WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Technical cooperation with oil producing country; Sanyukoku tono gijutsu kyoryoku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundation international petroleum alternating current center was established in November 1981. The aim of the establishment was to become the central organization for the cooperation in order to maintain friendship and partnership with the oil producing country in order to ensure the stable supply of the petroleum to our country. The developed country was asked resistant for the cooperation in necessary technical aspect and talent training plane for the advance of petroleum industry to the downstream department so that oil-producing country may establish the base of the industrialization of the domestic in those days. (NEDO)

Kujirai, Koichi [Japan Corporation Center Petroleum, Tokyo (Japan)

1999-09-01

2

Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

1977-05-13

3

1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

Warner, A.J.

1979-03-01

4

Potential Iranian hegemony in oil producing Islamic countries: Implications for oil geopolitics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades world supply of oil has been increasingly held in the Islamic countries around the Persian Gulf. The fact that the level of oil production is high in these countries and that they possess most of the world's oil reserves could be extremely significant. This 'petropower' could lead to strategic geopolitical developments when oil is used as economic and political weapons. It may be that the apocalyptic appeal of militant Islamism coming out of Iran can weld both Shia and Sunni...

Leigh James; Vukovi? Predrag

2010-01-01

5

Nuclear Power Aspects in an Oil and Coal Producing Country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago are described. Resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, some hydro and geothermal power, and some radioactive minerals. The possible use of...

J. Iljas

1977-01-01

6

Peasant migration from an Egyptian village to the oil-producing countries: it causes and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the causes and consequences of peasant migration to the Arab oil-producing countries on the sending community. It recognizes the multiplicity of levels of causality on which migration operates. Therefore, it examines the role of national and international determinants of migration as well as individual, household, and village level variables in generating migration. Furthermore, it investigates the role of migration in bringing about social change in the village economy, social structure, and individual attitudes. Four issues related to emigration are thoroughly examined: remittances and their use, the village labor market and labor shortage, the land market in the village, and attitudes toward women. The study demonstrates that emigration to the oil countries is nothing more than a new link in the long historical tradition of migration from rural Egypt. The current trend of migration to the oil-producing countries, however, is the result of both the changing role of the oil-producing countries within the world economy and the changes in Egypt's agrarian and migration policies during the 1970's which led to increasing intersectoral and intrasectoral inequalities that triggered peasant migration. Also, migration from the village to the oil-producing countries is a pattern of behavior unique to small peasant producers.

Mohieddin, M.M.

1987-01-01

7

Fresh water supply to oil producing countries by means of crude oil tankers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil producing area and oil consuming area in the world sometimes coincide with water deficient area and water surplus area, like as Arabian Gulf area and Japan. Ocean transportation of oil over these areas is being made by oil tankers, but return voyage of tankers has so far not been put to productive use. By boost of international regulation to prevent marine pollution caused by discharging sea water ballast, such half used bridge will provide with practical measures of fresh water transportation to oil producing arid area. This is to report the proposed scheme to transport and supply fresh water to Arabian Gulf area by means of return voyages of crude oil tankers voyaging between Arabian Gulf area and Japan with it technical and economical aspects as well as its effect and additional advantages to be expected by the scheme.

Akiyama, Y.

1980-12-01

8

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

2006-12-01

9

Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

2011-01-01

10

GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned...

2007-01-01

11

Nuclear power prospects in an oil and coal-producing country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face the crucial problem of having to decide which kinds of energy resources would reasonably feasibly replace the oil currently being used in the country as the main source of energy. A description is given of the present known energy reserves and their potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil from the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints on both coal and nuclear power are discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economic, financial and political aspects. A comparative study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy. (author)

1977-05-13

12

Oil and gas industry in the 1990s in the producer country of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plans for the development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are outlined. Oil dominates the economy, well over 80% of export earnings being derived from petroleum. The ideal would be for Nigeria to become a net exporter of processed gas and refined petroleum products and derivatives but not of crude oil thus reaping the maximum benefit of value added earnings. This goal is being pursued wherever possible. By 1996, Nigeria should possess all the major constituents of a modern oil industry state. The three modern refineries which have a total capacity of 445,000 barrels per day will have the necessary pipelines, depots and export terminals. Four petrochemical plants will produce a range of products. A gas condensate field will be in production for export and a number of plants will be producing liquefied natural gas, natural gas liquids, methanol and MTBE. To achieve these objectives for its petroleum industry, Nigeria has set up a structure for the management framework and has developed a national petroleum policy. The salient points of the policy are given. (UK)

1992-01-01

13

Oil and gas trends in African oil-producing countries. Part 1. Algeria and Libya; Africa san`yukoku no sekiyu gas doko. 1. Arujeria, Ribia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces the recent crude oil and natural gas trends in Algeria and Libya out of the 6 African countries which account for more than 90% of crude and natural gas produced in the African continent. Algeria is now under severe economic situations, with deficits totalling 26 billion dollars. She depends on crude and natural gas for 95% of her foreign-exchange earnings. A number of foreign firms are now developing the oil and gas fields under dynamic political situations, with the Islamic fundamentalism radicals gaining power. She is now planning to expand the exportation of natural gas to European countries, produces 1.15 M B/D of oil (1994), having an R/P ratio of 34 years and refining capacity of 470 K B/D, and has the gas reserves of 3.7 trillion m{sup 3}, selling a total quantity of 53.9 billion m{sup 3}/y (1993). The UN`s sanctions on Libya for its acts of terrorism, such as blasting of a PamAm plane, have not had a fatal wound influenced on the Libyan economy. Oil exportation of 1.3 million B/D, accounting for 95% of her foreign- exchange earnings, gives the highest GNP per capita in Africa. Her oil reserves total 22.8 billion B (R/P ratio: 46 years). 6 figs., 15 tabs.

Norie, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-02-01

14

Oil producers and trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differing assessments of advice being offered to governments and national oil companies of the petroleum exporting countries are given by three commentators. The advice, coming from traders, consultants and the management of formal futures exchanges, is that oil exporters should make use of available trading instruments for the purpose of hedging in risk management; sometimes establishing forward and futures markets for their own crudes is also suggested. The first commentator offers two arguments in support of his view that the ''no-trading'' policy of oil exporters is costly and damaging to their interests. The third commentator does not favour the creation of a trading contract by producers for Arabian Gulf crudes. The idea of a producers' trading instrument is rejected more emphatically by the second commentator on the grounds that, unlike private companies, governments cannot credibly organize a market and trade in it; producers should trade in existing markets only with great care. (UK)

1995-02-01

15

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

2009-07-01

16

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

2009-07-01

17

Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

2008-03-01

18

Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators-the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional)

2008-03-01

19

The macro-economic effect of oil incomes instability on the economic growth of oil-producing countries: the case of Kuwait; Les effets macro-economiques de l'instabilite des recettes petrolieres sur le developpement economique des pays petroliers: le cas du Koweit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the failure of oil-exporting countries in terms of economic growth is mainly due to the instability of oil incomes, and not only to the Dutch syndrome as many specialist believed. Indeed, the strong drop in the price of crude oil in 1986 and the money shortage it resulted in caused a deep transformation of the nature of the economic issues facing oil-producing countries. These countries remain strongly dependent on oil incomes, and need to face not only the harmful effects of financial abundance, but also the negative implications of the capital shortage and volatile incomes. In this article, we show that the never-ending instability of Kuwait's oil incomes undermines the growth rate of its economy and requires the government of that country to change its expenditure policies all the time, making it impossible to establish long term growth plans. (author)

Baddour, J. [Universite de la Reunion, 97 - Saint-Denis (France)

2002-08-01

20

Optimal oil-producer behavior considering macrofeedbacks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A portfolio management approach is given to the question of how an oil producer should set his prices over time if his pricing decisions affect the rate of return on his assets. The additional considerations of macrofeedback can be dealt with within a portfolio management framework, given a suitable macroeconomic model. Strong short-run macrofeedback through energy demand and returns to capital appear to limit the gains to producers from adopting extreme pricing strategies. Nor do producers appear to gain much by creating uncertainty about future oil prices. Both oil producers and consuming countries appear to gain substantially if the long-range pricing formula is chosen over more radical pricing strategies. 18 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Saunders, H.D.

1983-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

NONE

2007-11-29

22

European cross-country oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCAWE first became involved with oil pipeline safety issues in the mid-1960s when it started collecting information and statistics on incidents and spills related to European cross-country oil pipelines. Annual data have been collected since 1969 through a survey of pipeline operators. The first report was published the same year and annual reports have been published since 1972. Starting in 2006, the annual report has included all historical data with each report superseding the previous one.

Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-04-01

23

Oil-product demand in OECD countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the historical relationships between gross domestic product (GDP), energy, and oil and other fuels develops national and regional trends in the consumption of oil products in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Quarterly changes in GDP and light oil products consumption show oil products growing an average of 1 to 1.5 times the rate of GDP during the past 18 months. The rebound of oil demand since the second half of 1983 is the result of higher than average light product demand for every increment of GDP in Europe, Japan, and the US. Demand is high because of the lack of substitutes for gasoline, increased demand for air travel and aviation fuel, continued demand for diesel fuel for transport, and for liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene. 4 figures, 3 tables.

Kouris, G.

1985-01-01

24

The economic growth of oil countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

2007-01-01

25

Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

2000-01-01

26

Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

Canes, M.E. [Logistics Management Institute (United States)

2000-07-01

27

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

28

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

2010-02-01

29

Techno-economic study of re-refining waste lubricating oils in the Arabian Gulf countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste oil reclamation by re-refining is a promising process for recycling valuable pollutant waste. In Arabian Gulf countries, a limited volume of waste oil is recycled. A technical and economical evaluation of some reclamation methods to produce lubricating oil has been conducted. 5 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Al-Ahmad, M.I.; Al-Mutaz, I.S. (King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1991-11-01

30

The impact of oil on a developing country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development

1990-01-01

31

Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ? We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ? The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ? The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ? The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ? These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

2012-09-01

32

World oil and cold reality. [Supply conforms to producer logic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faced with the fact that the oil-exporting countries now call the tune in supply and price, can their customers act to alter their profligate consumption habits and develop oil substitutes. Can they embark on a period of restructured growth and leave behind their world of internal contradictions (as this article terms them), in which every sneeze by an OPEC nation seems to produce an economic cold at home. The author of this article, a top oil company executive, voices some pessimism about the outcome in the medium term. He projects scenarios for the production of oil and other energy sources in the next two decades. Using scenarios from his company's well-regarded planning staff, the author shows ranges of availability in which price has lost its conventional influence in the supply-demand equation. The conclusions are not encouraging for oil consumers.

Benard, A.

1980-11-01

33

Oil Prices and Real Exchange Rate Movements in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Role of Institutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political and legal institutions affect the extent to which the real exchange rates of oil-exporting countries co-move with the oil price. In a simple theoretical model, strong institutions insulate real exchange rates from oil price volatility by generating a smooth pattern of fiscal spending over the price cycle. Empirical tests on a panel of 33 oil-exporting countries provide evidence that countries with high bureaucratic quality and strong and impartial legal systems have real exchange ra...

Rickne, Johanna

2009-01-01

34

Problems of an economic diversification of the oil countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of large surpluses in the oil countries of the near-east has not only led to considerable financial problems, but also thrown up important questions with regard to the economic development of these countries. This article examines the problems which have arisen in six of these countries since 1973 with respect of their efforts to advance their economic development by diversification.

Habluetzel, R.

1981-06-01

35

Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)

2003-03-01

36

National incomes of oil producers are overstated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transient nature of oil income suggests the need for a better way to calculate the real national income of oil-producing nations. The author argues that it would be better to consider these revenues as a liquidation of capital rather than as income, and that spending the proceeds of oil production is a form of capital consumption requiring a different way to measure gross domestic product. A depletion allowance is needed that could be subtracted from the GDP to account for the wasting asset effect. Preliminary results of a study in Kuwait and Norway are developing adjusted figures that are better economic indicators of real growth than the standard GDP calculation.

Stauffer, T.

1984-02-01

37

The role of country risk in crude oil trading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crude oil is one of the foundations of the global economy. It is extracted in different parts of the world such as North and South America, Asia, Africa and Persian Gulf. It is a very important source of income for developing countries thus, disruptions of production due to geopolitical factors can be devastating for a country’s economy. This research is an attempt to understand the implications of country risk when crude oil is traded and find out what could be the solutions to mitigate th...

Miranda, Ine?s; Fragnie?re, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

38

The role of oil in electricity generation in five European countries: Past, present, and potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual primary oil demand of five European countries --- France, Germany, Italy, England Wales, and Sweden --- declined by approximately 25% between 1973 and 1986. Nearly one-third of this decline is the result of the phasing-out of oil for use in electricity generation. In 1973, oil was the first- or second-most important energy source for electricity generation in all of these countries --- generating between 14% and 59% of electricity produced. By 1986, oil's share of electricity generation had declined to between 1.5% and 5.6% in all countries except Italy (39.4%), where oil is still being used for base-load generation. In England Wales and Sweden, oil-based generation may soon increase above 1986 levels. In Sweden, oil-based generation will be used to bridge a supply gap that will result from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the absence of new generation capacity to replace them. Although oil-fired electricity generation may increase above 1986 levels in the near future in some countries, the maximum potential levels of oil-based generation calculated in this report will not be attained in any of the countries unless a major electricity-generation resource or technology suffers a severe, unforeseen disruption. In the absence of such a disruption, institutional barriers against dependence on oil will preclude the realization of the existing potential. Nonetheless, the hidden potential for oil use in the power sector, represented by the existing oil-fired capacity, must not be forgotten. As institutions and political agendas evolve, so too might attitudes regarding oil use.

Hawk, D.V.; Schipper, L.

1989-10-01

39

Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

NONE

1995-05-01

40

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Economics Department, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6445 (Iran)

2008-03-15

 
 
 
 
41

External debt and oil prices: some prospects for oil-exporting developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the extent to which selected oil-exporting developing countries can continue to depend on their major source of hard currency earnings to service their external debt in particular and to promote the process of future economic growth in general. The four countries under consideration are: Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia and Nigeria. Incorporated into the study are alternative sets of assumptions regarding future oil output, export potential, future oil prices, external debt levels and future interest rates. Both the effects of the recently formulated Baker Plan and the collapse of oil prices are examined within this context.

Sohn, I.

1987-10-01

42

Recent developments in the oil spill response, arrangements in four Mediterranean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the existing national arrangement for intervention in case of oil spills in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain, Libya, Egypt) are analyzed. These plans were considered by AGIP for incorporation in the Contingency Plans for offshore operations conducted by its subsidiaries in these four countries. More recent development for improvement of these arrangements (example Oil sector Plans in Egypt) are taken into account together with the oil spill cases more likely susceptible to produce a further increase of the existing capabilities. In addition to the cases which have been extensively dealt with in the specialized Newsletters and Bulletins (Khark 5, Aragon spills), this paper also deals with the less known spill of December 1989 in the Egyptian waters of Gulf of Suez. The accident involved a Philippine ship and the GUPCO's platform Sidki, representing an emblematic case of the problems of the heavy use of the Gulf of Suez as a water way and oil production area

1990-05-15

43

A survey of oil product demand elasticities for developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As more and more developing countries join the ranks of the rich they will consume both more oil and higher percentage of the lighter products. To satisfy this growing demand oil production and refinery capacity that can provide the right quantity and mix of products must be developed. In a companion piece, Dahl (1993) found the total demand for oil to be price inelastic (-0.34) and income elastic (1.32) These elasticities can give information on the total quantity of oil that might be demanded, the total amount of distillation capacity that might be needed and the overall increases in product prices that might be necessary to choke off demand growth. However, with this overall growth in product demand, the more the shift towards the lighter portion of the barrel, the more complex the refinery and the greater the demand for downstream capital. To provide information on this mix in developing countries in the coming years, this paper surveys the available work on econometric demand elasticities by oil product. (author)

1994-01-01

44

Oil Price and Economic Growth in Small Pacific Island Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the 14 Pacific Island countries (PICs, only Papua New Guinea has fossil fuel resources. None of the remaining 13 PICs has any energy sources. Consequently, all the 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Recent surges and volatility in oil prices have had serious economic re-percussions on economic growth. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the recently developed panel analysis procedures to five major PICs, namely Fiji, Samoa, Solomon islands, Tonga and Vanuatu with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, economic growth and international reserve are cointegrated. The study findings are that although in the long run there is no long run causality relationship between these variables, in the short run the causality linkage runs from oil prices and interna-tional reserve to economic growth. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on policy options.

T. K. Jayaraman

2011-05-01

45

Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

Knutsen, Trine

2011-01-01

46

Properties of oils used or produced during coal liquefaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzed were chemical properties of oils used or produced during two-stage (coal extraction and extract hydrogenation) liquefaction of gas flame coal. The following oil types were evaluated: hydrogenated anthracene oil used as a solvent during extraction, oil produced by condensing vapors of light hydrocarbons which are formed during coal extraction, oil produced during vacuum distillation of a filtrate, oils produced by low temperature carbonization of the residue left after filtration of the raw coal extract, and product of catalytic hydrogenation of coal extract. The NMR spectrometer produced by VARIAN XL-100 was used. The results of investigations are shown in a table. Molecules of oils produced during coal extraction and hydrogenation are compared. The average molecule consisted of aromatic compounds with 2 or 3 rings characterized by short constituents (alkyl chains or naphthalene rings conjugated with aromatic rings). 8 references.

Rusin, A.; Potyka, W.; Rusin, E.

1983-03-01

47

World Oilseed Situation and U.S. Export Opportunities, April 1985: Reference Tables on the Major Producing, Consuming, and Trading Countries of Palm Kernel Meal, and Palm Kernel Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents, for the first time, the data base on palm kernels, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel oil. Statistical sources include Agricultural Counselor and Attache reports, official statistics released by foreign governments, and trade pub...

1985-01-01

48

Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting and importing countries, differently. So that, in oil exporting countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly positive (negative effect on their TOT, while in oil importing countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly a negative (positive effect on TOT. Furthermore, the findings reveal that in the oil exporting countries, the effect of negative oil price shocks on TOT is more than positive oil price shocks. While, in oil importing countries, it is converse.

Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh

2012-01-01

49

Institutional Quality, Economic Growth and Fluctuations of Oil Prices in Oil Dependent Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principle aim of this investigation is the study of fluctuations of oil prices impacts on economic growth of oil-dependent countries with respect to institutional quality. For this purpose we use panel cointegration methodology and error-correction model for 32 oil abundant countries covering the period 1975-2010. The result implies that fluctua- tions of oil prices impact on economic growth of countries depend on institutional quality index so that the impact of fluctuation is avoided by...

Alireza Keikha; Ahmadali Keikha; Mohsen Mehrara

2012-01-01

50

The Influence of Oil Prices on Stock Market Returns: Empirical Evidence from Oil Exporting and Oil Importing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to study the impact of oil price fluctuations on the stock markets and the interest ratesfrom oil importing and oil exporting countries. To this end, Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models are estimatedand pairwise Granger Causality tests are performed to the stationary series in order to analyse the short-termrelationships among the variables. Also, the Johansen approach for multiple equations is carried out in order totest for cointegration among the series. Finally,...

Dimitrios Asteriou; Augustinos Dimitras; Andrea Lendewig

2013-01-01

51

Quality Improvement of Olive Oils Produced In The Eastern Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize olive oils and to distinguish the production areas according to the specific soil and climate. The goal is to label "local product" olive oils produced in the eastern region of Morocco. The studies focus on oils from three consecutive olives harvest periods. Olive oils, obtained from eastern small olive oil-producers, characteristics were determined using conventional methods analysis, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. This study shows a marked improvement in quality parameters of olive oils produced in this region. There is a difference in the phenol content between oils of different origins; this parameter content can be used as marker to distinguish olive oils according to the production area

Tanouti K

2011-01-01

52

Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

El-Anshasy, Amany A.

53

Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

2008-07-01

54

The Influence of Oil Prices on Stock Market Returns: Empirical Evidence from Oil Exporting and Oil Importing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impact of oil price fluctuations on the stock markets and the interest ratesfrom oil importing and oil exporting countries. To this end, Vector Autoregressive (VAR models are estimatedand pairwise Granger Causality tests are performed to the stationary series in order to analyse the short-termrelationships among the variables. Also, the Johansen approach for multiple equations is carried out in order totest for cointegration among the series. Finally, the existence of cointegration set the estimation of VectorError-Correction Models (VECMs to investigate the long-term links between the financial variables and the oilprices. The major findings of this paper include: first, the interaction between the oil prices and the stockmarkets is much stronger than with the interest rates in the short and in the long-run. Second, the impact on oilimporting countries is more significant than on oil exporting countries. Finally, it might be possible that thefluctuations in oil prices have different effects on developed and developing countries.

Dimitrios Asteriou

2013-08-01

55

The economic development of oil-exporting countries: The case of Iraq  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study is to measure the response of Iraqi development to the influx of oil-export revenues. The study employs several econometric techniques using data from 1960 to 1980. From 1960 to 1980, Iraq achieved remarkable economic growth, a high rate of investment and employment, more equitable income distribution, a favorable balance of trade, and a stabilized economy. The 1972 government takeover of oil industries and the oil price boom of 1973 brought even more unprecedented growth and prosperity to the nation. Despite this remarkable performance however, the economic structure of Iraq remains dominated by the oil-export sector. In other words, Iraq's ability to reduce its dependence on oil revenues has been constructed because home sectors were not yet developed sufficiently to provide outputs and revenues needed by the country. Recommendations include development of policies designed to link the oil export sector with the rest of the economy, to encourage more investment by the private sector, to expand and improve the productivity of the agricultural and industrial sectors, and to develop inter-nation regional cooperatives capable of expanding the market for locally produced goods.

Khalil, M.A.

1988-01-01

56

Interest and exchange rate policies in oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kuwait economy illustrates how the basically free market operates among the oil-exporting countries and the problems that develop when private capital is not free to move in the international market. Kuwait's monetary and fiscal policies are designed to keep domestic interest rates low, which are, in turn, affected by the international-exchange-rate mechanism. Comparisons between the Kuwaiti Dinar (KD) and other currencies at two- and five-year periods indicate the relative appreciation and depreciation of the KD. The conflicting objectives of low interest rates and a stable currency affect investment speculators, but policies can take advantage of stages in the business cycle to influence speculators' behavior. 2 tables, 2 charts. (DCK)

Al-Nakib, B.

1980-05-01

57

Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ? Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ? Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ? There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

2013-01-01

58

Oil and gas reserves and resources of the Mediterranean countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The littoral States of the Mediterranean belong to very different geographic and geological units, giving rise to a wide variety of landscapes and petroleum potentials. The provinces of the European margin, deeply marked by the Alpine orogeny, exhibit a wide variety of Secondary and Tertiary basins, often richer in gas than in oil, especially in Italy. Those of the African margin, which advanced to varying degrees into this continent, display stages from the Primary to the Tertiary, with rich basins in the Sahara, Algerian Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. On the eastern margin, Syria has several petroleum zones at the periphery of the large Mid-East Basin. These basins, and particularly those of the northern margin, have been the subject of intensive prospecting. This has allowed the discovery of some 11.4 Gt of oil and 8400 G.m[sup 3] of gas, with the share of the countries of the African margin accounting for 86% and 82% of the total respectively. (Author)

Alazard, N. (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Laherrere, J.; Perrodon, A.

1993-01-01

59

Effects of a severance tax on oil produced in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the effects of a new severance tax on tax revenues collected from California oil properties, the share of the tax borne by California oil producers, refiners, and consumers, and the pattern of oil production in the state. Our analysis centered around three basic questions: how much net revenue would a severance tax raise for state and local governments in california; who would pay the tax; and how would the tax affect the production of oil within California. Results of the study reveal that the net revenus yield would be high on most properties in the state. A new severance tax on California oil production would be paid principally by governments outside California and refiners and producers operating within California. Most small producers could easily be exempted without reducing revenues much. The tax could affect final consumers very little. Tax effects on production would be small in the short terml; they might grow slowly over time. (DMC)

Camm, F.; Myers, C.W.; Argueden, R.Y.; Bell, S.J.; Jacobsson, T.

1982-01-01

60

Peak Oil and the Evolving Strategies of Oil Importing and Exporting Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical trends of oil intensity from individual countries and groups of countries show that an average increase of GDP of 3% per annum equates to a projected demand for liquids of 101 Million barrels per day (Mbpd) by the year 2030. This analysis shows that this demand cannot be fulfilled by production from current reserves and expected new discoveries. Two models to assess peaks in production of oil are considered: the depletion model (DM), and the giant field model (GFM). The DM model shows Peak Oil (the maximum rate of production) date in the year 2011 with 90 Mbpd. Adding GFM we develop a 'Worst Case' scenario of a plateau in production for the next 5 to 7 years at a rate of 84 Mbpd. A more optimistic case in the 'Giant High Case' scenario is a peak in 2012 at 94 Mbpd. A less steep increase demand can move the peak to 2018. Both models show an oil production rate of the order of 50 to 60 Mbpd by 2030. The demand for oil from countries that are importers is forecast to increase from current import levels of 50 Mbpd to 80 Mbpd. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Norway, today's largest oil exporters, will experience a decline in their export volumes of the order of 4 to 6 Mbpd by 2030. The projected shortfall cannot be offset by exports from other regions. In a business-as-usual case, the shortage of fossil fuel liquids for transportation will be substantial by the year 2030. The necessary decisions for the economic transformation required to mitigate this decline in available oil supply should already have been made and efforts to deploy solutions under way. We have climbed high on the 'Oil Ladder' and yet we must descend one way or another. It may be too late for a gentle descent, but there may still be time to build a thick crash mat to cushion the fall (author)

Aleklett, Kjell (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (SE))

2007-12-15

 
 
 
 
61

Role of oil in shaping Mexico and Venezuela as semiperipheral countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the extent to which Mexico and Venezuela exercise semiperipheral behavior in their regional sphere of influence as a consequence of their possession of a strategic natural resource - oil. The principal task is to empirically examine the thesis that some Third World countries shift from a peripheral to a semiperipheral status when they possess certain natural resources essential to the industrialized or core countries. The theoretical framework upon which this study is based is presented. The development of the petroleum industry in Mexico and Venezuela is outlined, including a comparative description of the political development of both countries' industries as well as the amount of oil produced, exported, and in reserve. Information is presented about the demographic, political, and military characteristics of Mexico and Venezuela as semiperipheral countries. The economic setting, the internal stratification and trade capability bases of the semiperipheral status of Mexico and Venezuela are presented. Mexico's and Venezuela's economic and political role in the international relations of the region are discussed. A summary and analysis of the theory is supplied. It also synthesizes the empirical data which demonstrate Mexico's and Venezuela's semiperipheral control in their regional area of influence.

Perozo, J.J.

1984-01-01

62

Oil Field Produced Water Discharges into Wetlands in Wyoming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the States Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. Wyoming is one of a few states that allows th...

P. Ramirez

2002-01-01

63

Macroeconomic prospects for a small oil exporting country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains papers divided among four parts. The parts are: Booming Oil Sector, Structural Change and Macroeconomic Policy; The World Oil and Gas Market; Production, Profitability and Taxes; and Oil Revenues and Long-Term Macroeconomic Planning.

Bjerkholt, O.; Offerdal, E.

1985-01-01

64

Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

NONE

2006-07-01

65

Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

2006-01-18

66

Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

2005-01-01

67

Method for removing water from produced crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for removing emulsified water from a crude oil stream produced from a subterranean, oil-containing formation, the oil stream containing about 14 to about 65% by volume of emulsified water. The method consists of: (a) passing the crude oil stream containing emulsified water through a bed of a water-saturated hydrophilic coalescing medium selected from the group consisting of sand, crushed quartz, diatomaceous earth, porous silica and ground walnut shells, whereby the water coalesces and an oil phase, substantially free of water, and a water phase are formed; and (b) separating the oil phase containing less than 3 volume percent of water from the water phase by gravitational separation or centrifuging.

McMillen, J.M.

1986-06-03

68

Marketing, the new challange for crude oil producers in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses crude oil marketing in Canada, which is a relatively new activity. Until around 1985, production and pricing were closely regulated, and incentives for marketing crude oil at the producer's level did not in effect exist. However, the implementation of the Western Accord in June 1985 effectively eliminated regulated pricing and export controls. This has meant producers have to understand markets, transportation systems, pricing mechanisms, and marketing skills, and be exposed to the risks of the market place. Among the subjects outlined in this paper are the nature of the Canadian crude oil transport system, the types of crude being produced, use of the futures market to manage prices, possible effects of the Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, the changes in the Canadian production mix, changes in transportation expected when new frontier sources come on stream, and changes in Canadian crude oil quality. 5 figs., 1 tab.

1988-01-01

69

Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by small-scale processors cannot be utilized by the larger scale industries in Ghana or abroad because of its poor quality. There is an urgent need to explore the causes and to identify ways to addre...

Osei-amponsah, C.; Visser, L. E.; Adjei-nsiah, S.; Struik, P. C.; Sakyi-dawson, O.; Stomph, T. J.

2012-01-01

70

An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time) lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away fro...

2006-01-01

71

Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

2012-09-01

72

Producers and oil markets; The example of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

Greaves, W.

1993-08-01

73

Geodynamic analysis of oil and gas basins in Russia and adjacent countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following questions are examined in the article: the present-day use of geodynamics in oil and gas exploration, the structure and geodynamic evolution of some oil and gas basins in Russia and adjacent countries, the possibility of using geodynamics to solve the most important problems in oil and gas geology. (authors). 38 refs., 8 figs.

Kleshev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Geologorazvedochnyj Neftyanoj Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-12-01

74

DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditio...

2013-01-01

75

Continuous thermochemical conversion process to produce oil from swine manure  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermochemical conversion (TCC) of livestock manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. A batch TCC system that was previously developed successfully converted 70% of swine manure volatile solids to oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by ??? 75%. The necessary retention time to achieve an oil product was largely dependent on the operating temperature. The highest oil production efficiency was 80% of the volatile solids (or 70 wt % of the total solids). The average carbon and hydrogen contents were ??? 72 and 9%, respectively. The heating values for 80% of the oil products ranged from 32,000 to 36,700 kJ/kg. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition (Indianapolis, IN 6/22-25/2004).

Ocfemia, K.; Zhang, Y.; Funk, T.; Christianson, L.; Chen, S.

2004-01-01

76

Advanced reservoir management for independent oil and gas producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are more than fifty-two hundred oil and gas producers operating in the United States today. Many of these companies have instituted improved oil recovery programs in some form, but very few have had access to state-of-the-art modeling technologies routinely used by major producers to manage these projects. Since independent operators are playing an increasingly important role in the production of hydrocarbons in the United States, it is important to promote state-of-the-art management practices, including the planning and monitoring of improved oil recovery projects, within this community. This is one of the goals of the Strategic Technologies Council, a special interest group of independent oil and gas producers. Reservoir management technologies have the potential to increase oil recovery while simultaneously reducing production costs. These technologies were pioneered by major producers and are routinely used by them. Independent producers confront two problems adopting this approach: the high cost of acquiring these technologies and the high cost of using them even if they were available. Effective use of reservoir management tools requires, in general, the services of a professional (geoscientist or engineer) who is already familiar with the details of setting up, running, and interpreting computer models.

Sgro, A.G.; Kendall, R.P.; Kindel, J.M.; Webster, R.B.; Whitney, E.M.

1996-11-01

77

Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

1998-08-05

78

The oil Palm tree: A renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper highlights the role of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) as a renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries. Many uses of the oil palm are known. This paper describes the processing of palm oil fruits for the extraction of both palm oil and palm kernel oil at the small-scale level. Palm oil and palm kernel ...

Omokaro Obire, And Ramesh R. Putheti

2010-01-01

79

Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. The findings imply high vulnerability of oildependent countries to oil revenues volatility. To insulate the economy from oil revenue volatility requires institutional mechanisms de-linking health expenditures decisions from current revenue.

Mohsen Mehrara

2011-10-01

80

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges. [With particular reference to Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author).

Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A. (PETRONAS (MY))

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

1992-05-26

82

Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs.

Morecroft, J.D.W. (London Business School, London (UK)); Van der Heijden, K.A.J.M. (Strathclyde Graduate Business School, Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (UK))

1992-05-26

83

Oil prices and stock markets. What drives what in the Gulf Corporation Council countries?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Konya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values to study the sensitivity of stock markets to oil prices in GCC (Gulf Corporation Council) countries. Using two different (weekly and monthly) datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21 October 2008, and from January 1996 to December 2007, we show strong statistical evidence that the causal relationship is consistently bi-directional for Saudi Arabia. Stock market price changes in the other GCC member countries do not Granger cause oil price changes, whereas oil price shocks Granger cause stock price changes. Therefore, investors in GCC stock markets should look at the changes in oil prices, whereas investors in oil markets should look at changes in the Saudi stock market. (orig.)

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO, CNRS, UMR 6221

2010-01-15

84

Producing light cycle oil in the cat cracker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The refining industry in the United States uses the catalytic-cracking process primarily to produce gasoline (generally defined as hydrocarbons in the 100-430/sup 0/F boiling range). When compared with other refinery processes, such as hydrocracking, coking, and thermal cracking, cat cracking provides an efficient, inexpensive means of upgrading gas oils and heavy residual oils into gasoline-range products. However, in many other areas of the world, light cycle oil (generally defined as hydrocarbons in the 430-650/sup 0/F boiling range) has a higher value because automobiles are less plentiful. And in the United States many refiners seek seasonal means of increasing light cycle oil (LCO) yields to meet higher wintertime fuel oil demands. The Davison planning group estimates one third of the LCO produced in the United States is derived from cat cracking. Because of the many questions and misunderstandings about light cycle yields and quality from the cat cracker, the aim in this paper is to (1) provide a general overview of ways the industry can change the cat-cracker operation to increase LCO yield, and (2) clear up some misunderstandings about yield and quality.

Ritter, R.E.; Creighton, J.E.

1985-01-01

85

Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries; Comparative analysis between Indonesia and Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author).

Watanabe, Chihiro; Widayanti, Tjahya (Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Graduate School of Policy Science)

1992-10-01

86

Exploring oil market dynamics: a system dynamics model and microworld of the oil producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter focuses on the development of a simulation model of global oil markets by Royal Dutch/Shell Planners in order to explore the implications of different scenarios. The model development process, mapping the decision making logic of the oil producers, the swing producer making enough to defend the intended price, the independents, quota setting, the opportunists, and market oil price and demand are examined. Use of the model to generate scenarios development of the model as a gaming simulator for training, design of the user interface, and the value of the model are considered in detail. (UK)

Morecroft, J.D.W. [London Business School (United Kingdom); Marsh, B. [St Andrews Management Institute, Fife (United Kingdom)

1997-11-01

87

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and...materially retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine,...

2013-07-10

88

Oil Prices and Financial Markets Activity: Empirical Evidence from Some MENA countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assesses empirically the effects of oil prices on financial markets activity of some MENA countries (Middle East & North Africa).We have chosen this subject to study aiming to find out and explain if there is a relationship between international oil prices and the prices of the listed securities in the financial markets of Middle East and North Africa. The countries that will be in the sample of analysis are Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis, we targeted these coun...

Marwan Al-Nahleh; Khaled Al-Zaubi

2011-01-01

89

Natural resource curse: a non linear approach in a panel of oil exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the idea of regime switching as a new methodological approach to bring new insights into the natural resource curse hypothesis in the case of oil exporting countries. The basic idea is that when a threshold of oil dependence is passed, the relationship between economic growth and its determinants could move smoothly from a regime to another. Relying upon the estimation of a PSTR model, our findings offer strong evidence that oil revenues non-linearly impacts economic growt...

2013-01-01

90

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 ?g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 ?g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

1994-11-03

91

Analysis of producing vegetable oil as an alternate fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale, on-farm oil production and extraction were evaluated for four oilseed crops produced in full-season or double cropping systems. Economic feasibility was determined by calculating the per-liter cost of vegetable oil based on total costs of production and processing as well as credits for feeding values of the oilseed residues. Per-liter costs ranged from a high of $1.76 for soybean oil (no-till, full-season soybeans) to a low of $0.97 for the conventionally tilled winter rape/soybeans cropping system (processing labor not included) for a 25% vegetable oil/diesel fuel mix for a typical 240-ha farm. When processing labor charges were included, all per-liter costs were increased accordingly. Total energy and fuel energy inputs and outputs were analyzed for winter rape, soybean, sunflower, and peanut oils. All four oilseeds yielded a positive energy balance. The total energy output-to-input ratio ranged from 2.62 for conventional tillage sunflower to 7.47 for no-till soybeans. The fuel energy output-to-input ratio ranged from 1.43 for conventionally tilled full-season soybeans to 13.52 for the no-till winter rape/sunflower cropping system. (J.C.R.)

