PL1-2). Due to distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, CC-OPY-1(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas for which the name Pseudomonas sagittaria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-OPY-1(T) ( = BCRC 80399(T) = JCM 18195(T)). PMID:23178721

Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Lai, Wei-An; Chen, Wen-Ming; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

2013-07-01

275

SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES PRODUCED BY EUPENICILLIUM JAVANICUM AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL 337 ON PALM OIL FACTORY WASTES  

OpenAIRE

The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), substances from palm oil factory wastes, for monogastric is limited by their high cellulose and mannan contents. Hydrolytic enzymes have been supplemented to increase the nutrient digestibility. The maximal digestibility was obtained in the synergistic action of all enzyme components including B-D-endoglucanase (CMCase), B-D-glucosidase, B-D-mannanase, p-D-mannosidase, and oc-D-galactosidase. Two kinds of enzymes produced by...

TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA; YANTYATI WIDYASTUTI; Ketaren, Pius P.; DYAH ISWANTINI PRADONO; NONI NIRWANA

2003-01-01

276

Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations  

OpenAIRE

The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a range of stora...

Scollard, Johann

2011-01-01

277

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of th...

Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

2014-01-01

278

Consumption of added fats and oils in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) centres across 10 European countries as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of added fats and oils across the European centres and countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: 24-Hour dietary recalls were collected by means of standardised computer-guided interviews in 27 redefined EPIC centres across 10 European countries. SUBJECTS: From an initial number of 36 900 subjects, single dietary recalls from 22 924 women and 13 031 men in the age range of 35-7...

Linseisen, J.; Bergstro?m, E.; Gafa?, L.; Gonza?lez, Ca; Thie?baut, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Tumino, R.; Sa?nchez, Cn; Garcia, Cm; Mattisson, I.; Nilsson, S.; Welch, A.; Spencer, Ea; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.

2002-01-01

279

Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

2014-03-01

280

Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ? The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ? The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ? Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ? Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and compared different technologies in a unique “Clean Energy Economy” improved document (Paris, November 16–17, 2011), by the contribution of this vision too (see reference). In concert with “energy efficiency” improvement both for plants and buildings, in the frame of the “smart cities” scenarios, and the upstanding use of “energy savings”, the energetic planning on regional scale where these cities are located, are strategic for the year 2050: this planning is strongly depending by the underground availability and typology. Therefore, if both literature and European Policy are going fast to improve the concept of “smart cities” this paper stresses the concept of “smart regions”, more strategic than “smart cities”, passing throughout a discussion on the synergic and conflicting use of underground to produce energy for the “smart regions” as a whole. The paper highlights the research lines which are urgent to plan the soundest energy mix for each region by considering the underground performances case by case: a worldwide mapping, by GIS tools of this kind of information could be strategic for all the “world energy management” authorities, up to ONU, with its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the G20, the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Platforms such as the “Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants” (EU-ZEP Platform), the Steel Platform, the Biomass Platform too. All of these organizations agree on the need for synergistic and coexistent uses of underground for geological storage of CO2, CH4, nuclear waste and geothermic exploitation. The paper is therefore a discussion of the tools, methods and approaches to these underground affecting technologies, after a gross view of the different uses of underground to produce energy for each use, with their main critical issues (i.e. public acceptance in different cases). The paper gives some gross evaluation for the Lazio Region and some hints from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calcu

281

State companies dominate OGJ100 list of non-U.S. oil producers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

State owned oil and gas companies dominate the OGJ100 list of non-U.S. producers. Because many of them report only operating information, companies on the worldwide list cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. The list, therefore, is organized regionally, based on location of companies' corporate headquarters. The leading nongovernment company in both reserves and production is Royal Dutch/Shell. It ranks sixth in the world in liquids production and 11th in liquids reserves, as it has for the past 2 years. British Petroleum is the next largest nongovernment company. BP ranks 11th in liquids production and 16th in liquids reserves. Elf Aquitaine, 55.8% government-controlled, ranked 17th in liquids production. AGIP was 20th in liquids production. Kuwait Petroleum returned to the list of top 20 producers, ranking 12th, as it restored production shut in by facilities damage sustained during the Persian Gulf crisis. New to the top 20 reserves list is Petroleo Brasileiro, which moved to 20th position. The top 20 companies in the OGJ100 held reserves estimated at 869.3 billion bbl in 1992 vs. 869.5 billion bbl in 1991 and 854.2 billion bbl in 1990

282

Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

Avin E. Pillay

2010-03-01

283

Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

284

Sedimentary and tectonic controls on oil occurrences in the traditional producing area, Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Stratigraphic and Tectonic model explains the oil-field locations in the Traditional Producing Area of the Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela. The database for the model includes a 585-km[sup 2] 3-D seismic survey, as well as petrophysical, lithologic and biostratigraphic data from Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. A long-term relative sea level rise from Albian through Campanian (Cretaceous) time, coincident with passive-margin basin subsidence, resulted in onlap of marginal marine sands and marine-shelf limestones and shales over crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Guayana Shield Basement. Facies changes in the Cretaceous Aguardiente, Escandalosa, and Navay Formations are related mainly to eustatic sea level changes. A tectonic pulse deformed these sediments in Late Maastrichtian to Paleocene time. An erosional unconformity that developed atop this deformed Cretaceous section relates to tectonic uplift and not to sea-level change. Onlap of Middle Eocene marine transgressive Gobernador Fm. sands and Masparrito Fm. limestones over this unconformity was driven by increased tectonic subsidence. Accelerated tectonic subsidence drowned the Masparrito carbonate platform and led to deposition of a condensed section within the lower Paguey Formation; this condensed section marks a tectonic Maximum Flooding Surface not related to eustatic sea level change. After deposition of the Eocene Paguey, and just prior to deposition of the Oligo-Miocene Parangula Formation, a second tectonic event reactivated older faults and led to growth of structural traps for Cretaceous and Eocene reservoirs. Both tectonic and eustatic events have combined to control oil occurrence in the Barinas Subbasin.

Daal, J.; Martinez, G.; Salas, J. (Unocal Corp., Sugar Land, TX (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

285

Sedimentary and tectonic controls on oil occurrences in the traditional producing area, Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Stratigraphic and Tectonic model explains the oil-field locations in the Traditional Producing Area of the Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela. The database for the model includes a 585-km{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey, as well as petrophysical, lithologic and biostratigraphic data from Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. A long-term relative sea level rise from Albian through Campanian (Cretaceous) time, coincident with passive-margin basin subsidence, resulted in onlap of marginal marine sands and marine-shelf limestones and shales over crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Guayana Shield Basement. Facies changes in the Cretaceous Aguardiente, Escandalosa, and Navay Formations are related mainly to eustatic sea level changes. A tectonic pulse deformed these sediments in Late Maastrichtian to Paleocene time. An erosional unconformity that developed atop this deformed Cretaceous section relates to tectonic uplift and not to sea-level change. Onlap of Middle Eocene marine transgressive Gobernador Fm. sands and Masparrito Fm. limestones over this unconformity was driven by increased tectonic subsidence. Accelerated tectonic subsidence drowned the Masparrito carbonate platform and led to deposition of a condensed section within the lower Paguey Formation; this condensed section marks a tectonic Maximum Flooding Surface not related to eustatic sea level change. After deposition of the Eocene Paguey, and just prior to deposition of the Oligo-Miocene Parangula Formation, a second tectonic event reactivated older faults and led to growth of structural traps for Cretaceous and Eocene reservoirs. Both tectonic and eustatic events have combined to control oil occurrence in the Barinas Subbasin.