Farsaie, A. (University of Maryland, College Park (USA)); DeBarthe, J.V.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Lessley, B.V.; Wiebold, W.J.

1985-11-01

92

An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, the likelihood of waste, corruption and wars will be reduced, and there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies to enhance equity across generations.

Hossein Askari

2006-12-01

93

FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Production of catalyst and development of the evaluation technology in Kuwait; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kuuweto ni okeru shokubai seizo oyobi hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of strengthening the economic infrastructure of Kuwait and also strengthening the relation between Japan and Kuwait by bringing up the catalyst production industry in Kuwait as one of the key industries, the research cooperation was made with Kuwait Catalyst Co. (KCC). In this research cooperation project, the following were conducted: survey of the catalyst production environment in Kuwait, survey of the actual condition of oil factories in Kuwait and the Middle East, trial production of the catalyst to meet the needs of Kuwait, evaluation of the catalyst suitable for oil factories in Kuwait and the Middle East and evaluation of the application conditions, development of technology for production/evaluation/application of the catalyst to meet the needs of Kuwait, etc. As to the trial catalyst production at KCC, the trial products for heavy oil desulfurization and light oil desulfurization stood comparison with the catalysts produced in Japan. KCC started trial operation in fall 2000, and the commercial production is smoothly continuing. In September 2001, the catalyst for heavy oil desulfurizer of KNPC, user, was delivered. The delivery to other users was also planned to be made. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-09-01

94

Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

2005-01-01

95

Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not.

Rabe, E.L.M.

2006-05-15

96

Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not

2006-01-01

97

A process using heated pressurized hydrogen fluidized bed producing high grade SCO from oil sand, heavy oil, bitumen, oil shale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed a process that used a heated, pressurized hydrogen fluidized bed to produce high grade synthetic crude oil (SCO) from oil sands, heavy oil, bitumens, and oil shales. The Chattanooga process was designed to operate at temperatures higher than 537 degrees C at 600 psig operating pressures. Hydrogen is used as a fluidizing medium due to its compressibility, high heat capacity and conductivity, and its low viscosity. The reactor is comprised of an internal cyclone, a hydrogen oil vapor outlet, a spent solids outlet, a pressurized feed inlet, and a pressurized hot hydrogen inlet. The process uses a hot gas filter and heat exchangers along with a recycle gas compressor and is capable of reducing 50 per cent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, process-generated sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x} emissions. The need for tailings ponds is also eliminated. The refined products produced by the process are pipeline quality and require very little coking. Use of the process will also allow for the immediate reclamation of oil sands-mined areas. The fluidized bed reactor provides oil yields that are between 125 and 200 per cent higher than standard Fischer-Assay processes. Chattanooga process pilot plants are now in place at the National Center for Upgrading Technology in Alberta. To date, results from the pilot plants indicate that the Chattanooga process is a proven technology that is both financially viable and has significant environmental benefits. tabs., figs.

Karpenski, M. [Chattanooga Corp., Hixson, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

98

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

2007-01-01

99

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations.

NONE

2007-01-15

100

A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

Metin Artukoglu, M.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

M. Metin Artukoglu

2002-01-01

102

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana undertakes a review of petroleum taxation in selected countries around the world and seeks to fashion a way for Ghana’s infantile petroleum industry. In other words, the study seeks to facilitate a smooth tax regime and policy for Ghana. The study is based on literature arising from desk research as well as through telephone interviews. Petroleum taxation regimes of the countries under study portend to mitigate the current inconsistencies and resulting contentions from tax payers in Ghana.

Key words: Oil and gas; Petroleum; Crude oil; Hydrocarbon; Upstream petroleum operations; Taxation; Tax legislation; Royalty; Income tax

Emmanuel B. Amponsah

2012-12-01

103

Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

Zamani, M.

2005-06-01

104

DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

Nourah Al Yousef

2013-01-01

105

Characterization of naphtha produced from coprocessing coal-heavy oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capillary gas chromatography proved useful for characterizing naphtha produced from coprocessing coal and heavy oil at various conditions. Increasing the coal concentration in the feedstock resulted in higher contents of phenols, indan and cyclohexanes in the naphtha product. Increasing the reaction temperature resulted in higher contents of phenols and indan, indicating a greater contribution of coal to the naphtha product at higher severities. The combined use of hydrogen sulphide and iron sulphate as promoter resulted in higher contents of indan, alkanes and cyclo-paraffins in the naphtha than the use of either alone. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Farnand, B.A.; Rahimi, P.M.; Fouda, S.A.

1988-09-01

106

Production and use of plant oil as fuel in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical possibilities for the production and use of plant oil as fuel are given: cultures supplying interesting seeds containing oil are known, simple and small oil presses for decentralized oil production have been developed and engines which can use plant oil are ready for use. As the plants supplying seeds containing oil are used as protective hedges around gardens and to protect fields to be harvested against animals and the soil against erosion, there is a positive feedback in this case between energy production and agricultural production. The feedback of the pressed cake produced in obtaining the oil as an organic fertiliser is particularly important here. Due to the monetarisation of erosion protection measures, the fight against desertification can receive a great boost, or it can become self-sustaining, from previous experience in the field. (orig.)

1994-01-01

107

Improved oil recovery strategy of the western industrialized countries; Sekai no IOR gijutsu doko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil drilling and development has been always active in spite of decrease in oil price, and the addition of reserves is also in good condition and production has also been increased. However, this is not because of the large increase of newly discover oil amount but because of the large `growth of reserves` that depends on technology innovation or management of financial condition and so forth. The additional confirmed reserves of each year from the first oil shock to till now, for almost all the years exceeds the amount of production. The developed oil consumer countries in the world united since the first oil shock and promoted the technological developments like save energy, increase recovery and so forth. Since the importance of improvement of recovery of specially existed oil fields was recognized, and International Research Exchange programs regarding the increase recovery technology was established in 1979 by National Research Institutes of America, U.K, Canada, France, Japan, Australia, Norway, Denmark, Austria centering to IEA member countries, and since then various cooperative activities are carried out. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Ono, K. [Japan Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

1996-12-01

108

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA), sapo...

Onwuka, G. I.; Akaerue, B. I.

2006-01-01

109

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

110

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

111

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

112

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

113

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

114

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

115

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

116

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

117

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

118

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Ireland 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Ireland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

119

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

120

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

2001-05-01

122

EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the `EIA vocabulary` eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their `Eastern` counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

Holm-Hansen, J. [ed.

1995-12-31

123

Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets. The case of GCC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes. (author)

El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed [EDHEC Business School, 12 bis, rue de la Victoire, 75009 Paris (France); Huong Dinh, Thanh [IRG, University of Paris-Est Creteil Val-de-Marne, Route de Choisy, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Khuong Nguyen, Duc [ISC Paris School of Management, 22, Boulevard du Fort de Vaux, 75017 Paris (France)

2010-08-15

124

Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets: the case of GCC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes.

2010-08-01

125

Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets: the case of GCC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes.

El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.arouri@univ-orleans.f [EDHEC Business School, 12 bis, rue de la Victoire, 75009 Paris (France); Thanh Huong Dinh, E-mail: thanhhuongfi@yahoo.co [IRG, University of Paris-Est Creteil Val-de-Marne, Route de Choisy, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Duc Khuong Nguyen, E-mail: dnguyen@groupeisc.co [ISC Paris School of Management, 22, Boulevard du Fort de Vaux, 75017 Paris (France)

2010-08-15

126

Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil consumption is related to higher IHD mortality rates in developing countries. Palm oil consumption represents a saturated fat source relevant for policies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease burdens.

Chen Brian K

2011-12-01

127

Genotypes and phenotypes of beta lactamase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from African countries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenotypes and genotypes of 26 beta lactamase (penicillinase) producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) from African countries were investigated. Using the restriction enzyme technique nine different restriction enzyme patterns were found, two of them in 15 strains. Of the 26 strains, 16 belonged to serogroup WI (containing protein type IA) and 10 to serogroup WII/III (containing protein IB). Among the IA strains four different serovars were represented, whereas six serovars were ...

Falk, E. S.; Bygdeman, S. M.; Birkeland, N. K.; Bjorvatn, B.; Kallings, I.; Sandstro?m, E. G.

1988-01-01

128

Isolation and Characterization of Saturates from Tar Sand Bitumens and Thermally Produced Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

A desorptive Soxhlet extraction technique and a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure were used to isolate saturates from tar sand bitumens and produced oils. The oils had been thermally recovered by combustion and hot-gas injection from sampl...

S. A. Holmes

1986-01-01

129

Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were...

Gohar, Gamal A. N.; Gayar, Mohamed S. E.; El-moneim, Abd I. H.; Marwan; Ahmed Aly

2006-01-01

130

Time-varying Predictability in Crude Oil Markets: The Case of GCC Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteros-cedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period 1997-2008. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term pre-dictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothe-sis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addi...

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Nguyen, Duc Khuong; Dinh, Thanh Huong

2010-01-01

131

The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

Marga PEETERS

2011-12-01

132

Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

2012-03-31

133

Oil and gas situation in Gulf countries, Middle East. 3; Chuto wangan shokoku no sekiyu gas jijo. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas situation in some United Arab Emirates (UAE) member countries and in Qatar is reported. The report involves the political and economic trends, oil exploitation and production, oil consumption, oil refining, oil export, natural gas exploitation, natural gas export, and natural gas production and consumption. In each member country of the UAE, in principle, the emir is privileged to grant the oil related right to the party who negotiates with the emir directly. In Abu Dhabi, where more than 90% of all the oil reserve in the UAE is in existence, decisions relative to oil are totally subject to Supreme Petroleum Council (with the Crown Prince acting as chairman), and ADNOC (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company) is under the management of the council. In Qatar, QGPC (Qatar General Petroleum Corporation) executes various jobs in and out of the country related to the oil and gas industries, such as exploration, exploitation, production, refining, shipment, and selling. The oil and gas related policies followed by UAE countries (Abu Dhabi and Dubai) and by Qatar are also described. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Tanimoto, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-09-01

134

Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

2009-06-15

135

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

2009-06-15

136

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

2009-06-01

137

Are There Smaller Leverage Effects in Less-Developed Markets? Evidence from an Oil Exporting Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This study uses daily data from the Tehran Stock Market (TSM) to illustrate the nature of stock market volatility in an undeveloped and young stock market. Although most studies suggest that a negative shock to stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of equal magnitude but there is no evidence of asymmetric effect in TSM. Determine the nature of stock market volatility in an oil exporting country. Approach: Trading in Tehran Stock Mark...

Mosayeb Phalavani; Parinaz Ezzati

2010-01-01

138

77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-04-02

139

77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-02-14

140

Opening address: EC/OAPEC/OPEC seminar on the medium- and long-term outlook- energy balances in oil-importing and oil-exporting countries, Luxembourg, 17-19 March 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAPEC's efforts to promote cooperation with industrialized countries data from its organization two decades ago and its statement that the legitimate interest of consumer countries to obtain petroleum supplies for their markets on equitable terms should receive due consideration. This was followed by participation and sponsorship of international meetings and efforts to widen the scope of contacts and consuming nations. Recent events demonstrate the need for discipline and coordination in the oil market and cooperative efforts to stabilize prices. The discrepancy between income levels of the OAPEC and developed countries underscores the importance of stable oil revenues to the producers. A framework of interdependence between producers and consumers will be in the best interest of all.

Attiga, A.A.

1987-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Producing electricity from Israel oil shale with PFBC technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of Israeli oil shale combustion at atmospheric pressure in the AFBC commercial boiler manufactured by Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Finland) and in the pressurized test facility of ABB Carbon AB (Finspong, Sweden) confirm suitability of fluidized-bed technologies in case of oil shale. The results approve possibility to use the PFBC technology in case of oil shale after solving of some problems connected with great amounts of fine fly ash. (author)

2000-01-01

142

New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs

2006-09-25

143

Oil and petroleum producers and distributors. 19. ed. [Petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This ICC financial survey contains financial and marketing data for U.K. companies trading in the oil and petroleum industry. Data is taken from the latest filed accounts available for public inspection at Companies House as well as ICC's own team of marketing researchers. Data are presented for quoted companies in the oil and petroleum production and distribution industry, unquoted companies in the oil and petroleum exploration and production industry and unquoted companies in the oil and petroleum refining and distribution industry. (U.K.).

1991-01-01

144

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

2011-03-15

145

Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlined

2004-01-01

146

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

2013-10-15

147

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01

148

The formation of stable dispersions of crude oil and produced water: The influence of oil type, wax & asphaltene content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constituents in oil can have a major influence on the separation of mixtures with produced water. In most cases this results in a reduction in the separation rate and the capacity of separation trains. In this paper the effects of wax, asphaltene content and water cut on the separation of different oils are examined.

Davies, G.A.; Nilsen, F.P.; Gramme, P.E.

1996-12-31

149

The changing pattern in international trade and capital flows of the Gulf cooperation council countries in comparison with other oil-exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past decade the Gulf cooperation council countries have achieved a remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Before the global crisis began, they invested their abundant oil income which resulted from high energy prices and high world demand, in return abundantly abroad. Thanks to policies that are geared towards opening up borders, the Gulf cooperation council countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much great...

2010-01-01

150

Efficacy of myrtle oil against Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh produce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of myrtle leaves (Myrtus communis) oil was tested against the nalidixic acid resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311. An inoculum (100 microl, ca.10(8) cfu/ml) was deposited on the skin of whole tomatoes and 10 g of shredded iceberg lettuce, dried for 2 h at 22 degrees C and held for 22 h at 4 degrees C before treatments. Inoculated iceberg lettuce (3.51-3.99 log cfu/g) and tomatoes (3.47-4.86 log cfu/tomato) were treated with three different washing procedures for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min; washing with sterile distilled water (control), washing with three different concentrations of myrtle leaves oil and the last treatment was a combination of washing with myrtle leaves oil and then rinsing in sterile distilled water for 1 min. Washing with myrtle leaves oil with or without rinsing procedures caused significant reduction in S. Typhimurium population compared with the control after treatment for four different times (p0.05). The maximum logarithmic reductions of 1.66 cfu/g-1.89 cfu/tomato were respectively obtained on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes treated with 1000 ppm myrtle leaves oil without any rinsing treatment. The results suggest that the use of myrtle leaves oil is an innovative and useful tool as an alternative to the use of chlorine or other synthetic disinfectants in fruits and vegetables, especially for organic products. PMID:19217679

Gündüz, Gülten Tiryaki; Gönül, Sahika Aktu?; Karapinar, Mehmet

2009-03-31

151

Oil Price Effects on Economic Growth : A Comparison between the BRIC countries and the Western World  (G7)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether economic growth in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) can be explained by changes in the oil price, with a focus on selected macroeconomic variables. We will also investigate if there are any differences in oil price effects on economic growth between the BRIC countries and the western world (G7). The model used is a Koyck transformation model developed by Leendert Marinus Koyck in 1954, which converts a distributed lag mo...

Nilsson, Andreas; Sundqvist, Adam

2010-01-01

152

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

2003-11-01

153

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

2003-11-01

154

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia.

Yousefi, Ayoub [Department of Economics, Business and Mathematics, King' s College, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 2M3 (Canada); Wirjanto, Tony S. [Department of Economics, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada) N2L 3G1

2003-11-01

155

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

Yousefi, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Wirjanto, T.S. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics

2003-11-01

156

Petroleum demand and supply of the free world and crude oil production capacities of OPEC countries in 1990. 1990nen no jiyu sekai no sekiyu jukyu to OPEC shokoku no gen prime yu seisan noryoku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was concluded that the crude oil price would be in strong tone throughout 1990, but the forecast is about to become inaccurate so soon. Therefore, a report is made on the current oil situation for forecasting oil demand and supply in the free world for the remaining latter half of 1990. The oil price went down strikingly in the second quarter of this year. At present, there have been factors unfavorable for the oil price such as increased production by OPEC, high level stock of crude oil, etc. towards the seasonal oil drop-off season. The fourth quarter will be a demand season for oil, and the oil price will be in strong tone. Crude oil produced by Soudi Arabia, UAE and Kuwait sells well because the oil has comparatively good quality and the countries have well established sales networks. Iran and Iraq whose oil is of heavy and inferior quality are struggling to find purchasers. Iraq is still sticking to the production allocation system by OPEC and advocates high oil price, and is confronted with countries supporting quantity production and low price policy. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Baba, H. (Cosmo Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-07-01

157

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

Unknown

2002-05-31

158

Content and composition of the essential oil of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from some European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from different European countries were determined. A total of 39 components were identified, representing over 92% of the total oil yield. The principal biologically active compounds in chamomile oils were bisabolol oxide A (3.1-56.0%), alpha-bisabolol (0.1-44.2%), bisabolol oxide B (3.9-27.2%), cis-enyne-bicycloether (8.8-26.1%), bisabolon oxide A (0.5-24.8%), chamazulene (0.7-15.3%), spathulenol (1.7-4.8%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (2.3-6.6%). In 8 chamomile samples from 13, bisabolol oxide A (27.5-56.0%) was predominant (among them in three Estonian samples). alpha-Bisabolol (23.9-44.2%) was predominant in the samples from Moldova, Russia and the Czech Republic. The sample from Armenia was rich in bisabolol oxide B (27.2%) and chamazulene (15.3%). The oils were obtained in yields of 0.7-6.7 mL kg(-1) and the minimum limit of 4 mL kg(-1) stated by the European Pharmacopoeia was exceeded only in 13 samples from 13 analysed drugs. PMID:20013472

Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

2010-01-01

159

Debt-related problems of the non-oil less-developed countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The non-oil less-developed countries (NOLDCs) tripled the value of their external debt between 1975 to 1980 at the same time their resource transfer was held to 2% of gross national product (GNP). While the growth in debt burden to meet interest payments and acquire new financial assets grew twice as fast as GNP, the net of new assets to interest payments effectively made the real interest zero. This balance could deteriorate if oil prices rise again at the same time world trade and exports also deteriorate. Concerns among commercial banks and US regulators that the NOLDCs are poor risks may limit and possibly ration future recycling of funds to the NOLDCs. The present effective zero interest rate and, consequently, the economic growth of NOLDCs is dependent on continued inflation. (DCK)

Long, M.; Veneroso, F.

1981-04-01

160

THE GENERATION, USE AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE FOR KAMPALA DISTRICT, UGANDA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste Crankcase Oil (WCO), the oil that is removed from motor engines during an oil change, is frequently discarded into the environment, resulting in pollution of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In some developing countries, this common hazardous material is not properly managed. In Uganda little is known about its generation, utilization, and disposal. These factors were investigated using in-depth interviews of a sample of mechanics from 379 motor repair garages and 109 fuel stati...

Ssempebwa, John C.; Carpenter, David O.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Particulate emission produced by fast pyrolysis of heavy fuel oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New emission limits for heavy fuel oils burners are imposed by the decree of June 27th 1990, that makes the European Directive 89/609/CEE to be French law. To estimate in advance particulate emissions of a heavy fuel oil, a pilot plant, called the cenosphere generator, was developed. This apparatus, whose principle and running conditions are described, measures the tendency of heavy fuel oil to form particles by fast pyrolysis. Particulate emission is estimated with two fuels, of almost identical Conradson carbon and asphaltene content but twice as much for particulate emission. The values of 8.5% and 6.1% are following the tendency of particulate emissions measured on industrial burners.

Witzel, L.; Moszkowicz, P.; Otterbein, M. (Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (FR)); Muller, A.; Claus, G. (Centre de Recherche ELF Solaize, 69 - St Symphorien d' Ozon (FR))

1991-05-01

162

Advancing the Frontier of Extended Producer Responsibility: The management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in non-OECD countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a salient issue in non-OECD countries. With a growing awareness about serious damages to the environment and human health from a lack of safe treatment and recycling of WEEE, there has been a search for policy responses in several of these countries. This research finds that extended producer responsibility (EPR), a policy principle that underpins WEEE programmes in many OECD countries, can help solve the WEEE problem in non-OECD cou...

Manomaivibool, Panate

2011-01-01

163

Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area  

Science.gov (United States)

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production.

Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Koljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Parv, Kristel; Parna, Katri; Roop, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stsepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

2014-01-01

164

Detection of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the baltic countries and st. Petersburg area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the bla NDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Pai, Kristiine; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

2014-01-01

165

Impact of quality control test frequency on sulfide stress cracking resistance of oil country tubular goods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specification requirements for sulfide stress cracking resistance of low alloy steel tubulars vary widely throughout the industry. The effect of differences in test frequency is shown in terms of the amount of non-conforming material and probability of lot acceptance. The TM0177 test method A is shown to be inferior as a quality control test to both methods B and D, Both users and manufacturers of Oil Country Tubular Goods could benefit from a reexamination of the basis for such test requirements.

Frick, J.P. [Frick Engineering, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1999-11-01

166

Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

2008-07-01

167

Long-term relationship between oil revenue and government expenditure in the GCC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses the Engle-Granger method of co-integration and the Johansen-Juselius maximum-likelihood technique of co-integration to test the long-term relationship between government expenditure (for both consumption and investment purposes) and oil exports in the oil-producing members of the GCC. The regression results suggest that, using the Engle-Granger method, the null hypothesis of no co-integration could only be rejected in the case of Oman. However, the Johansen technique suggests the existence of a unique co-integrating vector, and hence long-term relationship between the two variables in Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There is no evidence of a long-term relationship between government expenditure and oil exports in the case of Kuwait. (Author)

2000-01-01

168

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

2006-01-01

169

Petroleum taxation in oil-importing countries and the attitude of OPEC. Shohikoku no sekiyu kazei to OPEC no doko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper sums up OPEC countries' opinions on environmental taxes and the present situation of taxation in developed countries. It shows hour by hour what OPEC asserts against planning of the environmental taxes in developed countries such as OECD. They assert that petroleum taxation in developed countries is huge in amount, the developed country side has begun to control the world petroleum market, and they are against environmental taxes. The paper also states the present situation of petroleum taxation in EC, the U.S. and Japan. Taxation in European countries is high in amount. As for the tax share in the petroleum product price, the governments of oil-importing countries have been increasing their tax shares from 38% to 54% of the price for the ten years. The amount of tax for gasoline and automobile light oil per 1l in the U.S. is lower than in EC countries, but that in 1990 was 32.9% of the retail price with signs of an increase. The tax amount in Japan totals 47% including petroleum related taxes. In developed countries, the time when commitments on global warming prevention come into effect is coming near and the circumstances hastens the environmental taxation. Explanations to make OPEC countries understand the situation of the developed country side are necessary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Takeishi, R. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

1992-11-01

170

Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

Wynn, L. K.

1985-01-01

171

Oil prices, inflation and interest rates in a structural cointegrated VAR model for the G-7 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices, and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) a stationary money demand, as suggested by the classic theory of money, can be identified for most countries; ii) according to the estimated coefficients of the structural part of the model, for all countries except Japan and U.K. the null hypothesis of an influence of oil prices on the inflation rate cannot be rejected. Inflation rate shocks are transmitted to the real economy by increasing interest rates; iii) impulse response analysis suggests, for most countries, the existence of an instantaneous, temporary effect of oil price innovations on prices; iv) impulse response functions indicate different monetary policy reactions to inflationary and growth shocks; v) the simulation exercises directed to estimate the total impact of the 1990 oil price shock indicate that for some countries (U.S.) a significant part of the effects of the oil price shock is due to the monetary policy reaction function. For other countries (Canada, France and Italy), however, the total impact is offset, at least in part, by an easing of monetary conditions. (author)

2008-05-01

172

Oil prices, inflation and interest rates in a structural cointegrated VAR model for the G-7 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices, and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) a stationary money demand, as suggested by the classic theory of money, can be identified for most countries; ii) according to the estimated coefficients of the structural part of the model, for all countries except Japan and U.K. the null hypothesis of an influence of oil prices on the inflation rate cannot be rejected. Inflation rate shocks are transmitted to the real economy by increasing interest rates; iii) impulse response analysis suggests, for most countries, the existence of an instantaneous, temporary effect of oil price innovations on prices; iv) impulse response functions indicate different monetary policy reactions to inflationary and growth shocks; v) the simulation exercises directed to estimate the total impact of the 1990 oil price shock indicate that for some countries (U.S.) a significant part of the effects of the oil price shock is due to the monetary policy reaction function. For other countries (Canada, France and Italy), however, the total impact is offset, at least in part, by an easing of monetary conditions. (author)

Cologni, Alessandro [IMT Institute for Advanced Studies, Lucca (Italy); Manera, Matteo [Department of Statistics, University of Milan-Bicocca (Italy); Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy)

2008-05-15

173

Experience in producing dewaxed cut for VMGZ oil base stock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the production of base stock VMGZ oil, a given viscosity, solid point, and initial boiling point, are required. The Moscow Petroleum Company mixed West Siberian and Ramaschinko crudes in this process to obtain proper specifications. But when they used paraffinic Usa crude off-specification batches were obtained. It became necessary to investigate the nature of the crude oil on the quality of the base stock. Usa crude, the study found, has a higher solid point, lower viscosity. Heavier cuts (with boiling points in the 280-5 C range) must be used. A mixture of 50% West Siberian and Romanian and 50% USA crude was also tested. This mixture meets requirements if the boiling point is no lower than 280 C. The results indicate that the distillation range of the deepstock is selected according to the nature of the crude, a finding which makes it possible to avoid off-specification.

Drozdova, M.A.; Edigarova, V.S.; Gul' din, G.L.

1983-05-01

174

Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

2011-01-01

175

Comparison of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oils produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea is reported to possess a higher 1,8-cineole content than other Eucalyptus species. Variations in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of E. cinerea oil produced by hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques and a comparison between glycoside-bound and free volatile constituents produced by HD have been studied. It was found that HD produced higher oil (free volatiles) content (3.1%) as compared with SCE (1.1%), whereas bound volatiles constituted only about 0.4%. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the oil samples revealed significant difference in their chemical composition. The essential oil (free volatiles) produced by HD contained 1,8-cineole (85.1%) as the major constituent, followed by a-terpineol (7.2%) and limonene (4.4%). In the bound volatile fraction produced by HD, 1,8 cineole (20.6%), alpha-terpineol (7.6%), p-cymene (6.3%), and limonene (4.5%) were found as major constituents. The extract produced by SCE was dominated by 1,8-cineole (70.4%), a-terpineol (8.6%), globulol (3.1%), aromadendrene (2%), citronellal (1.7%), viridiflorol (1.3%), phytol (1.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1%). Although HD produced higher oil yields, SCE produced better extract in terms of the number of components detected. PMID:21366057

Mann, Tavleen S; Kiran Babu, Garikapati D; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

2011-01-01

176

Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

1994-01-01

177

Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

Kalmoor, M.A.

1988-01-01

178

Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author)

1992-11-01

179

WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muço, 1984; Osmani, 1993, considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in using Albanian olive oils, because of the absence of quality norms. In this frame one of the possible solutions will be the promotion of the olive oil as a territory product.(PDO, PGI

Etleva Muca(Dashi

2012-10-01

180

The Causal Relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index: Empirical Evidence from Selected European Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index for the five selected European countries, using seasonally adjusted monthly data from August 1995 to December 2007. Toda and Yamamoto causality test (1995) are employed to investigate causality. The results indicate that there is a unidirectional causality between producer price index and consumer price index, running from producer price index to consumer price index ...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

Tadjuddin, A.

1989-01-01

182

Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)

Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)

2009-01-15

183

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

2001-06-01

184

Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were studied separately at different values that including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The optimum operating conditions to be adopted for producing high quality automatic transmission fluid base oil were reactor temperature 290 oC, pressure 130kg cm?2, liquid hourly space velocity 0.4 h?1 and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio 800 Nm3 M?3. The effect of changing hydrofinishing temperature and liquid hourly space velocity on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN reactions as well as their thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Calculations of activation energy (Ea and free energy of activation (?G indicated that HDS was easier to occur than HDN and these reactions are more faster at higher temperatures. The effect of commercial and formulated additives on the quality of the hydrofinished oil was also studied. Automatic transmission fluid possessing the Dexron IID specification was produced by adding 7 wt% from Infenium T442 additive or by adding 9 wt% from Lubrizol ® 6701 D additive to the hydrofinished light dewaxed oil. Oils with the same efficiency were also produced using a formulated additive containing 4% viscosity index improver, 1.5% anti-oxidant and 1% anti-wear. The effect of increasing Infenium T442, Lubrizol R 6701 D and formulated additive percents on the protection efficiency of the automatic transmission fluid was studied through AC impedance technique. According to this technique, the effect of these additives on the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons can be negligible.

Gamal A.N Gohar

2006-01-01

185

Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

2000-01-12

186

Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

2005-09-01

187

Use of evaporation for heavy oil produced water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares the traditional physical-chemical produced water treatment methods with an alternate method which is currently being used in Alberta. The falling film, vertical tube, vapour compression evaporation method has been applied to both steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and non-SAGD applications. The method has both technical and economic advantages. The process reduces silica to sufficiently low levels to be used in a once-through steam generator (OTSG). Calcium and magnesium are also reduced in the lime softener, thereby lightening the load for the weak acid cation (WAC) ion exchange system. The chemicals added to the softener are lime and magnesium oxide. Both reduce silica content to manageable levels for the OTSG. It was shown that the overall life cycle costs are less for an evaporative produced water treatment system than for a traditional life softening/WAC approach. In addition, the new process does not create any softener sludge that requires disposal, thereby minimizing the number and volume of waste streams. 6 figs.

Heins, W.; Peterson, D. [Ionics RCC, Watertown, MA (United States)

2003-07-01

188

Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de Chromobacterium mientras que los más polares se obtienen usando las preparaciones de lipasa de hongo «Lilipase A-10». La polaridad del producto está también influenciada por la temperatura del proceso aunque la forma de su efecto es distinta para las diferentes lipasas.

Zaher, F. A.

1998-12-01

189

Heating hydrocarbon oils produced from coal and mixtures which contain these oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method for heating hydrocarbon oils, obtained from coal, as well as mixtures which contain such oils in their composition, includes two stages. First the cited substances are preheated by a known method to greater than or equal to 100 degrees, where they begin to conduct current, and then they are heated by passing high voltage electric current through them (less than 20 kilovolts depending on the temperature). Such a process ensures the rapid and even heating of the entire volume of material and prevents its local overheating, which causes pyrolysis or coking and therefore often eliminates the necessity for mixing. The device for heating the oils is a vertical, cylindrical absorber of annular section, inside of which between a central, axial steel rod E and an external, cylindrical E, connected with each other and grounded, there is a reticular E under stress at an equal distance from the central and the external E.

Grudzinski, J.; Hulisz, S.; Rusin, E.

1981-04-30

190

Underbalanced drilling: Issues of producing oil and gas while drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in engineering and technology have developed new blowout preventers, specialized surface fluids control equipment and well control techniques for under balanced drilling. The new technology makes under balanced drilling faster, safer and less expensive. These devices and techniques reduce the risk of blowouts, when drilling with air, gas or gas cut drilling fluids while producing the zone of interest. Improved penetration rates, increased bit life, drilling cost reduction and the prevention of formation damage are benefits of drilling under balanced and specially designed BOP stacks and well control products are necessary to ensure success. The following outlines the content of this paper: History and Development of Rotating Well Control for Under Balanced Drilling; Rotating BOP and Under Balanced Drilling BOP Stack, including Land Based Operations and Offshore Operations; Design and Technical Review; Safety; Operating Considerations; Field History, An Operator`s Perspective; and Advantages.

Tangedahl, M.J.; Axford, A.

1997-07-01

191

Method of producing process gases containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from ash oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of producing process gases containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from ash oil comprises directing oil rich in ash and oxygen enriched gas into a burner which is fired downwardly into a pressure reactor so as to gasify the oil under pressure and under pressure of steam into gases which are partly burned and a remainder of gases. The remaining gases are separated from unburned carbon and ash and are quenched to convert them into steam by a wash water which entrains fine particles of carbon. The remaining heat content of the quench gases are used in another process. Wash water is directed into a decanter thickener in order to separate the wash water and entrain particles into clear water, carbon containing water and ash mud. The carbon containing water is used to produce steam for controlling the conversion of ash oil.

Tippmer, K.

1981-09-15

192

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

Kanokrat Saisa-ard

2014-04-01

193

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

Tanasri Sihabut

2010-03-01

194

Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

Lei, Guowen

2012-01-01

195

THE EFFECT OF HEDGING ON THE VALUE OF U.S. OIL AND GAS PRODUCERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates the effect of hedging on the values of 42 U.S. oil and gas producing firms from 2002 to 2006. We use a unique hand-collected data set on all linear and nonlinear hedging positions of these firms. In contrast to recent studies, we find that hedging oil price risk using nonlinear instruments, such as options, increases the value of the firm. Linear hedging contracts have little (oil contracts) or negative (gas contracts) effect on firm valuation. In addition, we find that e...

Marami, Ali

2010-01-01

196

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

197

FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Joint project for the technology development for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Saujiarabia jidosha seibi gijutsu kaihatsu kyodo project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of spreading the technology for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia, an investigational study was made of the actual state of the automobile utilization environment in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, air pollution is becoming a serious problem with the rapid progress of motorization, and measures for automobile maintenance technology should be taken such as the use of lead-free gasoline, spread of catalyst car and introduction of new engine technology. However, the number of able car mechanics with Saudi Arabian nationality is low, and they rely on workers from other countries for it. Further, usually people continuously drive cars at high speed under the severe environment where there are high temperature, solar radiation, dust, etc. As a result of the study, the following were cited as the maintenance technology of which the R and D are expected: technology for lead-free gasoline, basic education for electronics, technology for use of trouble diagnosis unit, technology of preventive maintenance supposing high speed traveling, technology for recycle use of parts, standards for maintenance of rubber parts, establishment of standards of maintenance of Saudi Arabia's own, making of technical books/data to be needed for training of Saudi Arabian engineers. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-07-01

198

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

2014-01-01

199

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

Esper, Renata H.; Goncalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

2014-01-01

200

The use of flotation technology in produced water treatment in the oil & gas industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water quality has become an increasingly large area of concern for the oil production industry. A great deal of scientific research has been carried out to determine the consequences of long term exposure of produced water on the environment. Some of this research has given alarming results. It is reported that some of the toxic components in produced water may cause irreversible damage to the surrounding environment. Because of this potential risk, very considerable efforts are bein...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os óleos florais como recompensa a polinizadores estão presentes em onze famílias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na história evolutiva das plantas floríferas. Estes são produzidos em glândulas tricomáticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de óleo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas espé [...] cies produtoras de óleo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espécies nos gêneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que não produz óleo floral. Nós apresentamos uma revisão de todas as espécies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuição geográfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de óleo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de óleo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinização bem-sucedida, sendo a interação entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptação abelha/planta na Região Neotropical. Algumas espécies dependem somente do óleo coletado em espécies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras também podem coletar em várias fontes de óleos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glândulas de óleo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que são em sua maioria espécies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaçados biomas de vegetação aberta da América do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

202

A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

2011-07-01

203

77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...spearmint oil producer has to have considerably more acreage than is planted to spearmint during any given season. Crop rotation is an essential cultural practice in the production of spearmint oil for weed, insect, and disease control. To...

2012-09-17

204

78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...spearmint oil producer has to have considerably more acreage than is planted to spearmint during any given season. Crop rotation is an essential cultural practice in the production of spearmint oil for weed, insect, and disease control. To...

2013-02-11

205

Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

206

The Causal Relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index: Empirical Evidence from Selected European Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index for the five selected European countries, using seasonally adjusted monthly data from August 1995 to December 2007. Toda and Yamamoto causality test (1995 are employed to investigate causality. The results indicate that there is a unidirectional causality between producer price index and consumer price index, running from producer price index to consumer price index in Finland and France and bidirectional causality between two indices in Germany. In the case of the Netherlands and Sweden, no significant causality is detected.