Daal, J.; Martinez, G.; Salas, J. [Unocal Corp., Sugar Land, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

286

Marinobacter aquaeolei sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a Vietnamese oil-producing well.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several strains of moderately halophilic and mesophilic bacteria were isolated at the head of an oil-producing well on an offshore platform in southern Vietnam. Cells were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 20%; the optimum was 5% NaCl. One strain, which was designated VT8T, could degrade n-hexadecane, pristane and some crude oil components. It grew anaerobically in the presence of nitrate on succinate, citrate or acetate, but not on glucose. Several organic acids and amino acids were utilized as sole carbon and energy sources. The major components of its cellular fatty acids were C12:0 3-OH, C16:1, omega 9c, C16:0 and C18:1 omega 9c. The DNA G + C content was 55.7 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain VT8T was closely related to Marinobacter sp. strain CAB (99.8% similarity) and Marinobaster hydrocarbonoclasticus (99.4% similarity). Its antibiotic resistance, isoprenoid quinones and fatty acids were similar to those of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus and Pseudomonas nautica. However, the whole-cell protein pattern of VT8T differed from that of other halophilic marine isolates, including P. nautica. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the level of relatedness to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was 65% and that to P. nautica was 75%. Further differences were apparent in Fourier-transformed IR spectra of cells and lipopolysaccharide composition. It is proposed that VT8T should be the type strain of a new species and should be named Marinobacter aquaeolei. P. nautica may have been misclassified, as suggested previously, and may also belong to the genus Marinobacter. PMID:10319457

Huu, N B; Denner, E B; Ha, D T; Wanner, G; Stan-Lotter, H

1999-04-01

287

Water produced in the Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields of heavy metals and radionuclide distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text:Oil and gas production in the process of formation waters are the deep layers of the earth, together with the oil and gas condensate from the water surface. Later, water oil and gas produced on the platform with different separation processes allocated, in order to increase oil production wells or re-determination of the surface of the Earth's lakes and hole in the shed. Been taken into account that every year, millions of cubic meters of produced waters discharged from oil platforms, it is clear that the environmental impact of their mischief. Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields in the waters of the reservoir and the natural radionuclide distribution of heavy metals have been investigated presented in this work. Nitrate acid solution was washed with pure polyethylene samples after pickling banks after completion, keeping a temperature of 4-S was included in the laboratory. Concentrations of elements from the stock standard solutions appreciating commercial preparations included in the presentation of the working standard solutions which are determined by using curve degree

288

Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N2O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (?3.0 to 5.3 kg CO2eq kg?1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

289

Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .  

Science.gov (United States)

The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars. PMID:25895270

Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

2015-03-01

290

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

291

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

292

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2009-12-15

293

Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

2006-01-01

294

An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

2011-04-01

295

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Antonia Tamborrino

2011-02-01

296

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Paolo Amirante

297

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT, the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi

2013-04-01

298

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

OpenAIRE

Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45...

Juliana Guerra de Oliveira; Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

2013-01-01

299

Proteome changes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to oil and produced water: discovery of biomarker candidates for environmental monitoring  

OpenAIRE

Produced water is the most dominating source of continuous oil discharges to the sea offshore. It contains a wide range of compounds such as alkyl phenols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, carboxylic acids and other organic compounds, which may cause harm by themselves or in synergy with other compounds present in produced water. Worldwide there is a growing concern that contamination of the marine environment may constitute an important contribution to the repor...

Kjersem, Anneli Bohne

2007-01-01

300

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water  

OpenAIRE

Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes.

Tan, Boonfei; Arau?jo E Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia

2014-01-01

301

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes. PMID:25342693

Tan, BoonFei; de Araújo E Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia

2014-01-01

302

Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass  

Science.gov (United States)

The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the ethanol to acetic acid ratio of 3. Crude pyrolytic oil obtained from the RTI International had distillation temperatures from 164.8°C to 365.5°C and 50% volumetric fraction of the crude bio-oil was distillable. Esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased distillability up to 55% volumetric fraction. The esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased pH of 6.12. Diesel range pyrolytic bio-oil distilled from esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had quite comparable properties with commercial diesel, with an energy content of 41.41 MJ/kg, water content of 0.58 wt%, and viscosity of 7.45 cP.

Cheng, Dan

303

Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of (238)U and(232)Th as well as (40)K and traces of globally released (137)Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U; while for (232)Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg(-1). Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in (40)K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg(-1), while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg(-1). However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from(137)Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg(-1) and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg(-1). The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is soils as building materials may be considered safe. PMID:22791838

Tchokossa, P; Olomo, J B; Balogun, F A; Adesanmi, C A

2013-01-01

304

SAGD report card : Alberta believes it can rival Saudi Arabia as an oil producer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviewed 9 oil sands companies that currently own commercial-scale steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects producing more than 5000 bbls a day in northern Alberta. The article reviewed production costs and outputs, and examined schedule and cost over-runs during project construction phases and how they are impacting on overall business trends for the companies. Technologies adopted by the project operators were outlined, and details of demonstration programs currently being conducted to test new technologies were presented. Issues concerning regulatory approvals for individual projects were discussed. Production statistics and forecasts were provided, and planned expansions were outlined. Projects reviewed in the article included Suncor's Firebag project; Husky's Tucker project; Nexen/OPTI's Long Lake project; EnCana's Foster Creek/Christina Lake project; ConocoPhillips' Surmont project Petro-Canada's Mackay River project; Devon's Jackfish project; JACOS' Hangingstone project; and Connacher's Great Divide project. Results of the review demonstrated that SAGD production is occurring at a slower rate than any of the companies originally predicted. However, output is continuing to rise. It was concluded that since SAGD is a relatively new technology, methods of improving the technology and reducing its environmental impacts are still being explored. 12 figs.

Roche, P.

2008-10-15

305

Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta state (Nigeria))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg-1. The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe. (authors)

306

Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

307

Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water) was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( [...] FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005) consists of a lipopeptide similar to surfactin. The influences of temperature and the composition of oil + biosurfactant + water were determined by using phase diagrams. Three types of oil were used, namely: motor oil, hydrogenated naphthenic oil (NH140) and castor bean oil. The emulsified systems were analyzed using optical micrography. The results presented here indicated that the biosurfactant produced in this work presents a potential use as stabilizing agent for oil-in-water emulsions.

M., Sousa; I. T., Dantas; F. X., Feitosa; A. E. V., Alencar; S. A., Soares; V. M. M., Melo; L. R. B., Gonçalves; H. B., Sant' ana.

2014-09-01

308

Management of soybean oil refinery wastes through recycling them for producing biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactant production through a fermentation process involving the biodegradation of soybean oil refining wastes was studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01 was able to produce extracellular biosurfactant when it was cultured in three soybean oil refinement wastes; acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soapstock, at different carbon to nitrogen ratios. Subsequent fermentation kinetics in the three types of waste culture were also investigated and compared with kinetic behavior in soybean oil medium. Biodegradation of wastes, biosurfactant production, biomass growth, nitrate consumption and the number of colony forming units were detected in four proposed media, at specified time intervals. Unexpectedly, wastes could stimulate the biodegradation activity of MR01 bacterial cells and thus biosurfactant synthesis beyond that of the refined soybean oil. This is evident from higher yields of biodegradation and production, as revealed in the waste cultures (Ydeg|(Soybean oil) = 53.9 % YP/S|(Soybean oil) = 0.31 g g(-1), respectively). Although production yields were approximately the same in the three waste cultures (YP/S|(wastes) =/~ 0.5 g g(-1)), microbial activity resulted in higher yields of biodegradation (96.5 ± 1.13 %), maximum specific growth rate (? max = 0.26 ± 0.02 h(-1)), and biosurfactant purity (89.6 %) with a productivity of 14.55 ± 1.10 g l(-1), during the bioconversion of soapstock into biosurfactant. Consequently, applying soybean oil soapstock as a substrate for the production of biosurfactant with commercial value has the potential to provide a combination of economical production with environmental protection through the biosynthesis of an environmentally friendly (green) compound and reduction of waste load entering the environment. Moreover, this work inferred spectrophotometry as an easy method to detect rhamnolipids in the biosurfactant products. PMID:23361970

Partovi, Maryam; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Roostaazad, Reza; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Tayyebi, Shokoufe

2013-06-01

309

Chemical composition of bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis of two energy crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast pyrolysis of switchgrass and alfalfa stems (from two stages of development: bud and full flower stages) has been carried out in a 2.5 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 500 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The liquid product, bio-oil (pyrolysis oil or pyrol...

310

Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

311

Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

312

[Effects of polyacrylamide on settling and separation of oil droplets in polymer flooding produced water].  