Selcuk AKCAY

2011-10-01

207

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27

208

Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

2013-01-01

209

Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

Oluduro, Olubayo

2012-12-01

210

Economic growth, openness and foreign direct investment in oil-rich countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of trade openness and foreign direct investment on economic growth through the transfer of technology have been examined. To investigate this issue, we use a sample of 19 oil-rich countries over the time period 1991-2006.We estimate two models to investigate this issue. At first, we estimate a model including TO (the ratio of import plus export to GDP as trade openness, the ratio of FDI to GDP and some other variables as independent variables. The result of this model implies that FDI has positive and significant effect on economic growth while trade openness has negative and significant effect. To examine the negative coefficient of trade openness more, another model is estimated. Export to GDP and Import to GDP were separately considered as trade openness in second model and other variables were same. The result of second model indicates that FDI has positive and significant effect while both trade openness indices have insignificant effect on economic growth.

Mehrara Mohsen

2013-09-01

211

Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

2004-12-01

212

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. ...

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

2013-01-01

213

Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

2000-03-02

214

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale

2009-04-01

215

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} to KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre-treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale. (author)

Haddadin, Malik S.Y.; Abou Arqoub, Ansam A.; Abu Reesh, Ibrahim [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Jordan University, Queen Rania Street, Amman, 11942 (Jordan); Haddadin, Jamal [Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P.O. Box 59, Mutah 61710 (Jordan)

2009-04-15

216

Country Analysis Briefs: Ecuador, October 26, 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

By global standards, Ecuador is a relatively small oil producer and exporter. However, the oil sector plays a prominent role in the country's politics and economic welfare. The oil sector accounts for about 50 percent of Ecuador's export earnings and abou...

2012-01-01

217

Energy security. The external legal relations of the European Union with energy producing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyzes in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy. T...

Haghighi, Sanam Salem

2006-01-01

218

Removal of oil from produced water by coalescence/filtration in a granular bed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil production generates a significant amount of water byproduct known as produced water. Following primary gravity separation, produced water is normally disposed of by injection into the formation from which it came. However, high amounts of suspended solids or oil in the produced water may cause clogging of the injection formation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of coalescence/filtration in treating two produced water samples obtained from Saskatchewan heavy oil production sites. In the coalescence/filtration experiments, percentage removals of oil and suspended solids were observed to be as high as 97 and 91 percent, respectively. Mechanisms of filtration and coalescence were identified and observed through experimental data and mathematical models. The maximum coalescence efficiency observed was three percent at the lowest flow rate. Coalescence efficiencies decreased with increasing flow rate. Experimental data for single and two-phase flow were shown to fit the Carmen-Kozeny filtration equation. Coalescence/filtration satisfied a first order rate equation using the Crickmore model. PMID:16749621

Multon, L M; Viraraghavan, T

2006-05-01

219

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29

220

Are There Smaller Leverage Effects in Less-Developed Markets? Evidence from an Oil Exporting Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study uses daily data from the Tehran Stock Market (TSM to illustrate the nature of stock market volatility in an undeveloped and young stock market. Although most studies suggest that a negative shock to stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of equal magnitude but there is no evidence of asymmetric effect in TSM. Determine the nature of stock market volatility in an oil exporting country. Approach: Trading in Tehran Stock Market (TSM is based on orders sent by the brokers. The data consist of 2375 daily observations of the closing value of the Tehran stock market from 3/30/1998 to 5/04/2007. Our empirical finding shows that the unconditional variance is 0.18 but visual inspections of the time series suggests that volatility of the stock return rate displays the clustering phenomenon associated with GARCH processes. Results: The estimation and test results for all models suggest that the leverage effect term, ?, is not significant at 5% level. Although, in Asym. CARCH model based on normal distribution for errors, the estimated coefficient on the asymmetry term is -0.066 with a z-statistics of -1.749 recognized as significant at 10% level, but it has the wrong sign. It seems that good news and bad news has the same effect on stock prices in TSM, a result that is contradictory to other studies for developed countries. Conclusion: The estimated models containing TARCH, EGARCH, asymmetric CARCH and PARCH with different assumptions on error distributions suggest no strong and significant asymmetric effect. There are some reasons for this finding: (1 In Iran with Islamic laws, debt contracts are illegal or at least not enforced and Iranian firms do not have any financial leverage. As a result, we would expect to find smaller leverage effects in volatility in Iran than in the United States, for example. In deed the institutional differences with western financial markets manifest themselves in different return characteristics. (2 Stock prices in the TSM by regulation and intervention cannot exceed from some range. The strong serial correlation in returns necessitating long lags in the mean equations is possibly due to such regulations. (3 The history of TSM is very short compared to other stock markets and the information flow in this market is very slow. The estimated coefficients on the expected risk (as a measure of the risk-return tradeoff are not significant. These findings suggest that the TSM is not efficient.

Mosayeb Phalavani

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister: Address to US independent producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of Energy Detente is designed to promote better understanding of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) through its self-image and its view of the world. The OPEC News Agency coverage and other OPEC materials are tapped to illustrate some key points in a speech about energy security from Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister. This paper from His Excellency Ibrahim M. Nazer is offered in an effort to share his message from the world's largest oil exporter to the world's largest oil consumer. This issue also provides selected statistics and statements from OPEC, both to put Saudi Arabia's statements in context of its commitment to OPEC and to reveal the striking similarity between the country's and the organization's positions. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the U.S. Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of March 23, 1990; Hemisphere, March 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

1990-04-06

222

Potential for predicting oil accumulation on the basis of geologiccommercial features of a producing bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides study results of multi-dimensional correlation ties between extracted oil and the geologic-commercial features of producing beds (from various wells). Tests were conducted at the VII block of Central-Aznakayevskaya area, which is a part of the Romashkino field. The correlation used such data as open porosity, permeability, oil saturation, number of producing beds in the well, sandiness, thickness of saturated layer, time period well has been operating. It was shown that with stable production parameters there is a substantial correlational connection between recovered oil and the geologic-commercial features of the bed. The correlation coefficient varies from 0.73 to 0.79. The square of this coefficient, called the coefficient of determination reflects the degree of variation in the predicted value (in this case the accumulated oil recovery). It changes from 0.53 to 0.63 (i.e. does not take into account the share of variation in quantity of accumulation, equal to 0.37-0.47). The derived data as well as similar formula collected under differing geologic conditions may be used to provide an approximated forecast of oil recovery when working a field with similar technological parameters.

Khitrova, G.A.; Ellanskiy, M.M.; Timofeyev, V.A.

1984-01-01

223

Preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work the preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL of extraction solvent mixture and methanol/n-hexane volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 35 degrees C, extraction time 30 min. Further, the effect of methanol recycling on the TSE process was also investigated. After TSE process, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-n-hexane solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide as the catalyst. The conversion could achieve 98% with 3:1 n-hexane/oil weight ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 7:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 1.1% alkali catalyst concentration and 120 min reaction time. The properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) product prepared from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. PMID:20434330

Qian, Junfeng; Shi, Haixian; Yun, Zhi

2010-09-01

224

Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

2014-01-01

225

Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from co-pyrolysis of biomass and tire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and waste tire with such catalysts as SBA-15, MCM-41 and HZSM-5 was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the mixture composition on liquid yield and characteristics of the oil were investigated. The properties of the oil were determined by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), elemental analyzer (EA), thermal analyzer (TA), densimeter, ubbelohde viscosimeter and compared with that of diesel oil 0. The contents of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the oils were also determined by gas chromatograph (GC). The result shows that co-pyrolysis is in favor of inhibiting the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from tire. There exist a hydrogen transfer and a synthetic effect during co-pyrolysis of the biomass and tire. They improve the quality of the oil. SBA-15 as a catalyst is more significant than MCM-41 or HZSM-5 for reducing the density and viscosity of the oil and it can effectively decompose some large molecular compounds into small ones. (author)

Cao, Qing; Jin, Li' e [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Bao, Weiren; Lv, Yongkang [Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China)

2009-03-15

226

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2008-08-15

227

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

2008-01-01

228

Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns the organising of a company and another concerns relationships between companies. These frameworks are used for the analysis of producers and retailers, and for the relationships between them. Very interesting results have been found, and these have supported a new way of looking at management of organisations and management of relationships.

Skytte, Hans

229

Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

2014-12-15

230

Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics. PMID:24140851

Lemée, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

2013-12-01

231

A study of the effect of pumps and desanding cyclones on oil droplets in produced water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of petroleum resources includes co-producing water. This water contains oilproducts and needs to be treated before discharge to sea or re-injection into the reservoir. Theamount of produced water increases with the age of a field, as does often the amount of solids.The pressure of the reservoirs will decrease with time.The primary equipment for treating produced water is the hydro cyclone. It’s operated with alower limit with regards to oil droplet size of ~10 ?m although sm...

2011-01-01

232

Extent of replacement of methyl ester of rice bran oil by producer gas in Cl engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methyl ester of rice bran oil (MERBO), known as bio-diesel, is receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engine. Although MERBO has several advantages over fossil diesel, in the present scenario, the use of MERBO is restricted due to its high cost. Therefore, use of producer gas to fuel a CI engine along with MERBO seems to be the most interesting option for substitution of fossil diesel. In the present study MERBO was partially replaced by producer gas. The performance of CI engine was compared with fossil diesel partially replaced by producer gas in the CI engine. It was found that MERBO blended with producer gas give higher brake thermal efficiency than fossil diesel producer gas mixture. The addition of producer gas to MERBO has significantly reduced NO{sub x}, but it also increases the concentration of other pollutants. (author)

Singh, R.N.; Pathak, B.S. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Gujarat (India). Thermochemical Conversion Division; Singh, S.P. [School of Energy and Development, Indore (India)

2007-12-15

233

The Role of Savings in Reducing the Effect of Oil Price Volatility for Sustainable Economic Growth in Oil Based Economies: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate the simultaneous links between oil price changes, national savings, legal and institutional development, and economic growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries. Our study includes six GCC countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. We base our analysis on annual data that covers the period from 1980 to 2011. We implement different methodologies on time series cross sectional data: First, we test our model using fixed effect and random effect model techniques; Second, we employ Arellano-Bond/Blundell-Bond estimator to reduce the endogeneity problem that is common in this kind of studies. Results reveal a nonlinear and concave relationship between saving rates and economic growth. This result suggests that, at low level of economic growth, the increase in savings leads to high economic growth. However, as the countries’ revenues and surpluses increase significantly (at higher levels in revenues and savings, high level of savings lead to lower growth in the economy. This might due to the lack of absorption capacity of the GCC markets. In addition, controlling for different factors, oil price changes explain the variability in the economic growth of the GCC countries. Economic globalization affects growth negatively, while institutional quality plays no role in economic growth of the GCC markets.

Ritab Al-Khouri

2014-03-01

234

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90 in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 µm were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

HELMAR SCHUBERT

2000-11-01

235

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties. Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise

Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

236

A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs.

Ball, C.

2005-09-01

237

A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs

2005-09-01

238

Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

2011-05-15

239

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

Unknown

2001-05-01

240

Potential impact of production chemicals on the toxicity of produced water discharges from North Sea oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production chemicals are used on offshore oil production platforms to prevent corrosion and scale formation, and to assist oil-water separation. A proportion of these chemicals may enter the marine environment via the produced water discharge. This study investigated the potential impact of 11 oil field production chemicals on the toxicity of the produced water discharge. The Microtox(r) system was used for toxicity assessment of the chemicals, both directly in aqueous preparations and following their partitioning between oil (crude and low toxicity mineral base oil) and North Sea brine. For the majority of the chemicals tested, the toxicity of the aqueous phase to the test organism following partitioning against crude oil, was not significantly altered by the presence of process chemicals when used in their normal field dosage concentrations. However, there was evidence that certain chemicals could increase the partitioning of oil components into the aqueous phase by an order of magnitude, when applied at high dosage concentrations. (Author)

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeability. The main finding in this thesis was that...

Gundersen, Pa?l Lee

2013-01-01

242

Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 2...

Pillay, Avin E.; Salih, Fadhil M.; Maleek, Muthana I.

2010-01-01

243

On managing adjustment to external shocks in oil importing developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper employs country specific multisectoral general equilibrium models of Turkey, Kenya and India to study the adjustment problems confronting these countries. The affects of liberal and interventionist policies on GDP and on incomes of different classes are analysed. The results show that liberal policies minimise the GDP losses and that farmers are relatively better off under these policies.

Gupta, Sanjeev; Togan, Su?bidey

1982-01-01

244

Arab oil-exporting countries and the challenge of international cooperation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arab countries are not rich countries; the majority of them are poor and live like people in other developing countries. Their income is received solely from the proceeds of the sale of a depletable primary commodity, and they have been, for several decades, undercompensated rather than overcompensated for this important commodity. Despite this, the aggregate aid of the OPEC countries, mainly from Arab sources, exceeded 3.5% of the organization's members' gross national product, while aid from the rich countries amounted to less than 1% of their gross national product. The OPEC Fund for International Development has rendered in 1981 assistance to 81 African, Asian and Latin American states.

Al-Shawi, K.

1983-07-01

245

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the s...

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Yi-Wei Lin

2012-01-01

246

Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water.  

Science.gov (United States)

When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered. PMID:15041429

Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

2004-04-01

247

Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries.; Dynamiques des economies des pays exportateurs et reorganisation de leurs industries petrolieres (Elements d`analyse et de proposition)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries` economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ``exporting countries`` to ``countries that (among other activities) export oil`` and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab.

De La Vega Navarro, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

1994-09-01

248

Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although biodiesel cannot entirely replace petroleum based diesel fuels, there are at least five reasons that justify its development. It provides a market for excess production of vegetable oils, it decreases the dependence on imported petroleum, it does not contribute to global warming due to its closed carbon cycle, the exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate emissions from biodiesel are lower than with regular diesel fuel, when added to regular diesel fuel in an amount up to 20% it can convert fuel into an acceptable fuel. Transesterification reaction is the most commonly applied technique to produce biodiesel. Transesterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower-soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour points, flash points, kinematic viscosities, hydrogen/carbon ratios, sulfur contents, ash contents and triglycerides. The physico-chemical characteristic of biodiesel treated with ozone showed improvement of pour point and flash point indicating higher degree of safety for fuel. Methyl esters mixed with their corresponding ozonated oil were subjected to comparison and evaluation for their thermal properties by the thermo gravimetric analysis differential thermal analysis from which the calculated heat of enthalpy and comparison with the heat of conventional diesel. The results showed that the oxygen content of biodiesel samples treated with ozone increased weight % and resulted in more extensive chemical reaction, promoted combustion characteristics and less carbon residue was produced. Gas chromatography appeared more suitable to address the problem of determining/verifying biodiesel methyl ester and showed that methyl ester content was impurity free. Ultra violet-detection was used for rapid quantization of triglycerols. From the analyses performed biodiesel treated with ozone modified the thermal and oxidative stability shown by the high combustion efficiency indicated by the high heat of enthalpy and reducing the emission of particulate matter.

El Diwani, G.; El Rafie, S. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Dept.

2008-07-01

249

Predicting temperature profiles in producing oil wells using artificial neural networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel approach using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for predicting temperature profiles evaluated 27 wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Two artificial neural network models were developed that predict the temperature of the flowing fluid at any depth in flowing oil wells. Back propagation was used in training the networks. The networks were tested using measured temperature profiles from the 27 oil wells. Both neural network models successfully mapped the general temperature-profile trends of naturally flowing oil wells. The highest accuracy was achieved with a mean absolute relative percentage error of 6.0 per cent. The accuracy of the proposed neural network models to predict the temperature profile is compared to that of existing correlations. Many correlations to predict temperature profiles of the wellbore fluid, for single-phase or multiphase flow, in producing oil wells have been developed using theoretical principles such as energy, mass and momentum balances coupled with regression analysis. The Neural Network 2 model exhibited significantly lower mean absolute relative percentage error than other correlations. Furthermore, in order to test the accuracy of the neural network models to that of Kirkpatrick's correlation, a mathematical model was developed for Kirkpatrick's flowing temperature gradient chart. (Author)

Farshad, F.F.; Garber, J.D.; Lorde, J.N. [Louisiana Univ., Lafayette, LA (United States)

2000-10-19

250

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

1991-01-01

251

Structure and applications of a rhamnolipid surfactant produced in soybean oil waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soybean oil soapstock was utilized as an alternative carbon source for the production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI strain. The chemical composition and properties of the rhamnolipid mixture obtained were determined to define its potential applications. The chemical characterization of the rhamnolipid has revealed the presence of ten different homologues. The monorhamnolipid RhaC10C1) and the dirhamnolipid Rha2C10C10 were the main components of the mixture that showed predominance of 44% and 29%, respectively, after 144-h of cultivation. The biosurfactant was able to form stable emulsions with several hydrocarbons and showed excellent emulsification for soybean oil and chicken fat (100%). The rhamnolipid removed 67% of crude oil present in sand samples and presented antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Mucor miehei at 64 microg/mL and inhibition of Neurospora crassa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus at 256 microg/mL. The results demonstrated that the rhamnolipid produced in soybean oil soapstock can be useful in environmental and food industry applications. PMID:19649781

Nitschke, Marcia; Costa, Siddhartha G V A O; Contiero, Jonas

2010-04-01

252

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01

253

Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produced water re...

Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

2009-01-01

254

Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produce...

Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

2009-01-01

255

Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

1993-11-14

256

Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

2009-01-07

257

Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde más intenso eran también de baja calidad, describiéndolos como con sabor extraño, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y defectuosos. Este estudio demuestra que en los países con olivicultura emergente pero con poca tradición de consumo de aceite de oliva, los consumidores aún no tienen preferencias comerciales claras sobre el color de este producto, aunque coinciden en rechazar y considerar como de baja calidad a los aceites de oliva amarillos posiblemente por asociarlos con los aceites de semillas que habitualmente se encuentran en el mercado.

Gámbaro, A.

2014-06-01

258

Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL?kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL?kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0?mL?kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5?mL?kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages. PMID:21827282

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2012-01-01

259

Evolution of fatty alcohols in olive oils produced in Calabria (Southern Italy) during fruit ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted on olive oils extracted from olives collected in South West Calabria (Southern Italy) over three harvest years 2010-2011-2012. Three autochthonous cultivars were considered: Cassanese, Ottobratica and Sinopolese and seven allochtonous cultivars: Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nocellara Messinese, Nociara, Pendolino and Picholine. Thin Layer Chromatography - Gas Chromatograph (TLC-GC) technique permitted the separation and analysis of the fatty alcohol compounds. A general decline in fatty alcohol content was found during the three months of sampling, most evident in hexacosanol. Pendolino showed the greatest decline. A less evident decrease was measured in the odd chained fatty alcohols, mainly in heptacosanol. Both harvest date and cultivar significantly influenced the fatty alcohol content. This is the first report about the fatty alcohol variation during ripening in olive oil produced in South West Calabria (Southern Italy). PMID:24770477

Giuffrè, Angelo M

2014-01-01

260

Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

2013-01-01

262

Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion that the agreed reduction targets will lead to a significant decrease in revenue from petroleum exports, with the result that OPEC countries are unfairly affected by measures propose...

Nh, Linden; Linde C van der; Lako P; Snm, Rooijen

2007-01-01

263

Win-win strategies between countries in the oil and gas industry; Win-Win Laenderstrategien in der Oel- und Gasindustrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stake of large international oil and gas companies in the world's raw material resources is declining, while the demand for fossil fuels is rising. At the same time these globally active companies are experiencing greater competition from state-owned oil and gas companies of developing and threshold countries, which often enjoy strong political support. Gaining access to the raw material resources of these countries will in future require new strategies which give greater consideration to the needs of these raw material countries than in the past.

Dier, M. [Accenture GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy fuer Europa, Naher Osten, Afrika und Lateinamerika; Haese, C. [Accenture GmbH, Kronberg (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy

2008-08-15

264

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2003-12-15

265

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

Fotouh, K.H.

1995-09-30

266

Radioactivity in produced water from oil and gas installations - doses to biota and humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial amounts of produced water containing elevated levels of 226Ra and 228Ra are discharged into the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. The average concentration in the discharges is 3.3 and 2.8 Bq/L of 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The main objective of the project described in the paper is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium in produced water produced by oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. One of the objectives of the study is to provide information to enable risk assessment based on doses from ionizing radiation to marine biota and man. Reference organisms for the North Sea area have been chosen for calculation of absorbed dose to biota. The dose calculations rely on specific knowledge of activity concentration in the reference organism, activity concentration in seawater and sediments, dose conversion factors and time spent at different locations relative to the point of discharge. Based on the calculated doses to marine biota, 'potential no effect concentrations' are recommended. (author)

2008-08-01

267

Structural characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2 isolated from oil reservoir water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactant-producing microorganisms inhabiting oil reservoirs are of great potential in industrial applications. Yet, till now, the knowledge about the structure and physicochemical property of their metabolites are still limited. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2, a newly isolated strain from an oil reservoir. The purification was conducted by silica gel column chromatography followed by pre-RP HPLC and the structural characterization was carried out by GC-MS combined with MS/MS. The results show that the biosurfactant produced by FIN2 is rhamnolipid in nature and its four main fractions were identified to be Rha-C10-C10(46.1 %), Rha-Rha-C10-C10(20.1 %), Rha-C8-C10 (7.5 %) and Rha-C10-C12:1(5.5 %), respectively. Meanwhile, the rarely reported rhamnolipid congeners containing ?-hydroxy fatty acids of C6, C9, C10:1 and C11 were also proved to be present in the rhamnolipid mixture produced. The rhamnolipid mixture exhibited a strong surface activity by lowering the surface tension of distilled water to 28.6 mN/m with a CMC value of 195 mg/l. PMID:24297330

Liu, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

2014-05-01

268

Use of inhibitors for scale control in brine-producing gas and oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field and laboratory work sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that calcium-carbonate scale formation in waters produced with natural gas and oil can be prevented by injection of phosphonate inhibitor into the formation, even if the formation is sandstone without calcite binding material. Inhibitor squeeze jobs have been carried out on DOE's geopressured-geothermal Gladys MaCall brine-gas well and GRI's co-production wells in the Hitchcock field. Following the inhibitor squeeze on Gladys McCall, the well produced over five million barrels of water at a rate of approximately 30,000 BPD without calcium-carbonate scaling. Before the inhibitor squeeze, the well could not be produced above 15,000 BPD without significant scale formation. In the GRI brine-gas co-production field tests, inhibitor squeezes have been used to successfully prevent scaling. Laboratory work has been conducted to determine what types of oil field waters are subject to scaling. This research has led to the development of a saturation index and accompanying nomographs which allow prediction of when scale will develop into a problem in brine production. Core samples from both fields were used in laboratory studies and analytical methods to analyze inhibitors in brine at a low levels were extended. A complete history of field development and the laboratory backup experiments is included in this paper.

Tomson, M.B.; Rogers, L.A.; Varughese, K.; Prestwich, S.M.; Waggett, G.G.; Salimi, M.H.

1986-01-01

269

Determination of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel produced from yellow horn oil by LC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple and accurate HPLC method with refractive index detection was developed to determine the main fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel produced from yellow horn oil. Methyl linoleate, methyl linolenate, methyl arachidate, methyl stearate, methyl palmitate and methyl oleate were separated on a HIQ SIL C18W column using methanol as mobile phase. The method has good repeatability and precision, the intraday and interday RSD for both retention time and peak area was less than 3.2%. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 9) were less than 0.004 and 0.015 mg mL{sup -1}, respectively. (orig.)

Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Nai-Jing; Liu, Wei; Li, Shuang-Ming; Zhang, Su [Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Key Lab. of Forest Plant Ecology

2008-01-15

270

Treatment of Produced Oil and Gas Waters with Surfactant-Modified Zeolite. Report for 1 May 2000 - 31 October 2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas most water produced from onshore oil and gas operations is disposed via reinjection, some waters, such as those from offshore production platforms, coastal production, and some onshore wells, must be treated to remove organic constituents before t...

L. E. Katz E. J. Sullivan R. S. Bowman

2000-01-01

271

THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to present the role of oil in today’s world, society, and economy. It is important because anything nowadays is about oil, from economy, and society, to international politics. Since the development of air and road transportation, but especially after World War II, the transfer of wealth from some countries (the consuming countries) to another countries (the producing countries) is unique in human history; and the influence of the second group of countries in world polit...

2012-01-01

272

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2010 and since 1971  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCAWE has collected 40 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2010 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 40 years is analysed in various ways, including gross and net spillage volumes, and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in-line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 4 spillage incidents were reported in 2010, corresponding to 0.12 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.25 and the long-term running average of 0.52, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid-70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 2 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 to external corrosion, and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Uhlig, F.

2011-12-15

273

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2009 and since 1971  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCAWE has collected 39 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 870 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2009 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 39 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 5 spillage incidents were reported in 2009, corresponding to 0.14 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.28 and the long-term running average of 0.53, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 4 incidents were due to mechanical failure and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

Davis, P.M.; Dubois, J.; Gambardella, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Uhlig, F.

2011-05-15

274

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2008 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CONCAWE has collected 38 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At over 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 780 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2008 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 38 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 12 spillage incidents were reported in 2008, corresponding to 0.34 spillages per 1000 km of line, somewhat above the 5-year average of 0.28 but well below the long-term running average of 0.54, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 7 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 incident to corrosion and 4 were connected to third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

2010-01-01

275

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

2012-03-01

276

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

Unknown

2002-11-01

277

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Donald Duttlinger

1999-12-01

278

Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL.

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

279

Feasibility of Producing Acceptable Carotene and Energy Rich Taro Crisps with Deep Palm-Oil Frying in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corms of a high yielding taro genotype (NCe006 were used to assess the feasibility of producing acceptable pro vitamin A and energy rich taro crisps after deep oil frying with crude red palm oil. Frying with refined palm oil was used as control. Results showed that the taro crisps produced with the crude palm oil had 44 ?g/g carotene content while the crisps fried with refined palm oil had only 0.77 ?g/g carotene content. Sensory evaluation scores by semi trained organoleptic panelists showed that the high energy (1.8 MJ/100 g pro-vitamin A rich crisps were generally acceptable to them. The pro-vitamin A rich crisps can be used as a tool (snack food against vitamin A deficiency (VAD syndrome amongst children and reproductive women in Nigeria.

U.J. Ukpabi

2013-01-01

280

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil ...

Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi; Newton Müller Pereira; Rogério Gomes; Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization efficiently has an impact on business economics as the focus remains on proven applicable technologies, which target cost reduction and efficiency gains.

Donald Duttlinger

2001-11-01

282

The oil crisis and economic adjustments: Case studies of six developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book surveys the process of international economic and social change. Most of these changes have been described as 'economic adjustment,' and the author carefully analyses this term, its corrollaries, implications and varied interpretations. The focus is on energy-linked constrained and energy-determined aspects of adjustment. Whilst adjustment concerns global economic changes, this study is confined to developing countries, and within these a sample of six have been chosen for special scrutiny.

Mackillop, A.

1983-01-01

283

Country Analysis Briefs: Caucasus Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains data through 2006 by country, region, and commercial group (OECD, OPEC) for countries including production, consumption, U.S. oil imports and CO2 emissions. Forecasts for 2007 for selected countries for total oil production and consum...

2006-01-01

284

Design of continuous walking beam furnaces for quench and tempering of oil country tubulars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Explains how, because users of oil pipes demand higher steel qualities, with pipe uniformly treated inside and out, heat treatment plants have undergone a steady technological improvement. The trend of increased product quality has led to a tendency to interrelate the product both with the process and the production facility. The furnaces and quench and tempering processes are of particular importance in the overall production cycle for tube. Describes and illustrates some technical solutions realized in quenching and tempering walking beam furnaces. Furnace dimensions depend on the total heating and soaking time for the products. Presents diagram depicting refractory materials used for lining the walls and hearth of the walking beam furnaces.

Casana, A.; Stabile, V.

1982-09-01

285

Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological contamination of soil environment of an industrial zone, which one can render parasitic influencing to health working, and also being diffused in nearest territory of a residential zone to create a health danger of the population. Therefore, the hygienic control in firms of a petroleum industry is necessary

2002-10-01

286

Chemical characterisation of produced water from four offshore oil production platforms in the North Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of produced water from the offshore oil production platforms Oseberg Feltsenter, Oseberg C, Brage and Troll B were collected during the period of October 1995 to August 1996. The samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols by gas chromatography with a mass-spectrometric detector. Analysis of organic acids was done by isotachophoresis, metal determinations by atomic absorption spectrometry, and radioactivity measurements by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The results were included in a database of chemical composition of produced water, and were then compared with data from other fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea using principal component analysis. The concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and their C1-C3 alkyl homologues, and alkylated phenols show decreasing levels with increasing alkylation of the components for all fields. The results show that there is no correlation between the THC content, which today is used as emission standard for environmental regulation, and the content of the aromatic compounds, which are assumed to be the most important contributors to toxicity. Field-specific detailed chemical characterisation of produced water from each platform is necessary in predicting fate and effects of the produced water discharged to the marine environment. (author)

Utvik, T.I.R. [Norsk Hydro E and P Operations, Bergen (Norway). Environmental Section

1999-12-01

287

Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ? The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ? The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ? Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ? Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and compared different technologies in a unique “Clean Energy Economy” improved document (Paris, November 16–17, 2011), by the contribution of this vision too (see reference). In concert with “energy efficiency” improvement both for plants and buildings, in the frame of the “smart cities” scenarios, and the upstanding use of “energy savings”, the energetic planning on regional scale where these cities are located, are strategic for the year 2050: this planning is strongly depending by the underground availability and typology. Therefore, if both literature and European Policy are going fast to improve the concept of “smart cities” this paper stresses the concept of “smart regions”, more strategic than “smart cities”, passing throughout a discussion on the synergic and conflicting use of underground to produce energy for the “smart regions” as a whole. The paper highlights the research lines which are urgent to pan the soundest energy mix for each region by considering the underground performances case by case: a worldwide mapping, by GIS tools of this kind of information could be strategic for all the “world energy management” authorities, up to ONU, with its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the G20, the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Platforms such as the “Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants” (EU-ZEP Platform), the Steel Platform, the Biomass Platform too. All of these organizations agree on the need for synergistic and coexistent uses of underground for geological storage of CO2, CH4, nuclear waste and geothermic exploitation. The paper is therefore a discussion of the tools, methods and approaches to these underground affecting technologies, after a gross view of the different uses of underground to produce energy for each use, with their main critical issues (i.e. public acceptance in different cases). The paper gives some gross evaluation for the Lazio Region and some hints from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calcul

2013-01-01

288

Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s, which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs on land. This unfortunate incident makes the oil bearing and host community to demand compensation, which in most times breeds in conflict such that the two parties engage in tirade of accusations and counteraccusations. The conflict is such that it has defiled all known antidotes, real or imaginary. Until arbitration was resurrected, studied and applied, before it became the messiah or saviour of the two warring groups. Hitherto, the conflict had led to the destruction of equipment/tools, loss of income, loss of company/man hours, peace, and abduction/kidnapping of expatriates/indigenous staffers. In the light of the grave consequences, the author recommended both direct and indirect approaches to deal with the incessant conflicts between the oil and gas firms and oil bearing and host community. Having known that conflict is an ill-wind that blows nobody any good.

Chima Jack-Osimiri

2011-04-01

289

Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30) were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively) to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized...

Hassan El-mallah, M.; El-shami, S. M.

2012-01-01

290

Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m de...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Soares, L. P.

2012-01-01

291

An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

2011-04-01

292

Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

None available

2000-04-12

293

Antimicrobial activities of laboratory produced essential oil solutions against five selected fungal strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Aspergillus niger I.N. 1110, Aspergillus sojae CCF and Penicillium spp. FNS FCC 266. A variation of the microtiter plate-based antimicrobial assay was used in order to assess the antimicrobial activity of the solutions. By applying this assay minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the Biokill solutions were determined for each strain of the selected test microorganisms. The results demonstrated that all variations of Biokill showed antimicrobial activity at concentrations lower than 2.5?g/mL. Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO showed the best antimicrobial properties against all the selected strains with MICs less than 1.25?g/mL. These results indicated that Biokill could find application in the pharmaceutical industry, in food preservation and conservation, in the prevention and treat­ment of plants infected by certain phytopathogens, etc.

Ivanova Emilija

2013-01-01

294

Monetary model for a developing oil-exporting country: the case of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a model is developed that incorporates five behavioral equations. These equations attempt to explain the determinants of five important variables: the demand for money, the supply of money, the inflation rate, the balance of payments, and domestic government expenditures. One of the main contributions of this model is that it features the analysis of both the domestic money market and the change in international reserves, their interaction as well as the role of domestic government expenditures. The study progresses beyond developing a monetary model to introduce new determinants of some of the aforementioned variables. It is shown that apart from income and inflation rate, the Eurodollar deposit rate is a significant determinant of the demand for money. The growth of the stock of money and the change in the expected inflation rate are the most significant determinants of the inflation rates. Oil revenues and income from investment abroad significantly shape the behavior of the domestic government expenditures.

Algahtani, I.M.S.

1987-01-01

295

OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

Mariana, BUICAN

2013-12-01

296

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD) presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados [...] cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación) y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994)(Figura 1). Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR) y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico) aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located ne [...] ar the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994) (Figure 1). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.

Rodríguez, Edwin; Orjuela, Jaime.

297

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994 (Figure 1. This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994(Figura 1. Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto.

Edwin Rodríguez

2004-01-01

298

Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement.

Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A. [Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)] e-mail: maliriani@uaeu.ac.ae

2005-12-01

299

Microbial response to reinjection of produced water in an oil reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial response to produced water reinjection (PWRI) in a North Sea oil field was investigated by a combination of cultivation and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic techniques. Special emphasise was put on the relationship between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), and results were used to evaluate the possibility of nitrate treatment as a souring management tool during PWRI. Samples were collected by reversing the flow of the injection water, which provided samples from around the injection area. The backflowed samples were compared to produced water from the same platform and to backflowed samples from a biocide-treated seawater injector, which was the previous injection water treatment of the PWRI well. Results showed that reinjection of produced water promoted growth of thermophilic SRB. Thermophilic fatty acid oxidising NRB and potential nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidising bacteria were also found. The finding of thermophilic NRB makes nitrate treatment during PWRI possible, although higher nitrate concentration will be necessary to compensate for the increased SRB activity. PMID:19430774

Lysnes, Kristine; Bødtker, Gunhild; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva O; Sunde, Egil

2009-07-01

300

Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

2006-04-02

 
 
 
 
301

The Talara forearc basin, NW Peru: depositional models of oil-producing Cenozoic clastic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Talara Basin is an unusual forearc basin, inasmuch as it displays many features which are not characteristic of such a tectonic context. These features apparently result from the basin's location at the intersection of the Amazonas Aulacogen, the Andean orogenic belt, and the subduction zone of the Peru-Chile Trench. The history of the Talara forearc basin is dominated by extensional rather than compressional tectonic activity, which reached a peak after the Eocene in association with low-angle gravity slides. This tectonism began with a prolonged synsedimentary phase, which, during the Paleocene-Eocene, generated a complex system of horsts and grabens bounded by major high-angle normal faults trending NE-SW and NW-SE. Closely related to repeated phases of uplift and erosion in the eastern Andean source areas, this structural pattern controlled unusually thick and coarse clastic sedimentation during the Paleocene-Eocene; a thickness of about 22,000 ft has been preserved, from which volcanics are essentially absent. The depositional environments were a series of interfering, transverse and longitudinal, deltaic and submarine fan systems, all of which contain distal portions in which organic-rich marine shales were deposited. Given these conditions, it is not surprising that the Talara Basin has produced to date more than a billion (10[sup 9]) barrels of oil. Although oil is produced from these depositional systems both on-and offshore, the latter environment has been barely explored near the present-day coastline, and is believed to have enormous potential for future development. (author)

Carozzi, A.V. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology); Palomino, J.R. (Butler (J.R.) and Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

302

Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

2005-03-01

303

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and f...

2012-01-01

304

Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

2014-03-01

305

Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

2013-06-01

306

Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

2013-06-17

307

Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

Avin E. Pillay

2010-03-01

308

State companies dominate OGJ100 list of non-U.S. oil producers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

State owned oil and gas companies dominate the OGJ100 list of non-U.S. producers. Because many of them report only operating information, companies on the worldwide list cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. The list, therefore, is organized regionally, based on location of companies' corporate headquarters. The leading nongovernment company in both reserves and production is Royal Dutch/Shell. It ranks sixth in the world in liquids production and 11th in liquids reserves, as it has for the past 2 years. British Petroleum is the next largest nongovernment company. BP ranks 11th in liquids production and 16th in liquids reserves. Elf Aquitaine, 55.8% government-controlled, ranked 17th in liquids production. AGIP was 20th in liquids production. Kuwait Petroleum returned to the list of top 20 producers, ranking 12th, as it restored production shut in by facilities damage sustained during the Persian Gulf crisis. New to the top 20 reserves list is Petroleo Brasileiro, which moved to 20th position. The top 20 companies in the OGJ100 held reserves estimated at 869.3 billion bbl in 1992 vs. 869.5 billion bbl in 1991 and 854.2 billion bbl in 1990

1993-09-20

309

An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application  

Science.gov (United States)

Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and temperature.

Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

2014-05-01

310

The use of phase inversion temperature (PIT) microemulsion technology to enhance oil utilisation during Streptomyces rimosus fed-batch fermentations to produce oxytetracycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of a rapeseed oil emulsion feed, produced by a phase inversion temperature (PIT) process, produced more biomass, gave a 3-fold increase in oil utilisation and a higher oxytetracycline titre but a higher residual oil concentration when compared to a conventional fed-batch Streptomyces rimosus process fed with crude rapeseed oil. Importantly, microbial utilisation of the surfactant was confirmed for the first time. PMID:16245177

Papapanagiotou, Panos A; Quinn, Henry; Molitor, Jean-Pierre; Nienow, Alvin W; Hewitt, Christopher J

2005-10-01

311

A way to increase heavy vacuum gas oil conversion and produce near zero sulphur gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work investigates the hydrotreating process of heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO), feed for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), in order to yield diesel and FCC cracking gasoline with 50 and 10 ppm sulphur. The study was performed in the Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas FCC feed hydrotreating unit at following conditions: LHSV between 0.81 and 1.19 hr{sup -1}; Total reactor pressure of 50 bar; WABT in the range 346-399 C, Hydrogen-containing gas rate of 340 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} oil. The HVGO was hydrotreated over the Topsoe TK-558 Brim catalyst. Two charges of that catalyst were investigated: a fresh charge and an ex-situ regenerated charge. It was found that 10 ppm sulphur FCC gasoline can be produced if the FCC feed sulphur is not higher than 200 ppm. Diesel sulphur was found to be three times lower than the hydrotreated HVGO, which means that 10 ppm sulphur in that diesel could be achieved if the sulphur in the FCC feed is 30 ppm. The hydrodesulphurization (HDS) was found to be described by 1.6 order kinetics. Activation energy of the HDS was found to be 32.6 kcal/mol. Cracking that occurs along with the HDS reaction was described by first order kinetics with activation energy of 24.7 kcal/mol. The hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) was found to be described by first order kinetics with activation energy of 15.7 kcal/mol. The operating conditions were established for production of FCC gasoline with 10 ppm sulphur. (orig.)

Stratiev, Dicho [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria). Research and Development Dept.

2009-12-15

312

Water produced in the Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields of heavy metals and radionuclide distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text:Oil and gas production in the process of formation waters are the deep layers of the earth, together with the oil and gas condensate from the water surface. Later, water oil and gas produced on the platform with different separation processes allocated, in order to increase oil production wells or re-determination of the surface of the Earth's lakes and hole in the shed. Been taken into account that every year, millions of cubic meters of produced waters discharged from oil platforms, it is clear that the environmental impact of their mischief. Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields in the waters of the reservoir and the natural radionuclide distribution of heavy metals have been investigated presented in this work. Nitrate acid solution was washed with pure polyethylene samples after pickling banks after completion, keeping a temperature of 4-S was included in the laboratory. Concentrations of elements from the stock standard solutions appreciating commercial preparations included in the presentation of the working standard solutions which are determined by using curve degree

2011-11-01

313

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

2009-12-01

314

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

2009-12-01

315

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2009-12-15

316

Oil and gas development in the United States in the early 1990`s: An expanded role for independent producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1991, the major petroleum companies` foreign exploration and development expenditures have exceeded their US exploration and development expenditures. The increasing dependence of US oil and gas development on the typically much smaller nonmajor companies raises a number of issues. Did those companies gain increased prominence largely through the reduced commitments of the majors or have they been significantly adding to the US reserve base? What are the characteristics of surviving and growing producers compared with companies exiting the US oil and gas business? Differences between majors` development strategies and those of other US oil and gas producers appear considerable. As the mix of exploration and development strategies in US oil and gas increasingly reflects the decisions of smaller, typically more specialized producers, what consequences can be seen regarding the costs of adding to US reserves? How are capital markets accessed? Are US oil and gas investments by the nonmajors likely to be undertaken only with higher costs of capital? This report analyzes these issues. 20 figs., 6 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01

317

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT, the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi

2013-07-01

318

SAGD report card : Alberta believes it can rival Saudi Arabia as an oil producer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviewed 9 oil sands companies that currently own commercial-scale steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects producing more than 5000 bbls a day in northern Alberta. The article reviewed production costs and outputs, and examined schedule and cost over-runs during project construction phases and how they are impacting on overall business trends for the companies. Technologies adopted by the project operators were outlined, and details of demonstration programs currently being conducted to test new technologies were presented. Issues concerning regulatory approvals for individual projects were discussed. Production statistics and forecasts were provided, and planned expansions were outlined. Projects reviewed in the article included Suncor's Firebag project; Husky's Tucker project; Nexen/OPTI's Long Lake project; EnCana's Foster Creek/Christina Lake project; ConocoPhillips' Surmont project Petro-Canada's Mackay River project; Devon's Jackfish project; JACOS' Hangingstone project; and Connacher's Great Divide project. Results of the review demonstrated that SAGD production is occurring at a slower rate than any of the companies originally predicted. However, output is continuing to rise. It was concluded that since SAGD is a relatively new technology, methods of improving the technology and reducing its environmental impacts are still being explored. 12 figs.

Roche, P.

2008-10-15

319

Removal of Radium isotopes from oil co-produced water using Bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters pH over other comparable parameters. (author)

2010-01-01

320

Proteome changes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to oil and produced water: discovery of biomarker candidates for environmental monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water is the most dominating source of continuous oil discharges to the sea offshore. It contains a wide range of compounds such as alkyl phenols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, carboxylic acids and other organic compounds, which may cause harm by themselves or in synergy with other compounds present in produced water. Worldwide there is a growing concern that contamination of the marine environment may constitute an important contribution to the repor...

Kjersem, Anneli Bohne

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45...

2013-01-01

322

Effect of an essential oil-containing mouth rinse on VSC-producing bacteria on the tongue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of a commercially available essential oil-containing mouth rinse 12 hours after a single rinse and two weeks of twice daily rinsing, on volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) producing bacteria on the tongue. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover design. Thirty-six healthy subjects, aged 20-48 years, volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to rinse twice daily with either an essential oil-containing mouth rinse (Cool Mint Listerine Antiseptic) or a negative control rinse. Bacteria samples were taken from the dorsum of the tongue at baseline, after the first rinse and two weeks later. They were plated on OOPS medium to enumerate the VSC-producing bacteria. Intergroup comparisons of log10 transformed colony-forming units of the samples were made using analysis of covariance. Each comparison was performed at a 5% significance level. The mean VSC-producing bacteria in subjects using the essential oil mouth rinse were significantly lower than those using the control rinse twice daily. In healthy subjects, rinsing with an essential oil-containing mouth rinse can have a significant effect on VSC-producing bacteria on the tongue and may be useful for controlling intrinsic oral malodor over prolonged periods. PMID:21710870

Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

2011-03-01

323

Effect of alloy nickel content vs PREN on the selection of austenitic oil country tubular goods for sour gas service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditionally, in the selection of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) for sour gas service, Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA`s) are screened first by their pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) and then by environmental cracking data generated in sour brine environments. The theory is that a pit occurs first, which provides a stress-riser for initiation of anodic chloride stress corrosion cracking (KC). Among the primary CRA`s currently used in the cold worked condition for OCTG in sour gas wells are alloy 825 (UNS N08825) and alloy 28 (UNS N08028). While alloy 28 has a somewhat higher PREN than alloy 825, alloy 825 has a significantly higher nickel content. Slow strain rate (SSR) tests conducted in severe sour brine environments showed that the higher nickel content of alloy 825 results in better stress corrosion cracking resistance than that exhibited by alloy 28. The effect of nickel content on chloride SCC resistance of austenitic alloys was originally reported by H.R. Copson in 1959. This suggests that in some cases for austenitic alloys, the nickel content of the CRA may be more important than the PREN in OCTG selection.

Hibner, E.L.; Tassen, C.S. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Skogsberg, J.W. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

324

Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected b...

Sanjuan-galindo, Rene; Soto, Enrique; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

2010-01-01

325

Future Danish oil and gas export  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Denmark possesses only a small share of the exploitation rights to North Sea oil and is a minor producer when compared to Norway and the UK. However, Denmark is still an oil exporter and a very important supplier of oil for certain countries, in particular Sweden. A field-by-field analysis of the Danish oil and gas fields, combined with estimated production contribution from new field developments, enhanced oil recovery and undiscovered fields, provides a future production outlook. The conclu...

Ho?o?k, Mikael; So?derbergh, Bengt; Aleklett, Kjell

2009-01-01

326

Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

2008-01-01

327

Rundle oil shale gets financial backing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plans to develop Australia's Rundle shale oil deposits represent the first large-scale commercial shale oil project in a Western country and the largest resource project ever attempted in Australia. The $A3 billion project, expected to produce 250,000 barrels of oil a day, will make the country self-sufficient in oil until the year 2000. The govenment confirms world parity prices for oil, which is essential to the Rundle project's success. A geographical and geological description is given of Queensland basins. The various oil shales contained in the area will be classified by their origin and properties of the organic matter. (DCK)

Scott, W.E.

1980-07-01

328

Management of soybean oil refinery wastes through recycling them for producing biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactant production through a fermentation process involving the biodegradation of soybean oil refining wastes was studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01 was able to produce extracellular biosurfactant when it was cultured in three soybean oil refinement wastes; acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soapstock, at different carbon to nitrogen ratios. Subsequent fermentation kinetics in the three types of waste culture were also investigated and compared with kinetic behavior in soybean oil medium. Biodegradation of wastes, biosurfactant production, biomass growth, nitrate consumption and the number of colony forming units were detected in four proposed media, at specified time intervals. Unexpectedly, wastes could stimulate the biodegradation activity of MR01 bacterial cells and thus biosurfactant synthesis beyond that of the refined soybean oil. This is evident from higher yields of biodegradation and production, as revealed in the waste cultures (Ydeg|(Soybean oil) = 53.9 % YP/S|(Soybean oil) = 0.31 g g(-1), respectively). Although production yields were approximately the same in the three waste cultures (YP/S|(wastes) =/~ 0.5 g g(-1)), microbial activity resulted in higher yields of biodegradation (96.5 ± 1.13 %), maximum specific growth rate (? max = 0.26 ± 0.02 h(-1)), and biosurfactant purity (89.6 %) with a productivity of 14.55 ± 1.10 g l(-1), during the bioconversion of soapstock into biosurfactant. Consequently, applying soybean oil soapstock as a substrate for the production of biosurfactant with commercial value has the potential to provide a combination of economical production with environmental protection through the biosynthesis of an environmentally friendly (green) compound and reduction of waste load entering the environment. Moreover, this work inferred spectrophotometry as an easy method to detect rhamnolipids in the biosurfactant products. PMID:23361970

Partovi, Maryam; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Roostaazad, Reza; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Tayyebi, Shokoufe

2013-06-01

329

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

2013-02-01

330

Pseudomonas sagittaria sp. nov., a siderophore-producing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated CC-OPY-1(T), was isolated from an oil-contaminated site in Taiwan. CC-OPY-1(T) produces siderophores, and can grow at temperatures of 25-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0 and tolerate Pseudomonas alcaligenes BCRC 11893(T) (97.1 %), Pseudomonas. alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) (97.1 %), Pseudomonas tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (97.1 %), Pseudomonas toyotomiensis JCM 15604(T) (96.9 %) and lower sequence similarity to remaining species of the genus Pseudomonas. The phylogenetic trees reconstructed based on gyrB and rpoB gene sequences supported the classification of CC-OPY-1(T) as a novel member of the genus Pseudomonas. The predominant quinone system of strain CC-OPY-1T was ubiquinone (Q-9) and the DNA G+C content was 68.4 ± 0.3 mol%. The major fatty acids were C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and summed features 3 and 8 consisting of C16 : 1?7c/C16 : 1?6c and C18 : 1?7c/C18 : 1?6c, respectively. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and two unknown phospholipids (PL1-2). Due to distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, CC-OPY-1(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas for which the name Pseudomonas sagittaria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-OPY-1(T) ( = BCRC 80399(T) = JCM 18195(T)). PMID:23178721

Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Lai, Wei-An; Chen, Wen-Ming; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

2013-07-01

331

Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large amount of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra), is discharged to the sea in connection with oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. In addition, chemicals are used to avoid production problems due to corrosion, scaling (precipitation of sulphates or carbonates in the production system), foaming, phase separation, etc. Some of these chemicals are designed to interact with alkaline earth elements and will influence the speciation of radium. The presence of barium in the produced water (0.1 - 1 mM) makes it a carrier for radium. The main questions addressed are how the presence of added chemicals will affect the speciation and mobility of Ra, and if it will increase the biological uptake in biota? To answer these questions we have performed tests of mobility and uptake in biota in controlled environments, simulating real conditions. To enable measurement of low uptake of 226Ra, the concentration used was higher than that in seawater, i.e. 2 - 10 Bq/L activity concentrations were chosen. Liquid scintillation counting was used for measuring 226Ra and daughters. Using Quantulus with peak shape analysis gave a good separation of alpha- and beta radiation. Although the quenching in some samples was considerable, the loss of alphas seems to be low. The results from force-feeding of cod indicate a much higher increase in Ra-uptake from food when scale inhibitor is present, i.e. ca 18% vs. ca 4%. To analyse precipitated BaSO4 with and without scale inhibitor, SEM and particle analysis have been used. The presence of scale inhibitor makes the crystals smaller and thus more mobile. The average crystal sizes were reduced from 8 to 3 ?m. To measure the amount of biological accessible Ra we used MnO2-based disks of DTG (Diffusion through Thin Gradient). The DTG showed a linear uptake as a function of time with an efficiency of 60% of theoretical uptake. (author)

2006-04-01

332

Development of a mobile water maker, a sustainable way to produce safe drinking water in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Moreover, there is a growing demand for a simple, low capacity drinking water treatment used by local people in developing countries to reduce mortality caused by water born diseases. To solve this problem a small portable water treatment unit with a production capacity of approximately 500 L/day was developed. The unit can operate without the use of external electricity/pumps/generators in order to operate completely independent. The mobile water treatment unit uses tubular ceramic membranes...

Groendijk, L.; Vries, H. E.

2009-01-01

333

The challenges of producing popular sports contests:a comparative study of biathlon and cross-country skiing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article analyses how different configurations of stakeholders create opportunities for the production of popular TV sports contests. Based on qualitative methodologies, biathlon and cross-country skiing are used as contrasting cases. The paper concludes that the relative success of the International Biathlon Union is due to a favourable network position in relation to stakeholders. By comparison, the International Ski Federation suffers from a weak position within a dense stakeholder net...

Solberg, Harry Arne; Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Steen-johnsen, Kari

2009-01-01

334

The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

2009-01-01

335

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90) in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the dr...

2000-01-01

336

Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh byproducts : influence of temperature during storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crude herring oil, extracted from fresh byproducts, was stored at 0, 20, and 50°C in order to study the effect of temperature on lipid oxidation. The oil had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), and free fatty acids of 0.7 meq peroxides/kg of lipid, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. During storage, the oil reached the secondary oxidation stage for all 3 temperatures. The formation of fluorescent compounds was inhibited at 0°C. Significant decrease of the ?-tocopherol content wa...

2002-01-01

337

Why heavy oilfields exist? The dynamic interplay of oil charge, basin dynamics, caprock leakage and gas generating biodegradation that produces heavy oilfields  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy oil and bitumen resources develop by extensive in-reservoir oil biodegradation resulting in a wide range of oil compositional gradients that reflect the complex interplay of oil charge rate and composition, biodegradation in oil-water transition zones at the base of oil columns and geologically controlled in-reservoir diffusive mixing over geological time. Worldwide, observed compositional gradients are maintained by unaltered oil charge near the top of reservoirs and concomitant degradation at the base of the reservoirs at rates comparable to the charge rates of oil fields. Across the Alberta oil sands, elevated CO2, high CH4 and low C2+ gas contents, steep oil compositional gradients, high aqueous bicarbonate concentrations and isotopic values in equilibrium with enriched d13CCO2 gas signatures are indicative of active persistence of active biodegradation to the present. Numerical models of carbon isotope systematics identify the dominant reaction pathway of subsurface hydrocarbon biodegradation as methanogenic alkane degradation by CO2 reduction, which produces large volumes of isotopically light methane and heavy CO2 in solution gas. Simple charge-degrade numerical models predict generation of 3 to 6 times reservoir volumes of biogenic gas in the genesis of heavy oil over geological time, which would have displaced oils from the traps. Gas caps in shallow reservoirs are small at best, suggesting seal leakage is pervasive and this is confirmed by degraded oil in many heavy oil caprocks. Also much less CO2 is measured in biodegraded oil field gases than is predicted based on reaction stoichiometry. The paucity of large gas caps, evidence of methane-rich and sometimes oil charged cap rocks, anomalously high formation water alkalinity and enriched aqueous d13Ccarbonate values in shallow Alberta biodegraded oil reservoirs point to leaky reservoir top seals and dissolution of biogenic gas into the water and oil phases. Indeed we consider top seal leakage of biogenic gas required to produce heavy oil and super heavy oil fields to maintain active biodegradation at the oil-water contact by transport of nutrients through the water phase. This would otherwise be curtailed by petroleum completely filling the reservoir to the underseal. The abundance of heavy oil and super heavy oil in shallow reservoirs reflect leaky reservoir seals at these depths and systematic removal of large volumes of gas generated by petroleum biodegradation and sometimes spill of oil. In uplifted basins with shallow heavy oil resources, degassing of oil and discharge of biodegradation generated gas may also have episodically contributed substantial carbon loads to the atmospheric carbon budget.

Adams, J. J.; Larter, S. R.; Huang, H.; Bennett, B.

2008-12-01

338

Variation in the volatile oil composition of Eucalyptus citriodora produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports variations in the yields and quality of volatiles produced from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves by different hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques. HD techniques (1.5%) produced higher yields compared to SCE (0.7%). Citronellal, the major component, was maximum in the extract produced by SCE (79%) followed by oil produced by water-steam distillation (WSD) (72.6%) and water distillation (WD) (62.4%) techniques. Chemical composition of glycoside-bound volatiles produced by acid hydrolysis during HD was found to be very different from free volatiles, although in a minor quantity. The extent of artefact formation and release of aglycones was more profound in the bound volatile oil produced by WD than WSD. Highest oxygenated monoterpenes were found in SCE and WSD (93% each) followed by WD (91.4%). Although the SCE produced lower yields than the HD techniques, its extract is superior in quality in terms of higher concentration of citronellal. PMID:22559719

Mann, Tavleen S; Babu, G D Kiran; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

2013-04-01

339

Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

2009-05-10

340

DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

2003-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Development of crude-oil producing and handling equipment in Nagylengyel. [Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the problems of lifting the viscous Nagylengyel crude oil from bottomhole, and of the gathering and transporting of crude oil. Experiments made to develop the most appropriate transportation methods are mentioned. The development of the transportation system now in use and of methods of measuring and collecting basic data necessary to maintain the established production technology and testings are touched upon, along with new ideas in this field.

Horvath, R.

1965-04-01

342

Syria produces 8. 5 million tons of oil annually - reserves are 250 million tons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the interview, the deputy minister discloses that reserves and discoveries are as modest by OAPEC standards as the level of production. There are no plans to reduce production levels despite a heavy financial burden due to subsidies for domestic oil products. National investment in the development of solar energy as a renewable energy source and nuclear energy as a cheap energy source would give oil a better economic value for specific products. (DCK)

1983-04-01

343

Evaluation of produced water toxicity from an oil maritime terminal through Skeletonema costatum toxicity tests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The liquid effluent from an oil maritime terminal, with produced water as the main component, had its toxicity evaluated through toxicity tests with the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Two previously treated effluent samples (effluents A and B, were provided by PETROBRAS for the experiments. Both samples presented high salinity (67‰ for effluent A and 62‰ for effluent B and low pH values (6.2, whereas total sulphide, phenol and nutrient content, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon concentration, BOD and COD values were quite different from each other. During the toxicity experiment, three replicate flasks with samples for each treatment were exposed to a light radiation of 266µE m² S-1 and maintained under a 10 h/14 h lightldark cycle, at a temperature of 24 :t 2ºC. The EC50 values could not be accurately estimated for effluent A: 60 h and 132 h after starting the experiment they were below 3% and between 3-6% effluent concentration, respectively. Synergistic effects between effluent toxicity and salinity on the growth of S. costatum were detected. The effluent B showed higher toxicity: the EC5O values were 0.17% and 0.40% of effluent concentrations, after 48 h and 96 h, respectively. These results evidenced the deleterious effects of residual organic compounds contained in the aqueous effluents from the oil terminal under the present pretreatment on S. costatum. In the light of the present data, the direct disposal ofthese effluents into São Sebastião Channel waters might be very hazardous to its indigenous biota.A toxicidade do efluente líquido do "Dutos e Terminais Centro-Oeste São Paulo" (DTCS terminal marítimo de petróleo da PETROBRAS, em São Sebastião (SP, Brasil, cujo principal componente é a água de produção, foi avaliada através de testes de toxicidade com a diatomácea Skeletonema costatum. Amostras de dois efluentes (A e B, previamente tratados pela PETROBRAS, foram utilizadas nos experimentos. As duas amostras apresentaram alta salinidade (A=67‰; B=62‰ e baixo valor de pH (6,2, enquanto que as suas concentrações de sulfetos, fenóis e hidrocarbonetos de petróleo dissolvidos/dispersos, bem como os seus valores de DBO e DQO, foram bastante distintos. Nos experimentos de toxicidade, os frascos experimentais, em triplicata, para cada tratamento foram expostos à radiação luminosa fluorescente de 266 µm² S-1 e mantidas em um ciclo luz/escuro de 10 h/14 h, a uma temperatura de 24 :t 2ºC. Os valores de CE50 não puderam ser determinados com precisão para o efluente A: após 60 h e 132 h do início dos experimentos esses valores estavam abaixo de 3% e entre 3-6% da concentração de efluente, respectivamente. Foi observado sinergismo entre a toxicidade e a salinidade do efluente sobre o crescimento de S. costatum. O efluente B apresentou uma toxicidade mais elevada: os valores de CEso foram 0,17% e 0,40% da concentração do efluente, após 48 h e 96 h, respectivamente. Estes resultados evidenciaram claramente os efeitos deletérios dos compostos orgânicos residuais contidos no efluente líquido do DTCS, sobre S. costatum. Pode-se concluir que a disposição do efluente nas águas do canal de São Sebastião poderá ser prejudicial à biota local.

Elizabeth Aidar

1999-01-01

344

Budget deficit remedies and their impact on the non-oil sectors of an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for the non-oil production side of the Kuwaiti economy was developed and estimated. The model, then, was simulated according to various scenarios designed to eliminate the budget deficit by the year 2000, in order to examine the effect on the non-oil sector of the economy. The results indicate that, in terms of its impact on non-oil GDP, the extreme case scenario is harsh, bringing down the level of non-oil GDP by more than 20% by the year 2000 from its level in 1993. The impact on the budget deficit may be very positive, but non-oil production and consumption will decline very rapidly, creating widespread hardship across all economic sectors. The results suggest a better option lies in adopting either of two intermediate case scenarios. While each of these will also cause a decline in non-oil GDP, it will not be to the extent caused by the extreme case scenario.

Eltony, M.N. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait). Economic Studies Department

1998-03-01

345

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish a Technology Transfer Resource Center (TRC) at Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) to assist the Independent Oil Producers, in the state of Texas, (TIP) obtain and apply oil recovery technology to their operation. The University will conduct a field pilot project in cooperation with an Independent Producer to demonstrate how technology application improves the economic performance of a project. Experience gained from the project will be disseminated to other Independents. These activities will be coordinated with neighboring state Universities and private research entities active in technology transfer programs. The University`s goal is to stimulate Petroleum Engineering education and research at the university as a result of participating in these activities. The long term goal is to establish the first Petroleum Engineering Department at a Historically Black University.

Fotouh, K.H.

1996-10-01

346

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2004-01-01

347

The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE) was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE) locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP) or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were...

Zair, Zyad Rafa A.; Dr. Malek Mostafa Mohammed

2005-01-01

348

A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

2013-12-01

349

Structural and Developmental Studies on Oil Producing Reproductive Organs in Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anatomical changes in lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle reproductive organs were investigated, with emphasis on the ontogeny of essential oil glands and their relation to organ development. Perianth had a leaf-like internal structure, with the developmental changes restricted to the ground system. Ovary diameter increased by cell divisions until fruit color change and by increase in size, wall thickness and intercellular space towards fruit maturity. Development of oil glands in flower and fruit peel revealed a similar pattern and was investigated in the ovary wall. Glands seemed to develop from some epidermal and subepidermal cells, into a conical stalk and a globular or oblong structure consisting of a central cavity surrounded by a protective sheath. Initiation of ovary oil glands started at preanthesis and was restricted to young green fruit. Mature oil glands continued to enlarge throughout fruit growth. Disputes regarding the manner of cavity opening in Citrus could be resolved by considering the three dimensional aspect of the oil glands.

Maryam Rafiei

2007-01-01

350

Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NOx concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SOx emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (2 concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

2010-01-01

351

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and tak...

Edwin Rodríguez; Jaime Orjuela

2004-01-01

352

Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

2008-09-15

353

Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

1999-12-01

354

Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

2006-10-15

355

Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under eight different hormonal supplementations and proliferated by subculture of nodal shoot segments. The respective essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were composed of more than 75 compounds, 65 of which were identified. The 10 major compounds were, by order of retention time, alpha-pinene (4.1-5.4%), camphene (6-7.1%), beta-pinene (9.3-14.5%), limonene (2-2.3%), 1,8-cineole (3.6-5.6%), (-)-thujone (13.2-16.1%), (+)-isothujone (6.6-7.4%), camphor (19.8-24%), alpha-humulene (5.1-6.8%), and manool (4.2-7.7%). Notwithstanding the eight different hormonal supplementations tested, the percentage composition of the shoot essential oils were kept in a narrow range of variation. However, the type and concentration of growth regulators apparently influenced the accumulation of essential oils. The highest accumulation of essential oils and the highest shoot biomass growth were obtained with 2.0 mg/L kinetin and 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. PMID:12670167

Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

2003-04-01

356

The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products.

2010-07-01

357

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

2009-10-01

358

Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F cytochromes P450 produce santalols and bergamotol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sandalwood oil is one of the world's most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, ?-, ?-, and epi-?-santalol and ?-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of ?-, ?-, and epi-?-santalene and ?-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests. PMID:24324844

Diaz-Chavez, Maria L; Moniodis, Jessie; Madilao, Lufiani L; Jancsik, Sharon; Keeling, Christopher I; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Plummer, Julie A; Jones, Christopher G; Bohlmann, Jörg

2013-01-01

359

The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved: 1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30 wt.%. 2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45 wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP with (35-55 wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

Zyad Rafa'a Zair

2005-01-01

360

Potential for producing oil and gas from the Woodford Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the southern mid-continent, USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Woodford Shale is a prolific oil source rock throughout the southern mid-continent of the United States. Extrapolation of thickness and organic geochemical data based on the analysis of 614 samples from the region indicate that on the order of 100 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (300 {times} 10{sup 12} ft{sup 3} of natural gas equivalent) reside in the Woodford in Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas. The Woodford in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico contains on the order of 80 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (240 {times} 10{sup 12} ft{sup 3} of natural gas equivalent). Tapping this resource is most feasible in areas where the Woodford subcrop contains competent lithofacies (e.g., chert, sandstone, siltstone, dolostone) and is highly fractured. Horizontal drilling may provide the optimum exploitation technique. Areas with the greatest potential and the most prospective lithologies include (1) the Nemaha uplift (chert, sandstone, dolostone), (2) Marietta-Ardmore basin (chert), (3) southern flank of the Anadarko basin along the Wichita Mountain uplift (chert), (4) frontal zone of the Ouachita tectonic belt in Oklahoma (chert), and (5) the Central Basin platform in west Texas and New Mexico (chert and siltstone). In virtually all of these areas, the Woodford is in the oil or gas window. Thus, fracture porosity would be continuously fed by hydrocarbons generated in the enclosing source rocks. Reservoir systems such as these typically have produced at low to moderate flow rates for many decades.

Comer, J.B. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States))

1992-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Long term development of the world's seaborne steam coal export markets with focus on producing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From a customer view, hence the demand side of the world seaborne coal business, the requirements to utilize hard coal for electricity generation in the long run can be summarized quite easily: coal has to be securely sourced with predictable qualities and with a stable cost basis. To determine whether this is the case, German E.ON Kraftwerke (EKW) built up a fundamental database comprising the majority of today's publicly reported steam coal export capacities, as well as, new projects and initiatives on a mine by mine basis. Matching the country specific cash cost curves with assumed global coal demand and freight markets, future seaborne trade volume flows and probable thermal coal imports costs are modelled. This paper focuses on key input parameters and the mechanics of the fundamental database. Furthermore the authors provide an outlook of the key steam coal exporting nations in 2030 providing a glimpse at the potential origins of Europe's future coal import basket. (orig.)

Bayer, Arne K. [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Rademacher, Maggi [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

2010-10-15

362

[Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

2014-01-01

363

Jackable oil rigs and corner columns for producing legs in an oil rig. Oppjekkbar oljerigg og hjoernesoeyle for fremstilling av samme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a jackable oil rig designed for large ocean depths and which comprises at least one leg and a deck having a jack system. The rig's leg comprises a number of corner columns together with transverse bracing stays and each corner column comprises a substantially annular outer pipe in which a substantially annular inner pipe is arranged. The annular space between the inner wall of the outer pipe and the outer wall of the inner pipe is filled with a hardenable material such as concrete, capable of transferring forces between the pipes, the outer diameter of the outer pipe being approximately constant over the whole length of the column, and the oil rig is characterised in that the outer diameter of the inner pipe is approximately constant while its wall thickness increases from upper section of the corner column to the lowermost section of the corner column. According to a preferred construction the wall thickness of the inner pipe increases step by step from about 30 mm in the upper section of the rig leg to about 150 mm in the lower section of the leg. This corner column construction makes it possible to produce jackable oil rigs which can operate at ocean depths completely down to 200 metres. 6 figs.

Foss, G.; Kjersem, G.; Rundhovde, S.

1991-08-19

364

The oil barrel price  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

2009-01-01

365

Considerable hazards produced by heavy fuel oil in operating thermal power plant in Assiut, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year). PMID:23589256

El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

2013-09-01

366

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-12-31

367

Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in ...

Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Pang Wey Kit; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Yoshino Sadazo; Rakmi Abdul Rahman

2003-01-01

368

High-efficiency homologous recombination in the oil-producing alga Nannochloropsis sp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Algae have reemerged as potential next-generation feedstocks for biofuels, but strain improvement and progress in algal biology research have been limited by the lack of advanced molecular tools for most eukaryotic microalgae. Here we describe the development of an efficient transformation method for Nannochloropsis sp., a fast-growing, unicellular alga capable of accumulating large amounts of oil. Moreover, we provide additional evidence that Nannochloropsis is haploid, and we demonstrate th...

Kilian, Oliver; Benemann, Christina S. E.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Vick, Bertrand

2011-01-01

369

Characterization of Oil and Fatty Acid Composition in Seed Produced by Canola Regrowth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canola (Brassica napus L.) and its relatives are known to regrow after harvesting of the foliage. However, yield and oil characteristics of seed harvested from regrowth are unknown. An experiment was conducted to obtain such information. Pre-flowering foliage was harvested from 48 plots (cut plots) grown in virginia during 2001-02 season. A group of 48 companion plots (uncut plots) was left unharvested. Upon harvesting of foliage, these plots received a factorial combination of four ra...

Bhardwaj, Harbans L.; Hamama, Anwar A.

2009-01-01

370

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31

371

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E. [and others

1996-09-01

372

Renewable gasoline produced by co-cracking of methanol and ketones in bio-oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most research on the upgrading of bio-oil by cracking has been done under atmospheric pressure, which results in a catalyst coke yield as high as 20 wt%. In this paper, pressurized cracking, as well as co-cracking with methanol proved to be an effective solution for relieving catalyst deactivation. HZSM-5 catalyst was found to deactivate rapidly in the cracking process of pure ketones. However, when methanol was used as the co-cracking substance for ketones under 2 MPa, ketones reached a full conversion of 100 % without obvious catalyst deactivation. The highest selectivity of bio-gasoline phase from co-cracking of ketones and methanol reached a value of 31.6%, in which liquid hydrocarbons had a relative content of 97.2%. The co-cracking of hydroxypropanone and methanol had lower bio-gasoline phase selectivity but better oil phase quality (liquid hydrocarbons selectivity up to 99% than those of cyclopentanone and methanol. Based on the experimental results, the promotion mechanism of methanol on cracking of ketones in bio-oil was illustrated by a co-cracking mechanism model.

Shurong Wang

2012-11-01

373

Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum. PMID:23534491

da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

2013-01-01

374

Volatile Compounds, Profiles of Virgin Olive Oils Produced In the Eastern Morocco: Oxidative Stability and Sensory Defects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on flavor profiles of virgin olive oil (VOO are becoming more and more numerous. The VOO aromas are determined by a mixture of chemicals in olive oil, which influence its quality. Various studies around the world have shown that the volatile compounds in VOO depend on the climate, cultivation and process. The present work is a first approach to compare volatile profiles of VOO largely produced in eastern of Morocco after 6 months of storage at ambient temperature in darkness. Oxidative stability measured by Rancimat method at 101C was also determined. VOO volatile profiles were examined using the solid-phase micro extraction fibre method (SPME in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS. 84 volatile compounds were identified; they belong to various chemical classes, such as aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons. The main volatile compounds present in olive oil samples were compounds with 6 carbon atoms (C6 such as Hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, Z-3-Hexen-1-ol and 1-Hexanol. Ethanol and Z-3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were also found. In general, these compounds have been identified in all VOO analyzed samples. The chemical compositions of the analyzed virgin olive oil headspaces evidenced that the most representative compounds In Isly and Kenine were carboxylic acids accounted for 59.24%-49.7% respectively, whereas the volatile fraction of the oil from Achajara almoubaraka showed significantly higher amounts of the alcohols (46%. Concerning oxidative stability, Isly and Kenine OO, have lower stability values compared to Achajara almoubaraka. Their potential oxidative susceptibility is therefore much higher than Achajara almoubaraka.

Karima Tanouti

2012-09-01

375

An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

1993-11-14

376

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinas [...] se and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

Juliana Guerra de, Oliveira; Crispin Humberto, Garcia-Cruz.

377

THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present the role of oil in today’s world, society, and economy. It is important because anything nowadays is about oil, from economy, and society, to international politics. Since the development of air and road transportation, but especially after World War II, the transfer of wealth from some countries (the consuming countries to another countries (the producing countries is unique in human history; and the influence of the second group of countries in world politics is very high due to this situation.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

BACIU Adrian

2012-12-01

378

Opening address: EC/OAPEC/OPEC seminar on the medium- and long-term outlook- energy balances in oil-importing and oil-exporting countries, Luxembourg, 17-19 March 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disastrous events of 1986 were the result of a long process of change in the world energy structure, which ended with intolerable market pressure on OPEC member countries. Although OPEC policies aimed at stabilizing prices are succeeding, it is important for all members to work together to avoid a recurrence. Factors which have contributed to price instability are OPEC pricing policies of the 1970s that brought sudden price increases that encouraged non-OPEC oil production and policies of consuming nations to reduce their dependence on OPEC oil, as well as the current over supply of oil. Low prices have meant the loss of US and North Sea exploration and production and the possibility that another price collapse could mean the depletion of some non-OPEC reserves at a low price without the incentives to replace the extracted oil. The author examines these and other issues to conclude that international oil markets must reflect geological and economic realities rather than politics.

Al-Chalabi, F.J.

1987-04-01

379

Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens. PMID:22368259

Suzuki, Nao; Tanabe, Kazunari; Takeshita, Toru; Yoneda, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Oshiro, Sueko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Hirofuji, Takao

2012-03-01