Science.gov (United States)

The research found anion polyacrylamide (HPAM) had positive and negative effects on oil-water separation. Polymer made oily wastewater's viscosity increase and reduce rising velocity, and polymer can also increase intensity of water films between oil droplets and lengthen coalescence time of oil droplets. Those were not in favor of settling and separation for oil droplets. The positive effects on separation were that polyacrylamide had flocculating activity and made small droplets contact each other and combine into big droplets. When polymer's molecular weight was 2.72 x 10(6), and concentration was less than 800 mg/L, polymer was in favor of oil droplets settling and separation. The prime reason for oily wastewater of polymer flooding difficult to dispose was that initial median diameters of oil droplets were small. The transverse flow oil separator can intensify oil droplets combination and shorten rising time. The locale experiments showed the separator was suitable for dealing with oily wastewater of polymer flooding. PMID:12048822

Deng, Shubo; Zhou, Fusheng; Chen, Zhongxi; Xia, Fujun; Yu, Gang; Jiang, Zhanpeng

2002-03-01

313

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

2013-02-01

314

The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS) and volatile s...

Irvan Matseh

2012-01-01

315

Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

2010-07-01

316

Presenting visual acuities in a referral eye center in an oil-producing area of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the pattern of presenting visual acuities at an eye center in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Study Design: Retrospective chart review Methods: A retrospective review of patient records attending a private referral eye center providing services for company patients and the general public in the region. Information was obtained from computerized medical records of 6533 patients who attended the center for various eye concerns in a 5-year period (January 1998 to December 2002. Results: A total of 6533 patients were seen in this 5-year period of which 2472 (37.8% were company patients and 4061 (62.2%. were private patients. There were 3879 males (59.4% and 2654 females (40.6%. A visual acuity of 6/6 or better was seen in 50.8% of the patients. In 76.6% of patients, a visual acuity of 6/18 or better was recorded. There were 21.4% of patients in the low vision group. Bilateral blindness occurred in 2.1% of patients. Monocular blindness occurred in 3.7% of patients. Low vision occurred in 16.9% of company patients and 24.1% of private patients. Bilateral blindness occurred in 0.9% of company patients and 2.7% of private patients, while monocular blindness occurred in 1.2% of company patients and 5.2% of private patients. The main ocular problems were refractive error, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, headaches, ocular trauma, retina and related pathologies, cataract, uveitis, pterygium and corneal problems. Conclusion: The incidence of low vision and blindness is high in the oil-producing area of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Low vision and blindness were more common in private patients than in company patients.

Waziri-Erameh Joseph

2009-01-01

317

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

OpenAIRE

The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countri...

Paolo Amirante; Maria Lisa Clodoveo; Alessandro Leone; Antonia Tamborrino

2009-01-01

318

Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large amount of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra), is discharged to the sea in connection with oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. In addition, chemicals are used to avoid production problems due to corrosion, scaling (precipitation of sulphates or carbonates in the production system), foaming, phase separation, etc. Some of these chemicals are designed to interact with alkaline earth elements and will influence the speciation of radium. The presence of barium in the produced water (0.1 - 1 mM) makes it a carrier for radium. The main questions addressed are how the presence of added chemicals will affect the speciation and mobility of Ra, and if it will increase the biological uptake in biota? To answer these questions we have performed tests of mobility and uptake in biota in controlled environments, simulating real conditions. To enable measurement of low uptake of 226Ra, the concentration used was higher than that in seawater, i.e. 2 - 10 Bq/L activity concentrations were chosen. Liquid scintillation counting was used for measuring 226Ra and daughters. Using Quantulus with peak shape analysis gave a good separation of alpha- and beta radiation. Although the quenching in some samples was considerable, the loss of alphas seems to be low. The results from force-feeding of cod indicate a much higher increase in Ra-uptake from food when scale inhibitor iRa-uptake from food when scale inhibitor is present, i.e. ca 18% vs. ca 4%. To analyse precipitated BaSO4 with and without scale inhibitor, SEM and particle analysis have been used. The presence of scale inhibitor makes the crystals smaller and thus more mobile. The average crystal sizes were reduced from 8 to 3 ?m. To measure the amount of biological accessible Ra we used MnO2-based disks of DTG (Diffusion through Thin Gradient). The DTG showed a linear uptake as a function of time with an efficiency of 60% of theoretical uptake. (author)

319

The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease  

OpenAIRE

Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

2009-01-01

320

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

OpenAIRE

The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90) in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the drople...

HELMAR SCHUBERT; SABINE BROSEL; Vladisavljevic, Goran T.

2000-01-01

321

Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh byproducts : influence of temperature during storage  

OpenAIRE

Crude herring oil, extracted from fresh byproducts, was stored at 0, 20, and 50°C in order to study the effect of temperature on lipid oxidation. The oil had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), and free fatty acids of 0.7 meq peroxides/kg of lipid, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. During storage, the oil reached the secondary oxidation stage for all 3 temperatures. The formation of fluorescent compounds was inhibited at 0°C. Significant decrease of the ?-tocopherol content wa...

Aidos, I.; Lourenco, S.; Padt, A.; Luten, J. B.; Boom, R. M.

2002-01-01

322

Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

323

Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil against extended spectrum ? lactamase produced by urinary isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%, thymol (13.38% and p-cymene (8.27%. All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.

Samad Nejad Ebrahimi

2011-04-01

324

An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

Edy Soewono

2007-04-01

325

Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

326

DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

2003-11-01

327

Supercritical CO2 fractionation of bio-oil produced from wheat-hemlock biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomass i.e. wheat-hemlock used in this study was first characterized for its composition. The physical and chemical characterization of biomass was estimated using proximate analysis, calorific value, crystallinity, devolatilization behaviour, ultimate analysis, ICP-MS of ash, FT-IR, XRD, CHNS, and HPLC analysis. For commercial purpose the same biomass was used for conversion to bio-oil by fast pyrolysis process. Therefore, in order to investigate its composition, the bio-oil was also characterized using proximate analysis, calorific value, whereas the chemical composition of the bio-oil was estimated using CHNS, (1)H NMR, GC-FID and GC/MS. The bio-oil obtained from wheat-hemlock biomass was supplied by Advanced Biorefinery Co. and after the analysis, its composition has been determined. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbons, pyranoids, furanoids, benzenoids and fatty acids/alcohols with 45% of water, which forms azeotrope with organic polar compounds. The supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) is an advanced method for selective extraction of valuable chemicals from bio-oil without solvent residue. The organic fraction of the bio-oil was isolated by SC-CO(2). It was observed that SC-CO(2) fractions collected at 10 and 25 MPa pressure were enriched with furanoids, pyranoids and bezenoids. Similarly the bio-oil was also fractionated by conventional column chromatographic method and the yields and chemical compositions were compared with fractionated bio-oil obtained using SC-CO(2). PMID:20493681

Naik, Satyanarayan; Goud, Vaibhav V; Rout, Prasant K; Dalai, Ajay K

2010-10-01

328

Evaluation of produced water toxicity from an oil maritime terminal through Skeletonema costatum toxicity tests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A toxicidade do efluente líquido do "Dutos e Terminais Centro-Oeste São Paulo" (DTCS) terminal marítimo de petróleo da PETROBRAS, em São Sebastião (SP, Brasil), cujo principal componente é a água de produção, foi avaliada através de testes de toxicidade com a diatomácea Skeletonema costatum. Amostra [...] s de dois efluentes (A e B), previamente tratados pela PETROBRAS, foram utilizadas nos experimentos. As duas amostras apresentaram alta salinidade (A=67‰; B=62‰) e baixo valor de pH (6,2), enquanto que as suas concentrações de sulfetos, fenóis e hidrocarbonetos de petróleo dissolvidos/dispersos, bem como os seus valores de DBO e DQO, foram bastante distintos. Nos experimentos de toxicidade, os frascos experimentais, em triplicata, para cada tratamento foram expostos à radiação luminosa fluorescente de 266 µm² S-1 e mantidas em um ciclo luz/escuro de 10 h/14 h, a uma temperatura de 24 :t 2ºC. Os valores de CE50 não puderam ser determinados com precisão para o efluente A: após 60 h e 132 h do início dos experimentos esses valores estavam abaixo de 3% e entre 3-6% da concentração de efluente, respectivamente. Foi observado sinergismo entre a toxicidade e a salinidade do efluente sobre o crescimento de S. costatum. O efluente B apresentou uma toxicidade mais elevada: os valores de CEso foram 0,17% e 0,40% da concentração do efluente, após 48 h e 96 h, respectivamente. Estes resultados evidenciaram claramente os efeitos deletérios dos compostos orgânicos residuais contidos no efluente líquido do DTCS, sobre S. costatum. Pode-se concluir que a disposição do efluente nas águas do canal de São Sebastião poderá ser prejudicial à biota local. Abstract in english The liquid effluent from an oil maritime terminal, with produced water as the main component, had its toxicity evaluated through toxicity tests with the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Two previously treated effluent samples (effluents A and B), were provided by PETROBRAS for the experiments. Both samp [...] les presented high salinity (67‰ for effluent A and 62‰ for effluent B) and low pH values (6.2), whereas total sulphide, phenol and nutrient content, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon concentration, BOD and COD values were quite different from each other. During the toxicity experiment, three replicate flasks with samples for each treatment were exposed to a light radiation of 266µE m² S-1 and maintained under a 10 h/14 h lightldark cycle, at a temperature of 24 :t 2ºC. The EC50 values could not be accurately estimated for effluent A: 60 h and 132 h after starting the experiment they were below 3% and between 3-6% effluent concentration, respectively. Synergistic effects between effluent toxicity and salinity on the growth of S. costatum were detected. The effluent B showed higher toxicity: the EC5O values were 0.17% and 0.40% of effluent concentrations, after 48 h and 96 h, respectively. These results evidenced the deleterious effects of residual organic compounds contained in the aqueous effluents from the oil terminal under the present pretreatment on S. costatum. In the light of the present data, the direct disposal ofthese effluents into São Sebastião Channel waters might be very hazardous to its indigenous biota.

Elizabeth, Aidar; Teresa C. S., Sigaud-Kutner; Márcia C., Bicega; Katya P., Schinke; Sania M. F., Gianesella; Elisabete S., Braga.

329

Evaluation of produced water toxicity from an oil maritime terminal through Skeletonema costatum toxicity tests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The liquid effluent from an oil maritime terminal, with produced water as the main component, had its toxicity evaluated through toxicity tests with the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Two previously treated effluent samples (effluents A and B, were provided by PETROBRAS for the experiments. Both samples presented high salinity (67‰ for effluent A and 62‰ for effluent B and low pH values (6.2, whereas total sulphide, phenol and nutrient content, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon concentration, BOD and COD values were quite different from each other. During the toxicity experiment, three replicate flasks with samples for each treatment were exposed to a light radiation of 266µE m² S-1 and maintained under a 10 h/14 h lightldark cycle, at a temperature of 24 :t 2ºC. The EC50 values could not be accurately estimated for effluent A: 60 h and 132 h after starting the experiment they were below 3% and between 3-6% effluent concentration, respectively. Synergistic effects between effluent toxicity and salinity on the growth of S. costatum were detected. The effluent B showed higher toxicity: the EC5O values were 0.17% and 0.40% of effluent concentrations, after 48 h and 96 h, respectively. These results evidenced the deleterious effects of residual organic compounds contained in the aqueous effluents from the oil terminal under the present pretreatment on S. costatum. In the light of the present data, the direct disposal ofthese effluents into São Sebastião Channel waters might be very hazardous to its indigenous biota.A toxicidade do efluente líquido do "Dutos e Terminais Centro-Oeste São Paulo" (DTCS terminal marítimo de petróleo da PETROBRAS, em São Sebastião (SP, Brasil, cujo principal componente é a água de produção, foi avaliada através de testes de toxicidade com a diatomácea Skeletonema costatum. Amostras de dois efluentes (A e B, previamente tratados pela PETROBRAS, foram utilizadas nos experimentos. As duas amostras apresentaram alta salinidade (A=67‰; B=62‰ e baixo valor de pH (6,2, enquanto que as suas concentrações de sulfetos, fenóis e hidrocarbonetos de petróleo dissolvidos/dispersos, bem como os seus valores de DBO e DQO, foram bastante distintos. Nos experimentos de toxicidade, os frascos experimentais, em triplicata, para cada tratamento foram expostos à radiação luminosa fluorescente de 266 µm² S-1 e mantidas em um ciclo luz/escuro de 10 h/14 h, a uma temperatura de 24 :t 2ºC. Os valores de CE50 não puderam ser determinados com precisão para o efluente A: após 60 h e 132 h do início dos experimentos esses valores estavam abaixo de 3% e entre 3-6% da concentração de efluente, respectivamente. Foi observado sinergismo entre a toxicidade e a salinidade do efluente sobre o crescimento de S. costatum. O efluente B apresentou uma toxicidade mais elevada: os valores de CEso foram 0,17% e 0,40% da concentração do efluente, após 48 h e 96 h, respectivamente. Estes resultados evidenciaram claramente os efeitos deletérios dos compostos orgânicos residuais contidos no efluente líquido do DTCS, sobre S. costatum. Pode-se concluir que a disposição do efluente nas águas do canal de São Sebastião poderá ser prejudicial à biota local.

Elizabeth Aidar

1999-01-01

330

Oil My Love  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

331

Budget deficit remedies and their impact on the non-oil sectors of an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for the non-oil production side of the Kuwaiti economy was developed and estimated. The model, then, was simulated according to various scenarios designed to eliminate the budget deficit by the year 2000, in order to examine the effect on the non-oil sector of the economy. The results indicate that, in terms of its impact on non-oil GDP, the extreme case scenario is harsh, bringing down the level of non-oil GDP by more than 20% by the year 2000 from its level in 1993. The impact on the budget deficit may be very positive, but non-oil production and consumption will decline very rapidly, creating widespread hardship across all economic sectors. The results suggest a better option lies in adopting either of two intermediate case scenarios. While each of these will also cause a decline in non-oil GDP, it will not be to the extent caused by the extreme case scenario

332

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish a Technology Transfer Resource Center (TRC) at Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) to assist the Independent Oil Producers, in the state of Texas, (TIP) obtain and apply oil recovery technology to their operation. The University will conduct a field pilot project in cooperation with an Independent Producer to demonstrate how technology application improves the economic performance of a project. Experience gained from the project will be disseminated to other Independents. These activities will be coordinated with neighboring state Universities and private research entities active in technology transfer programs. The University`s goal is to stimulate Petroleum Engineering education and research at the university as a result of participating in these activities. The long term goal is to establish the first Petroleum Engineering Department at a Historically Black University.

Fotouh, K.H.

1996-10-01

333

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2004-01-01

334

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

OpenAIRE

Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile ...

Baharuddin, Azhari S.; Razak, Mohamad N. A.; Hock, Lim S.; Ahmad, Mohd N.; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Rahman, Nor A. A.; Shah, Umi K. M.; Hassan, Mohd A.; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai,

2010-01-01

335

A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

2013-12-01

336

Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

Hossein Askari

2012-04-01

337

Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region  

Science.gov (United States)

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June-July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January-February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be -7 and 0-6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (?20% in total). In total, 50-57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48-53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

2014-09-01

338

Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region  

Science.gov (United States)

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (~ 20% in total). In total, 53-59 in UBWOS 2013 and 50-55% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

2015-02-01

339

Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formic acid (HCOOH is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June–July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January–February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%. A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2 underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10. Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be ?7 and 0–6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (?20% in total. In total, 50–57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48–53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

B. Yuan

2014-09-01

340

Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

2015-02-01

341

Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

Fisher, R.

1995-08-01

342

Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NOx concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SOx emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (2 concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

343

Locating and producing bypassed oil: A U.S. DOE project update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tidelands Oil Production Co. is conducting a Class 3 near-term waterflood project supported partially by the US Dept. of Energy (USDOE) titled Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management. The project takes place across Fault Blocks 4 and 5 of the Wilmington field, Long Beach, California. The objective of this U.S. DOE demonstration project is to increase waterflood reserves in slope and basin clastic reservoirs through improved methods of identifying sands containing oil bypassed by a waterflood and exploiting this oil by recompleting existing idle wells. Specific objectives include identifying sands containing high remaining-oil saturation by use of a multiple acoustic cased-hole logging tool, determining geophysical parameters for interpretation of the acoustic data, demonstrating and gaining experience with a short-radius lateral recompletion, optimizing standard and steam recompletion techniques, generating a three-dimensional (3D) geologic model, and transferring the developed technologies and methods to other operators of slope and basin clastic reservoirs. The paper discusses results to date on characterization, reservoir engineering, deterministic modeling, multiple acoustic logging, and recompletions.

NONE

1997-09-01

344

Structural and Developmental Studies on Oil Producing Reproductive Organs in Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anatomical changes in lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle reproductive organs were investigated, with emphasis on the ontogeny of essential oil glands and their relation to organ development. Perianth had a leaf-like internal structure, with the developmental changes restricted to the ground system. Ovary diameter increased by cell divisions until fruit color change and by increase in size, wall thickness and intercellular space towards fruit maturity. Development of oil glands in flower and fruit peel revealed a similar pattern and was investigated in the ovary wall. Glands seemed to develop from some epidermal and subepidermal cells, into a conical stalk and a globular or oblong structure consisting of a central cavity surrounded by a protective sheath. Initiation of ovary oil glands started at preanthesis and was restricted to young green fruit. Mature oil glands continued to enlarge throughout fruit growth. Disputes regarding the manner of cavity opening in Citrus could be resolved by considering the three dimensional aspect of the oil glands.

Maryam Rafiei

2007-01-01

345

Efficacy of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) strains isolated from maize. Materials and Methods: All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slopes at 30°C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 µl.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 µl.ml-1) indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 µl.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p<0.05), while no effect was observed on ITS gene. Conclusions: This study showed that all F. verticillioides isolates were susceptible to C. cyminum essential oil, indicating a significant reduction in the growth of fungal isolates. In addition, this oil completely inhibited the expression of FUM1 gene in concentrations dose-dependently.

Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Mokhtari, Ali Reza

2015-01-01

346

Producing extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Belt, Cerro Negro area, Venezuela, using bottomdrive progressive cavity pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various oil recovery technologies currently in use in the Cerro Negro area in Venezuela were compared. The reservoir consists of unconsolidated sandstone with moderate intercalations of shale saturated with extra heavy oils. Rod pumping units and top-drive progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) have been the traditional means of artificial lift for vertical and deviated wells. The implementation of horizontal drilling technologies for the construction of wells in unconsolidated sandstones as well as electric submersible pumps (ESPs) has increased production rates. Top-drive PCPs have been installed in order to produce extra-heavy oil at high rates. Full specifications and equipment descriptions were provided, as well as installation data. A comparison of bottom-drive and top-drive PCP installations was made. It was concluded that the bottom-drive PCP system is a more effective alternative to lift extra-heavy oils in the area, as an additional oil production of 9 per cent was achieved with the bottom-drive PCP, and volumetric efficiency in terms of bpd/rpm was 7 per cent higher. It was observed that the discharge pressure in a bottom-drive PCP was 19 per cent lower, which generated an additional runlife of the downhole system. The heat generated by the downhole motor helped to reduce oil viscosity by 55 per cent. It was recommended that an additional 10 horse power increment should be considered in the motor design and should also consider the additional energy needs during startups. It was concluded that the bottom-drive PCP is an efficient artificial lift method where flow rates range from between 1000 to 1500 b/d. Details of rotor and stator adapter were provided, as well as performance parameters. A description of a typical horizontal well with a bottom-drive PCP was presented. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Ramos, M.A.; Brown, J.C. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (Venezuela); Rojas, M.; Kuyucu, O.; Flores, J.G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Schlumberger (United States)

2005-11-01

347

Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

348

Changes produced in oils during vacuum and traditional frying of potato chips.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the effect of vacuum frying (VF) and traditional frying (TF) on oil degradation, fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol content was investigated. Two different refined sunflower oils were used: sunflower oil with high oleic acid content (HOSO) and sunflower oil with synthetic antioxidant (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) (TBHQ-SO). Oil degradation was monitored by measuring the free acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (p-AV),) total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability (OE). Oils samples were taken every 4h of frying during 10 consecutive days. Values of FFA, p-AV, TPC using TBHQ-SO with traditional frying were (0.201, 207.0, 25.0) significantly higher than the obtained values with vacuum frying (0.073, 25.8, 11.2). The same parameters by using HOSO were (0.327, 82.0, 21.9) with traditional frying and (0.099, 33.3, 6.4) with vacuum frying. The EO was 2.44 and 7.95 with TBHQ-SO traditional and vacuum frying respectively, and with for HOSO 0.65 and 2.67, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids percentage decreased in all treatments except in TBHQ-SOv. The alpha-tocopherol content decreased in all treatments at different rates. At the end of the frying processes the percentages of alpha-tocopherol reduction were TBHQ-SOv (4.90%), TBHQ-SOt (53.62%), HOSOv (96.87%), HOSOt (99.76%). PMID:24176387

Crosa, María José; Skerl, Verónica; Cadenazzi, Mónica; Olazábal, Laura; Silva, Roberto; Suburú, Gabriela; Torres, Marina

2014-03-01

349

Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

2009-01-15

350

Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

351

[Isolation and identification of surfactin producing Bacillus subtilis strain and its effect of surfactin on crude oil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Strains producing biological surfactants were isolated from formation water of Daqing oil field, Heilongjiang Province, China. From which a lipopeptide producing strain ZW-3 was screened out by PCR of the sfp gene. The morphology, cultural characteristics, physiological, biochemical properties and chemotaxonomy of strain ZW-3 were studied. The strain is rod shaped (0.7-0.8 microm x 2-3 microm), gram-positive, spore-forming and aerobic bacteria. Its (G+C) content was determined to be 42.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence demonstrated that it was closely related to the genus Bacillus subtilis, and the metabolites of strain ZW-3 was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, the result indicated that the biosurfactant strain ZW-3 produced was surfactin. It could reduce surface tension of bacterial fermentation culture medium and water/oil- interfacial tension from 68.82 mN/m to 24.88 mN/m and from 23.53 mN/m to 4.57 mN/m, respectively, and its mixture with 1.8% NaOH could reduce water/oil- interfacial tension to an ultra low level (1.2 x 10(-3) mN/m), Its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was tested to be 33.3 mg/L (3.24 x 10(-5) mol/L)at 25 degrees C, and it had excellent emulsifying (2.89U) and foaming property. All these results showed that this biosurfactant had great potential in pharmaceutics, environmental protection, cosmetic, oil recovery and many other application fields. PMID:18479055

Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yongjian; Lin, Zhongping; Yang, Zhenyu; Hao, Chunlei

2008-03-01

352

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric study of the oil fractions produced by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of different sewage sludges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a microwave oven using graphite as microwave absorber. The pyrolysis temperature ranged from 800 to 1000 degrees C depending on the type of sewage sludge. A conventional electrical furnace was also employed in order to compare the results obtained with both methods. The pyrolysis oils were trapped in a series of condensers and their characteristics such as elemental analysis and calorific value were determined and compared with those of the initial sludge. The oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The oils from the microwave oven had n-alkanes and 1-alkenes, aromatic compounds, ranging from benzene derivatives to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogenated compounds, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, ketones and esters and also monoterpenes and steroids. The oil from the electric oven was composed basically of PAHs such as naphthalene, acenapthylene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthenes, benzopyrenes, indenepyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and anthanthrene. In contrast, these compounds were not produced in the case of microwave-assisted pyrolysis. PMID:14521315

Domínguez, A; Menéndez, J A; Inguanzo, M; Bernad, P L; Pis, J J

2003-09-19

353

Oil: Economics and politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

354

Development of a mobile water maker, a sustainable way to produce safe drinking water in developing countries  

OpenAIRE

Moreover, there is a growing demand for a simple, low capacity drinking water treatment used by local people in developing countries to reduce mortality caused by water born diseases. To solve this problem a small portable water treatment unit with a production capacity of approximately 500 L/day was developed. The unit can operate without the use of external electricity/pumps/generators in order to operate completely independent. The mobile water treatment unit uses tubular ceramic membranes...

Groendijk, L.; Vries, H. E.

2009-01-01

355

The challenges of producing popular sports contests:a comparative study of biathlon and cross-country skiing  

OpenAIRE

This article analyses how different configurations of stakeholders create opportunities for the production of popular TV sports contests. Based on qualitative methodologies, biathlon and cross-country skiing are used as contrasting cases. The paper concludes that the relative success of the International Biathlon Union is due to a favourable network position in relation to stakeholders. By comparison, the International Ski Federation suffers from a weak position within a dense stakeholder net...

Solberg, Harry Arne; Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Steen-johnsen, Kari

2009-01-01

356

Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

James Redfern

2013-11-01

357

The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products.

358

Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

2006-10-15

359

SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

2011-07-01

360

[Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

2014-01-01

361

Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations, bioavailability and doses to marine biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Preliminary results indicate that presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in the produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bio-availability of radium (and barium) may be larger than anticipated. Also, the bio-availability of radium may be increased due to presence of such chemicals, and this is presently being studied. (author) (tk)

Sidhu, R.; Eriksen, D. Oe.; Straalberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Rye, H.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.

2006-03-15

362

Ethics and the oil industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many countries public opinions are more and more sensitive to ethical issues linked to the manner in which industries and particularly oil companies behave. Oil companies are frequently unpopular, among the public both in producing and consuming countries. After a brief analysis of the reasons for this unpopularity, the author attempts to show both the ambiguities surrounding the question of ethics, and its complexity. This is especially true when oil companies have to work in countries which are destabilized, and in which disturbances - or even civil wars - may be fuelled by the important revenue streams resulting from the oil production. The various ethical issues are reviewed, from human rights to political interference, without omitting global or local environmental problems. Despite the very deep roots of the various issues the author believe some progress is achievable and advocates that the oil industry lead the way in this difficult domain. (author)

363

Volatile Compounds, Profiles of Virgin Olive Oils Produced In the Eastern Morocco: Oxidative Stability and Sensory Defects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on flavor profiles of virgin olive oil (VOO are becoming more and more numerous. The VOO aromas are determined by a mixture of chemicals in olive oil, which influence its quality. Various studies around the world have shown that the volatile compounds in VOO depend on the climate, cultivation and process. The present work is a first approach to compare volatile profiles of VOO largely produced in eastern of Morocco after 6 months of storage at ambient temperature in darkness. Oxidative stability measured by Rancimat method at 101C was also determined. VOO volatile profiles were examined using the solid-phase micro extraction fibre method (SPME in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS. 84 volatile compounds were identified; they belong to various chemical classes, such as aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons. The main volatile compounds present in olive oil samples were compounds with 6 carbon atoms (C6 such as Hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, Z-3-Hexen-1-ol and 1-Hexanol. Ethanol and Z-3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were also found. In general, these compounds have been identified in all VOO analyzed samples. The chemical compositions of the analyzed virgin olive oil headspaces evidenced that the most representative compounds In Isly and Kenine were carboxylic acids accounted for 59.24%-49.7% respectively, whereas the volatile fraction of the oil from Achajara almoubaraka showed significantly higher amounts of the alcohols (46%. Concerning oxidative stability, Isly and Kenine OO, have lower stability values compared to Achajara almoubaraka. Their potential oxidative susceptibility is therefore much higher than Achajara almoubaraka.

Karima Tanouti

2012-09-01

364

Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. PMID:23856587

Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

2013-09-01

365

Attrition-free pyrolysis to produce bio-oil and char.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments are performed on a laboratory scale setup where beech wood chips are heated by gas convection and walls radiation. This study shows that it is possible to obtain high bio-oil and char yields with relatively low external heat transfer coefficients. The main advantage of this convection/radiation heat transfer mode compared to solid-solid collisions, applied in fluidized bed or twin screw reactors, is the reduction of solid attrition (char and sand). Thus tricky gas-solid separation through hot cyclones and/or hot filters could be avoided or reduced. It should be possible to recover directly bio-oil with less char particles and char free of sand dust. These qualities would allow easier use of these bio-products in different applications. PMID:19651508

Mauviel, Guillain; Guillain, Mauviel; Kies, Fairouz; Fairouz, Kies; René, Mar Sans; Mar, Sans Rene; Ferrer, Monique; Monique, Ferrer; Lédé, Jacques; Jacques, Lédé

2009-12-01

366

Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

OpenAIRE

Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME w...

Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Pang Wey Kit; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Yoshino Sadazo; Rakmi Abdul Rahman

2003-01-01

367

Characterization of Oil and Fatty Acid Composition in Seed Produced by Canola Regrowth  

OpenAIRE

Canola (Brassica napus L.) and its relatives are known to regrow after harvesting of the foliage. However, yield and oil characteristics of seed harvested from regrowth are unknown. An experiment was conducted to obtain such information. Pre-flowering foliage was harvested from 48 plots (cut plots) grown in virginia during 2001-02 season. A group of 48 companion plots (uncut plots) was left unharvested. Upon harvesting of foliage, these plots received a factorial combination of four rates eac...

Bhardwaj, Harbans L.; Hamama, Anwar A.

2009-01-01

368

Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum. PMID:23534491

da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

2013-01-01

369

Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

370

An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

371

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinas [...] se and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

Juliana Guerra de, Oliveira; Crispin Humberto, Garcia-Cruz.

2013-02-01

372

78 FR 49475 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...China (``PRC''). The period of review is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We find that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel Tube Share Co., Ltd. (``Jiangsu Chengde'')...

2013-08-14

373

78 FR 9368 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of review (``POR'') is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminarily determine that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel Tube Share Co., Ltd. (``Jiangsu Chengde'')...

2013-02-08

374

Biosynthesis and Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Copolymers Produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 Isolated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

OpenAIRE

The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW) basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C8?0) to oleic acid (C18?1) were used as sole carbon and energy source....

Gumel, Ahmad Mohammed; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Heidelberg, Thorsten

2012-01-01

375

Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils  

OpenAIRE

New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ?C20) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6?3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG) as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid). Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM) extraction recovered ...

Mansour, Maged P.; Pushkar Shrestha; Srinivas Belide; Petrie, James R.; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

2014-01-01

376

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010 : a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ? 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (? 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (? 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (? 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab

2014-01-01

377

Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We obtained biodiesel from açai, cupuaçu, passion fruit and linseed oil. • Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. • Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. • The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the açaí biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuaçu fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), açaí (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the açaí, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

378

Fractionation and Leaching of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Waste Produced from Oil Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil and gas fields wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become a focus of substantial attention.The primary NORM includes radioactive daughter elements from uranium and thorium decay series, which include radium-226, radium-228, and radon gases.The criteria used to determine the activity of NORM is based on the amount of radium contained in the samples. Suez Gulf sediment samples from oil and gas production areas have been analyzed and the concentration of radioisotopes was determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector in Bq/kg dry weight.The screening of the sediment samples on a vibratory sieve shaker was performed to evaluate the feasibility of particle size separation.The fractions obtained were ranged from>2mm to <0.25mm.The results show that the NORM concentrations vary widely from fraction.Various leaching agents (mineral acids, carbonate or hydroxide solutions, some salts of alkaline earth metals and EDTA) were tested to achieve desirable decontamination of the sediment samples. Assessment of the results obtained was given

379

From microalgae oil to produce novel structured triacylglycerols enriched with unsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and low palmitic acid (PA) content were firstly synthesized from Schizochytrium sp. oil and oleic acid (OA) via solvent-free acidolysis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The results indicated that, the PA content decreased from 24.49% to 6.95%, while the UFAs content increased from 70.20% to 90.9% at the sn-1,3 positions in the STAGs under the optimal condition (i.e., lipase load of 7%, molar ratio of microalgae oil TAGs to OA of 1:3, and temperature of 65°C). The lipase Lipozyme RM IM could be reused 16times without significant loss of activity. The improved plastic and storage ranges of STAGs are useful for infant formula formulations, by which a possible method is blending of this product and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol enriched fats and minor lipids based on the corresponding chemical compositions of human milk fat. PMID:25451776

Wang, Jun; Wang, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Liu, Xi; Dong, Tao; Wu, Fu-An

2015-05-01

380

Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species. PMID:22792403

Lim, David K Y; Garg, Sourabh; Timmins, Matthew; Zhang, Eugene S B; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schuhmann, Holger; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

2012-01-01

381

Characterisation of Gas-Liquid Interfaces related to Offshore Produced Water Treatment. : The Influence of Crude Oil Composition and different Brines with various pH.  

OpenAIRE

Produced water is an environmental toxic and complex mixture, which is co-produced during gas and oil production. The aim of this study is to investigate the surface tension of the produced water with a bubble pressure tensiometer, BP100. The influence of the pH of the brine and the brine composition were studied together with the effect of the crude oil composition. The results were supposed to be related to flotation, which is a common separation technique regarding produced water treatment...

Kløcker, Kaja Neeb

2013-01-01

382

OPEC charts course for future oil market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author says OPEC is an economic organization with a simple mission: to provide a stable and reliable supply of oil to its customers and assure a fair return to its producers. When OPEC was formed in 1960, he recalls multinational oil companies dominated the oil market. Their operations were highly integrated from well to pump, and they kept oil prices low to fuel economic growth in prosperous industrialized countries. Host nations were rarely consulted in operations, and they reaped only minimal return for their black gold. OPEC changed all that. Today, OPEC's 13 member countries control their own oil industries, and some even own sizeable investments in the downstream sectors of consuming countries. To meet its commitment for supplying the petroleum needs of industrialized nations by the turn of the century, the author estimates OPEC will need to increase production capacity by about 40% at a cost well above what member countries can afford alone

383

An alternative to fish oils: Metabolic engineering of oil-seed crops to produce omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5Delta5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Delta4,7,10,13,16,19) play important roles in a number of aspects of human health, with marine fish rich in these beneficial fatty acids our primary dietary source. However, over-fishing and concerns about pollution of the marine environment indicate a need to develop alternative, sustainable sources of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as EPA and DHA. A number of different strategies have been considered, with one of the most promising being transgenic plants "reverse-engineered" to produce these so-called fish oils. Considerable progress has been made towards this goal and in this review we will outline the recent achievements in demonstrating the production of omega-3 VLC-PUFAs in transgenic plants. We will also consider how these enriched oils will allow the development of nutritionally-enhanced food products, suitable either for direct human ingestion or for use as an animal feedstuff. In particular, the requirements of aquaculture for omega-3 VLC-PUFAs will act as a strong driver for the development of such products. In addition, biotechnological research on the synthesis of VLC-PUFAs has provided new insights into the complexities of acyl-channelling and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in higher plants. PMID:19857520

Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A

2010-04-01

384

Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

385

Long term development of the world's seaborne steam coal export markets with focus on producing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From a customer view, hence the demand side of the world seaborne coal business, the requirements to utilize hard coal for electricity generation in the long run can be summarized quite easily: coal has to be securely sourced with predictable qualities and with a stable cost basis. To determine whether this is the case, German E.ON Kraftwerke (EKW) built up a fundamental database comprising the majority of today's publicly reported steam coal export capacities, as well as, new projects and initiatives on a mine by mine basis. Matching the country specific cash cost curves with assumed global coal demand and freight markets, future seaborne trade volume flows and probable thermal coal imports costs are modelled. This paper focuses on key input parameters and the mechanics of the fundamental database. Furthermore the authors provide an outlook of the key steam coal exporting nations in 2030 providing a glimpse at the potential origins of Europe's future coal import basket. (orig.)

Bayer, Arne K. [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Rademacher, Maggi [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

2010-10-15

386

Fuel Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Groundnut Oil (Arachis hypogea and its Blend with Petroleum Diesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to produce biodiesel from methyl esters of groundnut (Arachis hypogea oil and blend with Petrol diesel. The fuel quality of the biodiesel and its blend (B10 was assessed and compared with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standards. The groundnut oil was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, moisture content, ash content, acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value, refractive index and flash point. The biodiesel produced was analyzed for the same parameters including calorific value. The results obtained for the biodiesel showed that while the moisture and ash content were satisfactorily found in trace quantities, the other parameters also had satisfactory results within the specification of 0.88 (specific gravity, 5.16 mm2 sec-1 (kinematic viscosity, 4.96 mg KOH g-1 (acid value, 2.49% (free fatty acid, 244.74 mg KOH g-1 (saponification value, 52.45 mg KOH g-1 (iodine value, 3.23 mEq kg-1 (peroxide value, 1.463 (refractive index, 202C (flash point and 39,114.29 J g-1 (calorific value. However, the acid value was found to be higher than the maximum permissible level of 0.8 mg KOH g-1. There was obviously very little change in the parameters of the biodiesel when it was blended except for the flash point which was only slightly below the recommended minimum ASTM value of 130C. This indicates that the biodiesel produced could be blended with petrodiesel (B10 to give satisfactory fuel with properties not too different from the biodiesel produced.

H.C. Ezeugwu

2011-01-01

387

Seasonal and spatial trends in production and stable isotope signatures of primary producers in Alberta oil sands reclamation wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands processing produces large amounts of waste water that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs). This study investigated the effects of exposure to PAHs and NA in aquatic organisms. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in primary producers using stable isotopes in process-affected and reference wetlands were studied. Plankton and periphytic samples from artificial wetland substrates were collected and analyzed. Periphyton was collected in 14 to 20 day intervals for 5 different time periods in 2007 and 2008 in order to analyze seasonal trends in isotopic composition. Results of the study showed d15N enriched values for some consolidated tailings (CT) at sites in 2008. Other sites with mature fine tailings (MFT) as well as non-MFT sites did not have enriched d15N values. The study suggested that there are variations in ammonia levels in the CTs of different oil sands operators. Differences in the quality of the CT resulted in differences in d15N values of the periphyton-dominated by algae as well as in the periphyton dominated by microbes.

Boutsivongsakd, M; Chen, H.; Legg, A.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

388

Seasonal and spatial trends in production and stable isotope signatures of primary producers in Alberta oil sands reclamation wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands processing produces large amounts of waste water that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs). This study investigated the effects of exposure to PAHs and NA in aquatic organisms. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in primary producers using stable isotopes in process-affected and reference wetlands were studied. Plankton and periphytic samples from artificial wetland substrates were collected and analyzed. Periphyton was collected in 14 to 20 day intervals for 5 different time periods in 2007 and 2008 in order to analyze seasonal trends in isotopic composition. Results of the study showed d15N enriched values for some consolidated tailings (CT) at sites in 2008. Other sites with mature fine tailings (MFT) as well as non-MFT sites did not have enriched d15N values. The study suggested that there are variations in ammonia levels in the CTs of different oil sands operators. Differences in the quality of the CT resulted in differences in d15N values of the periphyton-dominated by algae as well as in the periphyton dominated by microbes.

389

Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Properties of Medium-Density Fibreboard Produced from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB are readily available residues from palm oil industry and have tremendous potential to be used as fibre raw material for Medium-density Fibreboard (MDF manufacture. However, some of the properties of the MDF produced from EFB have been reported to be relatively inferior to those made from rubberwood, presumably due to presence of residual oil in the fibres. In this study, the effects of EFB fibre treatment (soaking in 2% NaOH, boiling in water, both soaking and boiling on the properties of MDF were investigated. The MDF was manufactured using urea formaldehyde (UF as a binder and bonded at three resin levels: 8, 10 and 12%. The boards were tested according to MS Standards 1787: 2005. The results revealed that the refined EFB fibres were short and relatively hard. It was also observed that these fibres tend to conglomerate and formed a small loosely wrapped fibre lumps. Among the treatments used, boiling in water was able to significantly improve the dimensional stability of the board. Apparently high resin content (at least 12% was required to bond EFB fibres and produce boards of high mechanical properties and great dimensional stability.

U.M.K. Anwar

2012-01-01

390

High-efficiency homologous recombination in the oil-producing alga Nannochloropsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algae have reemerged as potential next-generation feedstocks for biofuels, but strain improvement and progress in algal biology research have been limited by the lack of advanced molecular tools for most eukaryotic microalgae. Here we describe the development of an efficient transformation method for Nannochloropsis sp., a fast-growing, unicellular alga capable of accumulating large amounts of oil. Moreover, we provide additional evidence that Nannochloropsis is haploid, and we demonstrate that insertion of transformation constructs into the nuclear genome can occur by high-efficiency homologous recombination. As examples, we generated knockouts of the genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, resulting in strains that were unable to grow on nitrate and nitrate/nitrite, respectively. The application of homologous recombination in this industrially relevant alga has the potential to rapidly advance algal functional genomics and biotechnology. PMID:22123974

Kilian, Oliver; Benemann, Christina S E; Niyogi, Krishna K; Vick, Bertrand

2011-12-27

391

Treatment of produced water: targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the produced water generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produced water require reducing the input into the sea of oil and other substances resulting from produced water from offshore installations. The ultimate aim is to eliminate pollution from those sources and ensure that effort is made to give priority to actions related to the most harmful components of produced water. The goal of this study is to acquire further knowledge and technology to attain the 'Zero Harmful Discharge' policy initiated by the Norwegian authorities. The ambition is to study a treatment method to meet the requirements of the future performance standards for the removal of harmful dissolved organic compounds. The dissolved compounds can be removed by physical/chemical methods such as stripping, oxidation, membrane technology, extraction, sorption as well as biological treatment. Required process size is a key factor limiting the application of several of the alternatives described above, especially if very low effluent concentrations must be achieved. Handling of the 'waste' stream that could be spent sorption media, off-gas that requires further treatment or concentrate from a membrane process, is another common limitation. The scope of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a treatment concept that combines selective in-line sorption of selected dissolved compounds (BTX) coupled with biological regeneration of the spent media in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR). The research work was focused on the following issues: selective sorption of dissolved aromatic compounds but not of organic acids from produced water, assessment of the efficiency of the bio regeneration process and feasibility of the treatment concept based on sorption and biological regeneration in a continuous process. BTEX were selected to be used in the tests because they are found by far in the highest concentration in produced water among the dissolved aromatic compounds, while acetic acid was chosen for the same reason as the representative of the organic acids group. In the first instance, the sorption properties of several different types of sorption media were investigated. Focus was made on sorbents, which seemed to be promising for this application based on reports found during the literature review. This included also an assessment of sorption kinetics of the selected media. After identifying the most appropriate sorbent, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation of the sorbed compounds by the microorganisms grown on the sorbent granules. Finally, a laboratory-scale experimental setup was built and operated in order to study and determine the feasibility and potentials of the treatment concept. Results indicated that selective sorption of BTX compounds from wastewater was achieved by using an organo clay. This sorbent showed good affinity for BTX compounds and at the same time retained only to a low extent acetic acid from wastewater. Off-line biological regeneration of the organo clay was shown to be feasible under the studied conditions. Operating conditions depended on wastewater quality, therefore FBR operation had to be tuned first to sorb the entire amount of BTX compounds from produced water and then completely biodegrade the previously sorbed compounds in order for the organo clay bed to recover its entire sorption capacity. Long time off-line bio regeneration experiments indicated that the organo clay bed lost a part of its sorption capacity over time. Possible causes for this phenomenon could be: accumulation of organic compounds and minerals, particle attrition, desorption and biodegradation o

Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

2009-06-15

392

Oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest estimate by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and the Australian Petroleum Exploration Association regarding Australia's oil production are presented. The domestic oil production is expected to reach the top of the curve in 1995 before slipping into decline and creating an ever-widening self-sufficiency gap between output and demand. It is also estimated that unless significant discoveries are made, a higher world oil price will mean a significant cost to Australia as the price of importing its energy requirements increases. 1 tab., 2 figs

393

Precipitation chemistry and occurrence of acid rain over the oil-producing Niger Delta region of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS), electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH), and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April-June, July-August, and September-October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil-producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries). The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April-June, July-August, and September-October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods). Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region. PMID:20364238

Nduka, John K C; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2010-01-01

394

Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

2014-01-01

395

Selection and Characterization of Biofuel-Producing Environmental Bacteria Isolated from Vegetable Oil-Rich Wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T.; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

2014-01-01

396

Unconventional Oil Potential Tends to Change the World Oil Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Falling unconventional oil production costs and a significant increase in its production (especially in the North America can potentially impact the structure of the global oil trade. As a result, it will create additional risks for the producers of conventional oil, which production costs went up sharply in recent years.
The aim of this study is the analysis and forecast of the development of unconventional oil production, its potential impact on the international oil market and the traditional exporting countries. The forecast for the future state of the oil industry was carried out with the help of a modeling complex SCANER, developed at the Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ERI RAS. The estimates of the future situation in the oil market were based on the forecasts of the economic development of the world’s main countries and regions, which then were compiled by the Russian Energy Agency in 2012.
The modeling results showed that unconventional oil had a great development potential. According to the ERI RAS forecast, its production by 2035 could increase by almost fivefold as compared to 2010 (i. e., from 2.3 mb/d to 11.4 mb/d, around 90% of oil from unconventional sources will be produced in the North America. Such an increase in production may also lead to the situation, when the North America will reduce its dependence on imported oil. In the future, this will lead to a redistribution of oil trade flows in the world and will impose a negative impact on the producers in Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the Asian-Pacific region (APR and, to a lesser extent, in the Middle East.

Key words: Unconventional oil; SCANER; World oil market

Dmitry Grushevenko

2012-09-01

397

Costs of producing electricity from nuclear, coal-fired and oil-fired power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Board publishes generation costs per kW h incurred at recently commissioned power stations so that the costs and performance of nuclear and conventional stations of roughly the same date of construction can be compared. The term 'conventional power station' is used to describe coal-fired and oil-fired steam power stations. The Board has now decided: (A) to supplement the past method of calculating costs at main stations commissioned between 1965 and 1977 by giving the associated figures for interest during construction, for research, and for training; (B) to give similar figures for the contemporary stations Hinkley Point B and the first half of Drax, (C) to provide estimates of generating costs of stations under construction; (D) to set out explicitly the relationship of this method of calculation to that employed in taking investment decisions on future stations. In this way the figures for stations in commission and under construction are arrived at more in line with the general principles of evaluating investment proposals. The present document provides this information. (author)

398

Online monitoring of P(3HB) produced from used cooking oil with near-infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Online monitoring process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), using cooking oil (UCO) as the sole carbon source and Cupriavidus necator, was developed. A batch reactor was operated and hydroxybutyrate homopolymer was obtained. The biomass reached a maximum concentration of 11.6±1.7gL(-1) with a polymer content of 63±10.7% (w/w). The yield of product on substrate was 0.77±0.04gg(-1). Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used for online monitoring of the fermentation, using a transflectance probe. Partial least squares regression was applied to relate NIR spectra with biomass, UCO and PHA concentrations in the broth. The NIR predictions were compared with values obtained by offline reference methods. Prediction errors to these parameters were 1.18, 2.37 and 1.58gL(-1) for biomass, UCO and PHA, respectively, which indicate the suitability of the NIR spectroscopy method for online monitoring and as a method to assist bioreactor control. PMID:25455015

Cruz, Madalena V; Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Freitas, Filomena; Lopes, João Almeida; Reis, Maria A M

2015-01-20

399

Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW. PMID:17537573

Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

2007-07-31

400

Studies on Hydrotreating Process of Microcrystalline Wax Produced from Marine Belayim Crude Oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abstract Microcrystalline wax was produced from solvent dewaxing process of vacuum residue raffinate produced from Marine Belayim origin. The untreated microcrystalline wax contains trace amounts of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and organometallic compounds as well as heavy aromatics which affect the properties of wax applications in pharmaceutical and technical fields . Microcrystalline wax hydrotreating process was studied using digital controlled unit and Ni O-MoO3 / Al2O3 catalyst, where operating parameters that controlled the efficiency of the hydrotreated wax were studied separately at different values including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio . Hydrotreated microcrystalline wax at operating conditions (temperature 300 degree C, pressure 73 kg/cm2, LHS V 0.52 h-l and H2/HC ratio 266.6 Nm3/m3) has the best quality to be used as food grade wax

401

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridizati