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1

Exogenous oil shocks, fiscal policy and sector reallocations in oil producing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous literature has suggested that different mechanisms of transmission of exogenous oil shocks are responsible for the negative effects on the economic performances of oil exporting countries. This paper aims at providing further evidence on the role of sectoral reallocation between private and public sectors in explaining the impact of shocks to oil revenues on the economic growth rates of major oil producing countries (namely the GCC - Gulf Corporation Council - countries). The effects...

Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

2011-01-01

2

Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

3

1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

Warner, A.J.

1979-03-01

4

Potential Iranian hegemony in oil producing Islamic countries: Implications for oil geopolitics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades world supply of oil has been increasingly held in the Islamic countries around the Persian Gulf. The fact that the level of oil production is high in these countries and that they possess most of the world's oil reserves could be extremely significant. This 'petropower' could lead to strategic geopolitical developments when oil is used as economic and political weapons. It may be that the apocalyptic appeal of militant Islamism coming out of Iran can weld both Shia and Sunni...

Leigh James; Vukovi? Predrag

2010-01-01

5

Peasant migration from an Egyptian village to the oil-producing countries: it causes and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the causes and consequences of peasant migration to the Arab oil-producing countries on the sending community. It recognizes the multiplicity of levels of causality on which migration operates. Therefore, it examines the role of national and international determinants of migration as well as individual, household, and village level variables in generating migration. Furthermore, it investigates the role of migration in bringing about social change in the village economy, social structure, and individual attitudes. Four issues related to emigration are thoroughly examined: remittances and their use, the village labor market and labor shortage, the land market in the village, and attitudes toward women. The study demonstrates that emigration to the oil countries is nothing more than a new link in the long historical tradition of migration from rural Egypt. The current trend of migration to the oil-producing countries, however, is the result of both the changing role of the oil-producing countries within the world economy and the changes in Egypt's agrarian and migration policies during the 1970's which led to increasing intersectoral and intrasectoral inequalities that triggered peasant migration. Also, migration from the village to the oil-producing countries is a pattern of behavior unique to small peasant producers.

Mohieddin, M.M.

1987-01-01

6

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2ergy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

7

Virgin Olive Oil Acceptability in Emerging Olive Oil-Producing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A sample of 99 habitual consumers sensory-evaluated 2 extra virgin and 2 ordinary olive oils in terms of overall liking and willingness to purchase based on 9-point structured scales and responded to a check-all-that-apply question comprising a list of 18 positive and negative attributes. In the second session, the same consumers evaluated the same oils also based on their respectiv...

Adriana Gámbaro; Ana Claudia Ellis; Laura Raggio

2013-01-01

8

GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

Damir Rajkovi?

2007-12-01

9

Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

Tsuji, Ryuhei

1999-03-01

10

Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

11

Oil producers and trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differing assessments of advice being offered to governments and national oil companies of the petroleum exporting countries are given by three commentators. The advice, coming from traders, consultants and the management of formal futures exchanges, is that oil exporters should make use of available trading instruments for the purpose of hedging in risk management; sometimes establishing forward and futures markets for their own crudes is also suggested. The first commentator offers two arguments in support of his view that the ''no-trading'' policy of oil exporters is costly and damaging to their interests. The third commentator does not favour the creation of a trading contract by producers for Arabian Gulf crudes. The idea of a producers' trading instrument is rejected more emphatically by the second commentator on the grounds that, unlike private companies, governments cannot credibly organize a market and trade in it; producers should trade in existing markets only with great care. (UK)

12

The relationship between reserves of oil endowment and economic growth from the resource curse viewpoint: a case study of oil producing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research investigated the effective economic growth determinants using a panel data set over the period 1995 to 2010 in oil-rich countries divided by the level of democracy into two groups: countries with low and high democracy. The result of OLS method rejects the curse hypothesis; however, TSLS method reveals the reserves of oil endowment has a negative effect on economic growth of low democracy countries and the curse hypothesis is approved.

Mohammadi, Teymour; Jahangard, Fateme; Khani Hoolari, Seyed Morteza

2014-01-01

13

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

14

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

15

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

2009-07-15

16

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

2009-07-15

17

The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of frequired, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

18

Middle East: the cartel is weakened, but prices are holding. [Extensive survey of all drilling activities in Middle East oil-producing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combination of high oil prices and an almost world-wide stagflation resulted in a markedly reduced demand for crude--in the face of ballooning capacity in the Middle East and other OPEC member nations. Under normal economic laws, a surplus supply and declining demand would result in falling prices. But although there was some miniscule price cutting (in the form of longer credit terms, elimination of premiums for low sulfur content, etc.), the cartel maintained its precarious balance in these uncertain economic times. Production curtailments in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Nigeria, Venezuela, and other exporters attested to the decline in demand. However, some of these countries will be strained to produce at a significantly reduced rate for too long a period, with Iran a good case in point. As long as OPEC members can maintain lower production rates, they can efficiently continue to mandate the world price of oil. The one possibility for a reduction is for one or more major producers to unilaterally drop the price. This would, of course, shake OPEC badly. However, Saudi Arabia remains the key simply because of its immense producing capacity and the fact that it can cut its production drastically--to maintain prices--and still accrue sufficient income to support domestic financial needs. Highlights of recent developments in Middle East oil-producing countries are summarized for Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjar, Fujairah, Ajman, Umm Al Quawain, Ras Al Khaima, Iraq, Qatar, Oman, Syria, Bahrain, Israel, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, South Yemen, and Yemen. (MCW)

1975-08-15

19

Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

2008-03-15

20

Oil exporting countries need nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

NONE

2007-11-29

22

On the economic determinants of oil production: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence for small exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, decisions regarding production in oil exporting countries are studied by means of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Under the assumptions of exogenous oil prices and world oil demand, we are able to describe the relationship between oil production levels and changes in the conditions in world oil markets. Intertemporal production decisions by a representative oil producer are modelled by means of a partial equilibrium model. In this theoretical model, oil produc...

Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

2011-01-01

23

The economic growth of oil countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

24

Oil producers facing a common challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

25

Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Economics Department, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6445 (Iran)

2009-03-15

26

Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies

27

Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: ? Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. ? Statistical analyct is not a given. ? Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. ? Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. ? Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

28

Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab

29

Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

30

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

31

Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume.

32

Yemen - the next big player? [as an oil producer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1993 should be the year in which United Yemen finally starts to fulfil its potential as a significant oil producer. In recession for three years, the country desperately needs the revenues and has spared no effort in its attempt to provide the right financial climate within which international oil companies can operate. But the last three years, in terms of revenues from actual oil production, have been disastrous, with production from the much-touted Shabwa fields persistently deferred and with the overall climate for the oil industry clouded by a border dispute with Saudi Arabia that prompted at least one western major, BP, to suspend operations for a while. (author)

33

Crude Oil Prices and Stock Markets in Major Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence on Decoupling Feature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates common cyclical features between crude oil market and stock markets in major oil exporting countries including Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait. The results of the paper indicate, at low oil prices (below $40 per oil barrel) Saudi and Abu-Dhabi markets share common cyclical feature with oil market, but they digress from the oil market as oil prices rose above $40 per barrel. The decoupling feature indicate the capital markets and oil market respond in different pattern ...

Onour, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

34

Oil Prices and Real Exchange Rate Movements in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Role of Institutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political and legal institutions affect the extent to which the real exchange rates of oil-exporting countries co-move with the oil price. In a simple theoretical model, strong institutions insulate real exchange rates from oil price volatility by generating a smooth pattern of fiscal spending over the price cycle. Empirical tests on a panel of 33 oil-exporting countries provide evidence that countries with high bureaucratic quality and strong and impartial legal systems have real exchange ra...

Rickne, Johanna

2009-01-01

35

Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

36

Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition.

1992-02-28

37

Oil Price Shocks and Stock Market Returns in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

Mohamed El Hédi AROURI

2010-10-01

38

Oil Prices and Real Exchange Rates in Oil-Exporting Countries: A Bounds Testing Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We test the validity of the Dutch disease hypothesis by examining the relationship between real oil prices and real exchange rates in a sample of fourteen oil exporting countries. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds tests of cointegration support the existence of a stable relationship between real exchange rates and real oil prices in all countries, suggesting a strong support for the Dutch disease hypothesis.

Jahan-parvar, Mohammad R.; Mohammadi, Hassan

2008-01-01

39

Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)

40

Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

 
 
 
 
41

Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

42

Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

NONE

1995-05-01

43

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Economics Department, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6445 (Iran)

2008-03-15

44

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts

45

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

46

Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

2010-09-15

47

Nuclear power for the oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focus of this paper is the economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil-exporting countries, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. Headings are: status of nuclear power in Iran and Egypt; rationale for using nuclear power (gas value; gas balance; financial and fiscal parameters; opportunity cost of capital; taxation burdens; rate making formulae; conservation ethos); applications (nuclear - oil competition; process heat and desalination; nuclear reactors and development assistance); conclusion. (U.K.)

48

Oil market in the 1990s: implications for ESCWA countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, prepared for the ESCWA Expert Group Meeting in Amman, Jordan, 20-23 November 1989, concerns the outlook for oil markets in the coming decade and the implications of certain market trends for the ESCWA countries, including both the energy exporting and energy importing members of ESCWA. It is argued that increasing oil consumption may well bring world oil production close to physical capacity before the end of the 1990s, thereby provoking an increase in real oil prices. It is further argued that the uncertainty surrounding this scenario is asymmetric; it is more likely that real oil prices will rise than that they will remain stable or fall. Other major trends, including enhanced worldwide concern for the environment and the bilateralization of world trade, also will affect ESCWA countries. The authors conclude that member countries should expand petroleum exploration activities, improve the operating efficiency of their national oil companies, bring domestic energy prices into line with world markets, expand natural gas development and marketing efforts, participate in multilateral trade negotiations, and expand co-ordination in all energy matters. (Author)

49

Demand for oil products in the GCC countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the price and income elasticities of oil products demand in the GCC countries. Annual data spanning the period 1970-91 were fitted to a partial adjustment model to obtain the estimates. The main finding of the study is that both price and income are relatively inelastic in the short-run, and there has been a great variation in these elasticities among fuels and cross-country. (author)

Al-faris, Abdul-razak F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Economics

1997-01-01

50

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

51

Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

Aurelia Mañé

2005-10-01

52

A method for producing oil coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method for producing petroleum coke from a mixture of residues with varying content of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU), includes: initial heating of the oil residues to 380 to 400 degrees, their feeding into a rectification tower for fractionation along with steam which comes from the coking chamber, into distillate fractions and bottoms; the discharge of the bottoms from the rectification tower; heating of the bottoms to a coking temperature and its subsequent coking in an unheated chamber. The heating of the oil residues is accomplished separately, the oil residues with the higher aromatic hydrocarbon content are fed to cascade disks of the rectification tower, while residues with a lower content of aromatic hydrocarbons are sent directly to the bottom of the rectification tower. This provides for a fuller extraction from the vapors of the coke forming compounds and enrichment by the latter of the bottoms of the tower, the secondary coking raw material. The volume of production of the petroleum cokes is increased by 5 to 7 percent with the same raw material capacity of the installation. An improvement in the quality of the coking distillates in pour point, cokeability and the content of heavy metals is simultaneously observed.

Fedotov, V.Ye.; Bayevskiy, F.S.; Makarov, A.D.; Myakishin, A.G.; Stekhun, A.I.; Sukharev, V.P.; Syunyayev, Z.I.; Tropp, V.G.

1982-01-01

53

Quality Improvement of Olive Oils Produced In The Eastern Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to characterize olive oils and to distinguish the production areas according to the specific soil and climate. The goal is to label "local product" olive oils produced in the eastern region of Morocco. The studies focus on oils from three consecutive olives harvest periods. Olive oils, obtained from eastern small olive oil-producers, characteristics were determined using conventional methods analysis, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. This study shows a mar...

Tanouti K.; Serghini-Caid H; Chaieb E; Benali A.; Harkous M.; Elamrani A

2011-01-01

54

Energy and the oil-importing developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil-importing developing countries will need more energy during the 1980's to sustain development and to support their subsistence sectors. Development plans must be revised to reflect the potentially disastrous effects of high-cost oil on foreign exchange reserves and on national indebtedness. Energy use efficiency must be increased, and wider use must be made of domestic sources of energy-of conventional fossil and hydro sources and of new and renewable options such as biomass and other solar resources. The international community can help by careful management of world financial flows and trade agreements, expansion of capital assistance, and provision of technical assistance. The importance of improving levels of scientific and technical expertise in the less-developed countries is a challege to the worldwide scientific and engineering community. PMID:17783276

Dunkerley, J; Ramsay, W

1982-05-01

55

Oil Price and Economic Growth in Small Pacific Island Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the 14 Pacific Island countries (PICs, only Papua New Guinea has fossil fuel resources. None of the remaining 13 PICs has any energy sources. Consequently, all the 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Recent surges and volatility in oil prices have had serious economic re-percussions on economic growth. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the recently developed panel analysis procedures to five major PICs, namely Fiji, Samoa, Solomon islands, Tonga and Vanuatu with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, economic growth and international reserve are cointegrated. The study findings are that although in the long run there is no long run causality relationship between these variables, in the short run the causality linkage runs from oil prices and interna-tional reserve to economic growth. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on policy options.

T. K. Jayaraman

2011-05-01

56

78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...certain oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation...include loans, grants, income tax incentives, and the provision of goods and services for less than adequate...

2013-09-16

57

Oil prices and stock markets: What drives what in the gulf corporation council countries?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Kónya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values to study the sensitivity of stock markets to oil prices in GCC (Gulf Corporation Council) countries. Using two ...

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe

2010-01-01

58

Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting and importing countries, differently. So that, in oil exporting countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly positive (negative effect on their TOT, while in oil importing countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly a negative (positive effect on TOT. Furthermore, the findings reveal that in the oil exporting countries, the effect of negative oil price shocks on TOT is more than positive oil price shocks. While, in oil importing countries, it is converse.

Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh

2012-01-01

59

Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

Knutsen, Trine

2011-01-01

60

The Influence of Oil Prices on Stock Market Returns: Empirical Evidence from Oil Exporting and Oil Importing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to study the impact of oil price fluctuations on the stock markets and the interest ratesfrom oil importing and oil exporting countries. To this end, Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models are estimatedand pairwise Granger Causality tests are performed to the stationary series in order to analyse the short-termrelationships among the variables. Also, the Johansen approach for multiple equations is carried out in order totest for cointegration among the series. Finally,...

Dimitrios Asteriou; Augustinos Dimitras; Andrea Lendewig

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Has the non-oil sector decoupled from oil sector? A case study of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As oil and gas are exhaustible resources, the need for economic diversification has gained momentum in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries immediately after the end of the first oil boom in 1973-74. Economic diversification, in the context of GCC countries, implies development of the non-oil sector and reduction of the proportion of government revenue and export proceeds from the oil and gas sector. Applying newly developed measures of business cycle synchronicity between oil and ...

Basher, Syed Abul

2010-01-01

62

Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

El-Anshasy, Amany A.

63

Producer gas engines in villages of less-developed countries  

Science.gov (United States)

It is argued that producer gas engines may be able to play an important role in the near term in the decentralized production of mechanical energy in the rural areas of less-developed countries (LDCs). The producer gas engine system incorporates a solid biomass gasifier, gas cooler, gas cleaner, and ordinary internal combustion engine. The technology, which was first introduced in the 1930s, is capable of 20-30% efficiency (by contrast to less than 10% for steam engines powered by comparable fuels) and can operate on wood, bagasse, straw, and charcoal. Attention is given such issues as gasifier design, fuel processing, energy efficiency and gasification chemistry. A detailed comparison with other renewable resource-based mechanical energy alternatives pertinent to the LDCs is presented.

Datta, R.; Dutt, G. S.

1981-08-01

64

Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

2008-07-01

65

Oil Exports, Non Oil GDP and Investment in the GCC Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the long and short-run relationship between oil exports, non oil GDP and investment in five major oil exporting countries. Its goal is to verify the effect of natural resources exports on the economic performance. It considers the effect of cross sectional correlations and uses the corresponding panel unit root tests to study the long-run characteristics of our series. The results show that resources' exports have no long-run relationship with the macro variables. A VAR ana...

Harb, Nasri

2008-01-01

66

Quality Improvement of Olive Oils Produced In The Eastern Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize olive oils and to distinguish the production areas according to the specific soil and climate. The goal is to label "local product" olive oils produced in the eastern region of Morocco. The studies focus on oils from three consecutive olives harvest periods. Olive oils, obtained from eastern small olive oil-producers, characteristics were determined using conventional methods analysis, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. This study shows a marked improvement in quality parameters of olive oils produced in this region. There is a difference in the phenol content between oils of different origins; this parameter content can be used as marker to distinguish olive oils according to the production area

Tanouti K

2011-01-01

67

The Influence of Oil Prices on Stock Market Returns: Empirical Evidence from Oil Exporting and Oil Importing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impact of oil price fluctuations on the stock markets and the interest ratesfrom oil importing and oil exporting countries. To this end, Vector Autoregressive (VAR models are estimatedand pairwise Granger Causality tests are performed to the stationary series in order to analyse the short-termrelationships among the variables. Also, the Johansen approach for multiple equations is carried out in order totest for cointegration among the series. Finally, the existence of cointegration set the estimation of VectorError-Correction Models (VECMs to investigate the long-term links between the financial variables and the oilprices. The major findings of this paper include: first, the interaction between the oil prices and the stockmarkets is much stronger than with the interest rates in the short and in the long-run. Second, the impact on oilimporting countries is more significant than on oil exporting countries. Finally, it might be possible that thefluctuations in oil prices have different effects on developed and developing countries.

Dimitrios Asteriou

2013-08-01

68

Oil Prices and Financial Markets Activity: Empirical Evidence from Some MENA countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses empirically the effects of oil prices on financial markets activity of some MENA countries (Middle East & North Africa.We have chosen this subject to study aiming to find out and explain if there is a relationship between international oil prices and the prices of the listed securities in the financial markets of Middle East and North Africa. The countries that will be in the sample of analysis are Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis, we targeted these countries of this geographical area based on specific characteristics of these countries as they are oil importers; in the meantime they have sharing borders with big oil exporting countries.

Marwan Al-Nahleh

2011-03-01

69

Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

70

Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ? Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ? Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ? There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

71

Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-r...

Mohsen Mehrara; Maysam Musai

2011-01-01

72

Real Exchanges Rates in Commodity Producing Countries: A Reappraisal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commodity currency literature recently stressed the importance of commodity prices as a determinant of real exchange rates in developing countries (Cashin, Cespedes and Sahay 2004). We provide new empirical evidence on this issue by focusing on countries which are specialized in the export of one leading commodity. For those countries, we investigate to which extent their real exchange rate is sensitive to price uctuations of their dominant commodity. By using non-stationary panel techniques ...

Bodart, Vincent; Candelon, Bertrand; Carpantier, Jean-franc?ois

2011-01-01

73

Some characteristics of producing paraffinic oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is given of geological structure and physical properties of reservoirs and fluids in 2 oil fields and of their developmental history. This study showed that paraffin deposition affects well operations differently at different stages of field development. Methods tried to minimize the effect of paraffin deposition are described. Crude oil in these fields contained up to 23% paraffin and up to 12% tars. During the initial production period, paraffin deposition was not a problem; however, when production reached the maximum level, the deposited paraffin blocked the flowlines. Chemical and thermal paraffin removal methods did not work well and best results were obtained with mechanical scrapers. Glass-lined tubing minimized paraffin deposition.

Miloradovich, V.K.; Trukhachev, N.S.; Sheikin, F.I.

1970-01-01

74

Changes to the oil export structure of OPEC Member Countries - an analysis with the Gini coefficient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper's goal is to analyse the impact of changes to the oil export structure on economic growth in OPEC Member Countries. The Gini coefficient has been applied simultaneously as a measure of the annual changes in the structure of per capita oil exports, as well as of the annual share of oil exports among Member Countries. The analysis consists of a calculation of the concentration coefficients, a determination of their trend and an identification of the factors most influencing observed changes to the oil export structure in these countries. As a result, we find that economic growth, crude oil production, proven reserves, imports and time are the major factors influencing changes to the oil export structure. Considering the changed structure, in the context of differences in oil export distribution, we observe that economic growth and production have a positive impact on the distribution of oil exports and that proven reserves and imports have a negative impact

75

Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

A Tabatabaee, M. Mazaheri Assadi

2005-01-01

76

Institutional Quality, Economic Growth and Fluctuations of Oil Prices in Oil Dependent Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principle aim of this investigation is the study of fluctuations of oil prices impacts on economic growth of oil-dependent countries with respect to institutional quality. For this purpose we use panel cointegration methodology and error-correction model for 32 oil abundant countries covering the period 1975-2010. The result implies that fluctua- tions of oil prices impact on economic growth of countries depend on institutional quality index so that the impact of fluctuation is avoided by countries with sufficiently good institutions. More ever, the long-run ratio of investment to products effect is negative and small that shows the quality of investment projects is more importance than the quantity of them in the economic growth of these countries. The effect of trade openness on economic growth in the long-run is positive, statistically significant, and economically sizable.

Mohsen Mehrara

2012-03-01

77

Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

78

An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time) lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away fro...

Hossein Askari; Faranghees Abbas; George Jabbour; Dohee Kwon

2006-01-01

79

An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

2011-01-15

80

An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: ?Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. ? Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. ? Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

 
 
 
 
81

An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries. Persistence, breaks, and outliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. (author)

Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A. [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E. [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

2011-01-15

82

DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditio...

Nourah Al Yousef

2013-01-01

83

Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

84

Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. The findings imply high vulnerability of oildependent countries to oil revenues volatility. To insulate the economy from oil revenue volatility requires institutional mechanisms de-linking health expenditures decisions from current revenue.

Mohsen Mehrara

2011-10-01

85

Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

86

Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude poteat there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

87

Oil prices and stock markets. What drives what in the Gulf Corporation Council countries?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Konya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values to study the sensitivity of stock markets to oil prices in GCC (Gulf Corporation Council) countries. Using two different (weekly and monthly) datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21 October 2008, and from January 1996 to December 2007, we show strong statistical evidence that the causal relationship is consistently bi-directional for Saudi Arabia. Stock market price changes in the other GCC member countries do not Granger cause oil price changes, whereas oil price shocks Granger cause stock price changes. Therefore, investors in GCC stock markets should look at the changes in oil prices, whereas investors in oil markets should look at changes in the Saudi stock market. (orig.)

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO, CNRS, UMR 6221

2010-01-15

88

On the influence of oil prices on stock markets : evidence from panel analysis in GCC countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper implements recent bootstrap panel cointegration techniques and Seemingly Unrelated regression (SUR) methods to investigate the existence of a long-run relationship between oil prices and Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets are likely to be susceptible to oil price shocks. Using two different (weekly and monthly) datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21 October 2008, a...

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe

2009-01-01

89

Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced. PMID:24002524

Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

2013-01-01

90

A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.

2013-01-01

91

The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

Lizardi, Carlos Guerrero de; Padilla-Perez, Ramon [Focal (Canada)

2010-11-15

92

The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

93

Natural resource curse: a non linear approach in a panel of oil exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the idea of regime switching as a new methodological approach to bring new insights into the natural resource curse hypothesis in the case of oil exporting countries. The basic idea is that when a threshold of oil dependence is passed, the relationship between economic growth and its determinants could move smoothly from a regime to another. Relying upon the estimation of a PSTR model, our findings offer strong evidence that oil revenues non-linearly impacts economic growt...

Seghir, Majda; Damette, Olivier

2013-01-01

94

Oil price impact on financial markets: co-spectral analysis for exporting versus importing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to study the degree of interdependence between oil price and stock market index into two groups of countries: oil-importer countries (US, Italy, Germany, Netherland and France) and exporter ones (Emirate Arab Units, Kuwait Saudi Arabia and Venezuela). The dataset consists of monthly data from 03/09/2000 to 03/12/2010. We propose a new empirical methodology setting a time-varying dynamic correlation measure between the stock market index and the oil price series. We us...

Cre?ti, Anna; Ftiti, Zied; Guesmi, Khaleb

2013-01-01

95

On the influence of oil prices on stock markets. Evidence from panel analysis in GCC Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper implements recent bootstrap panel cointegration techniques and Seemingly Unrelated regression (SUR) methods to investigate the existence of a long-run relationship between oil prices and Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets are likely to be susceptible to oil price shocks. Using two different (weekly and monthly) datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21 October 2008, and from January 1996 to December 2007, our investigation shows that there is evidence for cointegration of oil prices and stock markets in GCC countries, while the SUR results indicate that oil price increases have a positive impact on stock prices, except in Saudi Arabia. (orig.)

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO, CNRS, UMR 6221

2009-06-15

96

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

97

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries

98

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-64456 (Iran)

2007-05-15

99

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 ?g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 ?g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

100

78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize...these decisions are published with this determination...this determination. Afghanistan Afghanistan is the world's largest...in the southern and western parts of the...

2013-09-25

 
 
 
 
101

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of resi...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.; Rodrigues, L. R.

2013-01-01

102

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-onsistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

103

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana undertakes a review of petroleum taxation in selected countries around the world and seeks to fashion a way for Ghana’s infantile petroleum industry. In other words, the study seeks to facilitate a smooth tax regime and policy for Ghana. The study is based on literature arising from desk research as well as through telephone interviews. Petroleum taxation regimes of the countries under study portend to mitigate the current inconsistencies and resulting contentions from tax payers in Ghana.

Key words: Oil and gas; Petroleum; Crude oil; Hydrocarbon; Upstream petroleum operations; Taxation; Tax legislation; Royalty; Income tax

Emmanuel B. Amponsah

2012-12-01

104

Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

105

A novel and innovative process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands extraction by adsorption (OSEAD) was created in October 2006 to develop an innovative hydrocarbon extraction technology from oil sands. It has since grown by taking control of a lead, zinc and silver mine in Morocco. This paper discussed the novel and innovative OSEAD process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil. The paper provided a description of the oil sand samples and discussed lab testing. The adsorption and desorption phases were both outlined. The main properties of the agent were identified. A summary of the test work results was also presented. The optimized OSEAD process includes an ore preparation step involving mixing of oil sand and water at ambient temperature; an adsorption step involving addition of agent to the sand/water mix; a phase separation step; a desorption step; and a tailings treatment step. It was concluded that the laboratory test work performed on Canadian oil sands is conclusive in demonstrating the capacity of the OSEAD process to efficiently adsorb heavy and viscous hydrocarbon at ambient temperature and with limited amount of water addition. 11 figs., 1 appendix.

Denivelle, C. [OSEAD, Paris (France); Fourt, J.F. [Truffle Capital, Paris (France)

2009-07-01

106

Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

107

DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

Nourah Al Yousef

2013-01-01

108

A process using heated pressurized hydrogen fluidized bed producing high grade SCO from oil sand, heavy oil, bitumen, oil shale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed a process that used a heated, pressurized hydrogen fluidized bed to produce high grade synthetic crude oil (SCO) from oil sands, heavy oil, bitumens, and oil shales. The Chattanooga process was designed to operate at temperatures higher than 537 degrees C at 600 psig operating pressures. Hydrogen is used as a fluidizing medium due to its compressibility, high heat capacity and conductivity, and its low viscosity. The reactor is comprised of an internal cyclone, a hydrogen oil vapor outlet, a spent solids outlet, a pressurized feed inlet, and a pressurized hot hydrogen inlet. The process uses a hot gas filter and heat exchangers along with a recycle gas compressor and is capable of reducing 50 per cent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, process-generated sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x} emissions. The need for tailings ponds is also eliminated. The refined products produced by the process are pipeline quality and require very little coking. Use of the process will also allow for the immediate reclamation of oil sands-mined areas. The fluidized bed reactor provides oil yields that are between 125 and 200 per cent higher than standard Fischer-Assay processes. Chattanooga process pilot plants are now in place at the National Center for Upgrading Technology in Alberta. To date, results from the pilot plants indicate that the Chattanooga process is a proven technology that is both financially viable and has significant environmental benefits. tabs., figs.

Karpenski, M. [Chattanooga Corp., Hixson, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

109

Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

2005-01-01

110

Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ? Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ? Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

111

Reconsidering the Relationship between Oil Prices and Industrial Production: Testing for Cointegration in some of the OECD Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the effects of crude oil prices on the industrial production for some of the OECD countries. According to it, the empirical results sign that there is statistical meaningful short term causality from crude oil price to industrial production in all countries except France. In France however, causality is from industrial production to oil price in short run. The error correction mechanism is run for US. The causality is from oil price to industrial production in long run...

Eksi, Ibrahim Halil; Izgi, Berna Balci; Senturk, Mehmet

2011-01-01

112

The political economy of migration politics in oil-rich Gulf countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the political economy of migration policies in oil-rich Gulf countries focusing on two policy dimensions: a) the number of migrants allowed into the country and b) the assimilation of migrants, where less assimilated migrants on short-term contracts remit more. We develop a two goods macro model with traded and non-traded goods. The migration of guest workers leads to a wage drop hurting citizen workers, while capitalists and oil rent earners benefit. When foreign exchange is remitte...

Mehlum, Halvor; Østenstad, Gry

2013-01-01

113

Simulation of demand (or consumption) of fuel and lubricating oils in countries of Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demand on fuel and lubricating oils mixtures is estimated in transport sector of the Asia countries. Model of demand is constructed with help of co-integration structures and error correction model for definition of fuel and lubricating oils mixtures elasticity. Researches have been conducted with use of program complex in operational medium of the Windows-95. Co-integrating vectors for demand on gasoline were defined by all of considered countries (beside Thailand), for demand on diesel fuel - for Indonesia and South Korea

114

Macroeconometric Modelling in an Oil-Exporting Country: The case of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The critical review undertaken in this paper pinpoints some of the major deficiencies and the strength of the earlier macroeconometric models (MEMs) constructed for Iran as a major oil exporting country. In constructing a new MEM, the flaws of past MEMs should be rectified and their strengths need to be retained. Most of the equations in these models are directly and indirectly affected by oil and gas exports and/or value added in the oil sector. Two dualities are observed in most models, viz...

Valadkhani, Abbas

2006-01-01

115

The war on illegal drugs in producer and consumer countries: a simple analytical framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a model of the war against illegal drugs in both producer and consumer countries. The paper studies the trade-off faced by the government of the drug consumer country between prevention policies (aimed at reducing the demand for drugs) and enforcement policies (aimed at reducing the production and trafficking of drugs), and shows how the optimal allocation of resources between these two alternatives depends on the key parameters of the model. We use available data for the ...

Meji?a, Daniel

2008-01-01

116

The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

Arbod, G

2007-02-15

117

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

Unknown

2003-04-30

118

Reconsidering the Relationship between Oil Prices and Industrial Production: Testing for Cointegration in some of the OECD Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of crude oil prices on the industrial production for some of the OECD countries. According to it, the empirical results sign that there is statistical meaningful short term causality from crude oil price to industrial production in all countries except France. In France however, causality is from industrial production to oil price in short run. The error correction mechanism is run for US. The causality is from oil price to industrial production in long run for US. These results show us that oil prices do affect industrial production index. Another interesting finding that, similar results were observed for oil exporting and importing countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran as well. This situation is important that firm sensitivity towards oil price shows a similarity among the countries.

Ibrahim Halil EKSI

2011-11-01

119

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

120

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

 
 
 
 
121

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

122

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

123

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

124

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

125

The generation, use and disposal of waste crankcase oil in developing countries: a case for Kampala district, Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste crankcase oil (WCO), the oil that is removed from motor engines during an oil change, is frequently discarded into the environment, resulting in pollution of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In some developing countries, this common hazardous material is not properly managed. In Uganda little is known about its generation, utilization, and disposal. These factors were investigated using in-depth interviews of a sample of mechanics from 379 motor repair garages and 109 fuel stations in the Kampala district. Most garages (94%) and fuel stations (96%) in the study area offered oil-changing services. On average, each garage produced 62 l, and each fuel station produced 134 l of WCO per week. In garages 35% was sold, 16% poured on the ground, 18% taken by vehicle owners and 31% given away for free. At fuel stations, 49% was picked by private collectors, 27% sold, 4% poured on the ground, 2% burnt, 13% taken by vehicle owners, and 6% given away for free. Uses of WCO included coating roofing timber and fencing posts, use in timber cutting, marking play grounds, and pest control in animals. Its disposal involved burning, and pouring in the environment. Lack of policy and information for proper handling of WCO contributed to the poor management of WCO exhibited. PMID:18513868

Ssempebwa, John C; Carpenter, David O

2009-01-30

126

Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 77...

Anastasia Pavelkovich; Arta Balode; Petra Edquist; Svetlana Egorova; Marina Ivanova; Lidia Kaftyreva; Irina Konovalenko; Xf Ljalg, Siiri K.; Jana Lillo; Lidia Lipskaya; Jolanta Miciuleviciene; Kristiine Pai; Kristel Parv; Xe Rna, Katri P.; Tiiu Rööp

2014-01-01

127

Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In generally, there is a phenomenon of “free rider” in the establishment of national oil reserves for different countries, which means that they have the tendency of underestimating the strategic oil reserves. This paper attempts to explain this phenomenon from the perspective of non-cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice.

yang, junan; Cong, Ronggang

2014-01-01

128

OIL CONTENT IN PRODUCED BRINE ON TEN LOUISIANA PRODUCTION PLATFORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the oil content of brine effluents from offshore crude oil production platforms was conducted for the Oil and Hazardous Spills Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives were to determine the amount of oil in the brine, and to determine the factors ...

129

On the short-term influence of oil price changes on stock markets in GCC countries: linear and nonlinear analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the short-run relationships between oil prices and GCC stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets may be susceptible to oil price shocks. To account for the fact that stock markets may respond nonlinearly to oil price shocks, we have examined both linear and nonlinear relationships. Our findings show that there are significant links between the two variables in Qatar, Oman, and UAE. Thus, stock markets in these countries r...

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Fouquau, Julien

2009-01-01

130

The impact of oil prices on GDP in European countries: An empirical investigation based on asymmetric cointegration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the existence of a long-term relationship between oil prices and GDP in 12 European countries. To account for the fact that economic activity responds asymmetrically to oil price shocks, we propose an approach based on asymmetric cointegration. Our results show that, while standard cointegration is rejected, there is evidence for asymmetric cointegration between oil prices and GDP in the majority of the considered European countries

131

Genomovar assignment of Pseudomonas stutzeri populations inhabiting produced oil reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil reservoirs are specific habitats for the survival and growth of microorganisms in general. Pseudomonas stutzeri which is believed to be an exogenous organism inoculated into oil reservoirs during the process of oil production was detected frequently in samples from oil reservoirs. Very little is known, however, about the distribution and genetic structure of P. stutzeri in the special environment of oil reservoirs. In this study, we collected 59 P. stutzeri 16S rRNA gene sequences that we...

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-hui; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Chai, Lu-jun; Huang, Liu-qin; Yi, Shao-jin; Wang, Zheng-liang; Dong, Hai-liang; Hou, Du-jie

2014-01-01

132

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using mi...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.

2012-01-01

133

Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

134

Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a s approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

135

The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

Marga PEETERS

2011-12-01

136

Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

2009-06-15

137

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

2009-06-15

138

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

139

Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

140

Short- and long-term effects of accidental oil pollution in waters of the Nordic countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the present report is to support Nordic Countries with environmental impact assessments of accidental oil spills in Nordic areas, in the work to control and reduce the cause of these effects. The Nordic Seas have specific habitats with specialised key-species which have different sensitivities to oil spills. This report studies the short- and long-term effects of accidental oil spills in these habitats. Birds and questionably marine mammals are under greatest threat from both short- and long-term effects. The plankton community will also be affected, but is quickly re-established. The impact on pelagic fish is negligible in short term but not in a long time perspective, and benthic fauna will be practically unaffected by short-term effects. They can however in a long-term suffer significantly from settled oil slicks. In the foreseeable future the number of minor oil spills is likely to increase, as will the risk for major accidents. Thus there is a strong need for mapping and identifying important and sensitive species and habitat. With senistivity atlases for the Nordic seas and coastal areas precautious measures can be implemented to reduce the magnitude of the short- and long term impact from an oil spill. (au)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains. Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity and costs associated with the certification. Small honey producers associations were not able to fulfil some of the FLOCERT criteria. The criterion relating to the preservation of the environment is only partially met by the associations studied.

Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.

142

Liberalization of Trade in Producer Services - the Impact on Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the impact of liberalization of trade in producer services, focusing on financial services, telecommunications and transport. The likely effects on developing countries is that they will become net importers of the liberalized services, but they will also become more industrialized and increase their exports of labor-intensive goods and services, if given market access under the most appropriate modes of trade. Potential gains from this pattern of trade are large, since im...

Hodge, James; Norda?s, Hildegunn Kyvik

1999-01-01

143

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of resumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

144

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

2011-03-15

145

Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

2012-03-31

146

The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

147

Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlinedlined

148

New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs

149

Genomovar assignment of Pseudomonas stutzeri populations inhabiting produced oil reservoirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil reservoirs are specific habitats for the survival and growth of microorganisms in general. Pseudomonas stutzeri which is believed to be an exogenous organism inoculated into oil reservoirs during the process of oil production was detected frequently in samples from oil reservoirs. Very little is known, however, about the distribution and genetic structure of P. stutzeri in the special environment of oil reservoirs. In this study, we collected 59 P. stutzeri 16S rRNA gene sequences that were identified in 42 samples from 25 different oil reservoirs and we isolated 11 cultured strains from two representative oil reservoirs aiming to analyze the diversity and genomovar assignment of the species in oil reservoirs. High diversity of P. stutzeri was observed, which was exemplified in the detection of sequences assigned to four known genomovars 1, 2, 3, 20 and eight unknown genomic groups of P. stutzeri. The frequent detection and predominance of strains belonging to genomovar 1 in most of the oil reservoirs under study indicated an association of genomovars of P. stutzeri with the oil field environments. PMID:24890829

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Banat, Ibrahim M; Chai, Lu-Jun; Huang, Liu-Qin; Yi, Shao-Jin; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Dong, Hai-Liang; Hou, Du-Jie

2014-08-01

150

Genomovar assignment of Pseudomonas stutzeri populations inhabiting produced oil reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil reservoirs are specific habitats for the survival and growth of microorganisms in general. Pseudomonas stutzeri which is believed to be an exogenous organism inoculated into oil reservoirs during the process of oil production was detected frequently in samples from oil reservoirs. Very little is known, however, about the distribution and genetic structure of P. stutzeri in the special environment of oil reservoirs. In this study, we collected 59 P. stutzeri 16S rRNA gene sequences that were identified in 42 samples from 25 different oil reservoirs and we isolated 11 cultured strains from two representative oil reservoirs aiming to analyze the diversity and genomovar assignment of the species in oil reservoirs. High diversity of P. stutzeri was observed, which was exemplified in the detection of sequences assigned to four known genomovars 1, 2, 3, 20 and eight unknown genomic groups of P. stutzeri. The frequent detection and predominance of strains belonging to genomovar 1 in most of the oil reservoirs under study indicated an association of genomovars of P. stutzeri with the oil field environments. PMID:24890829

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Banat, Ibrahim M; Chai, Lu-Jun; Huang, Liu-Qin; Yi, Shao-Jin; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Dong, Hai-Liang; Hou, Du-Jie

2014-01-01

151

Energy efficiency developments in IEA countries 30 years after the oil crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents findings from a study that examines how energy efficiency and factors such as economic structure, income, lifestyle, climate, prices and fuel mix have shaped developments in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries since the first oil price shock in 1973. The results show that IEA countries have made significantly progress in energy efficiency since 1973. However an alarming finding is that energy savings rates across all sectors and in almost all countries have slowed since the late 1980s. This indicates that the oil price shocks in the 1970s and the resulting energy policies did considerably more to control growth in energy demand and CO2 emissions than energy efficiency and climate policies implemented in the 1990s. Energy price developments offer some explanation of these long-term trends. The lower prices that followed the high price period of 1973-1986, combined with the fact that energy intensities were already significantly reduced resulted in considerably lower energy expenditures for both industry and private consumers from the mid 1980s. The energy share of total production cost in some industries fell by as much as 50% from the early 1980s until the late 1990s. Similarly, the share of energy costs for stationary uses in IEA household budgets fell by 20-50% over the same period, while the fuel cost per kilometre driven by private cars fell between 20% and 60%, depending on the country. The slowing rate of energ on the country. The slowing rate of energy efficiency improvements is the primary reason for the weaker decoupling of CO2 emissions from GDP growth since 1990. Failing to accelerate improvement of energy efficiency would thus have serious implications for many countries prospects of controlling growth in future emissions

152

Numerical simulation of downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved numerical simulation method is presented to calculate the downhole temperature distribution for multiple pay zones in producing oil wells. Based on hydrodynamics and heat transfer theory, a 2-D temperature field model in cylindrical coordinates is developed. In the model, we considered general heat conduction as well as the heat convection due to fluid flow from porous formation to the borehole. We also take into account the fluid velocity variation in the wellbore due to multiple pay zones. We present coupled boundary conditions at the interfaces between the wellbore and adjacent formation, the wellbore and pay zone, and the pay zone and adjacent formation. Finally, an alternating direction implicit difference method (ADI) is used to solve the temperature model for the downhole temperature distribution. The comparison of modeled temperature curve with actual temperature log indicates that simulation result is in general quite similar to the actual temperature log. We found that the total production rate, production time, porosity, thickness of pay zones, and geothermal gradient, all have effects on the downhole temperature distribution.

Shi, Ying; Song, Yanjie; Liu, Hong

2008-12-01

153

Producing electricity from Israel oil shale with PFBC technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of Israeli oil shale combustion at atmospheric pressure in the AFBC commercial boiler manufactured by Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Finland) and in the pressurized test facility of ABB Carbon AB (Finspong, Sweden) confirm suitability of fluidized-bed technologies in case of oil shale. The results approve possibility to use the PFBC technology in case of oil shale after solving of some problems connected with great amounts of fine fly ash. (author)

154

Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

2013-10-15

155

Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

156

Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip  

Science.gov (United States)

Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

2009-03-01

157

Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

158

The relevance of asymmetry issues for residential oil and natural gas demand: evidence from selected OECD countries, 1970-95  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In times of low oil prices, oil demand in OECD countries has not rebounded as textbook economic theory would suggest. On the other hand, natural gas demand has increased, despite prices being at almost the same level as in 1985. In this paper, the impact of volatile prices on oil demand is investigated. Different econometric approaches are applied. The major conclusions of these investigations are: (i) with respect to the the choice of fuels, strong patterns of asymmetry exist; (ii) the maximum historical oil price is the dominating parameter on residual oil demand; and (iii) volatile prices have a greater influence on energy demand than high but rather constant prices

159

Oil Price Effects on Economic Growth : A Comparison between the BRIC countries and the Western World  (G7)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether economic growth in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) can be explained by changes in the oil price, with a focus on selected macroeconomic variables. We will also investigate if there are any differences in oil price effects on economic growth between the BRIC countries and the western world (G7). The model used is a Koyck transformation model developed by Leendert Marinus Koyck in 1954, which converts a distributed lag mo...

Nilsson, Andreas; Sundqvist, Adam

2010-01-01

160

Preliminary Characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils produced in eastern area of Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional olive oil production is limited by its high cost, mainly due to labour expenses for harvesting and pruning. New olive cultivars (e.g. Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki) with greater adaptability to modern irrigated high-density orchards and producing good quality olive oils are highly demanded by an olive oil industry in continuous change The aim of this study is the characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils from three cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki) recentl...

Mansouri, F.; Ben Moumen, A.; Lopez, G.; Fauconnier, Marie-laure; Sindic, Marianne; Serghini-caid, H.; Elamrani, A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

162

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

163

Bubble scrub : process aims to reduce oil content and dispose of solids in produced water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil and water separation processes used by the petroleum industry typically leave behind between 5000 and 30,000 parts per million of oil in its produced water. The water is then injected back into the ground or disposed of in tailings ponds. This article described a water-oil remediation technology designed to reduce the hydrocarbon content in injected water to less than 5 parts per million. The process used aeration in a tank configuration that injected gas into the produced water. The aeration process created micron-sized gas bubbles that super-saturated the produced water in order to break the oil-water interfaces. A prototype unit has been designed to process 1000 bbls per day of water-oil mixture and is currently being used by an Alberta producer. It was concluded that the new system will help to reduce the massive amounts of water used in oil sands production. 1 fig

164

Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other purposes. The properties like kinematic viscosity, acid number, specific gravity, Cetane number, etc of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standard but the yield quantity was comparatively low (80.50% because of the high free fatty acid content in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The overall efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke diesel engine coupled with a electric generator was high (24.38% at maximum load conditions compare to raw Jatropha Curcas oil and petro diesel as fuels which gives only 19.6% and 20.11%, respectively shows the possibilities of using biodiesel produced as a fuel in diesel engine.

Sanjay Gandhi Bojan

2011-08-01

165

THE GENERATION, USE AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE FOR KAMPALA DISTRICT, UGANDA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste Crankcase Oil (WCO), the oil that is removed from motor engines during an oil change, is frequently discarded into the environment, resulting in pollution of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In some developing countries, this common hazardous material is not properly managed. In Uganda little is known about its generation, utilization, and disposal. These factors were investigated using in-depth interviews of a sample of mechanics from 379 motor repair garages and 109 fuel stati...

Ssempebwa, John C.; Carpenter, David O.

2008-01-01

166

Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

167

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24

168

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01

169

Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery. PMID:20652442

She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

2011-01-01

170

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

Unknown

2002-05-31

171

Long-term relationship between oil revenue and government expenditure in the GCC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses the Engle-Granger method of co-integration and the Johansen-Juselius maximum-likelihood technique of co-integration to test the long-term relationship between government expenditure (for both consumption and investment purposes) and oil exports in the oil-producing members of the GCC. The regression results suggest that, using the Engle-Granger method, the null hypothesis of no co-integration could only be rejected in the case of Oman. However, the Johansen technique suggests the existence of a unique co-integrating vector, and hence long-term relationship between the two variables in Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There is no evidence of a long-term relationship between government expenditure and oil exports in the case of Kuwait. (Author)

172

A versatile approach to produce superhydrophobic materials used for oil-water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing functional materials that can be used for oil-water separation in an efficient and cost-effective process is highly desired yet still challenging. Herein, three functional materials used for oil-water separation are readily produced by a dip coating process. Three typical porous materials including copper mesh, fabric, and sponge were dipped into the solution of polyfluorowax-hydrophobic SiO2 to alter their surface texture and chemistry, allowing them to exhibit superhydrophobic property. It was found that the resulting superhydrophobic copper mesh and fabric can be used as a membrane to separate oil-water mixture efficiency; while the obtained superhydrophobic sponge was demonstrated as an oil sorbent scaffold to absorb oil from the oil-water mixture selectively. More importantly, these superhydrophobic materials can retain their oil-water separation efficiency even after 10 cycles of oil-water separation. PMID:25086383

Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xue, Qunji

2014-10-15

173

Fish oil produces an atherogenic lipid profile in hypertensive men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of fish oil supplements on plasma and platelet membrane lipids, lipoproteins, sex steroid hormones, glucose, insulin, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure in normal subjects (n = 13) and patients with essential hypertension (n = 13) were studied in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study. Treatments consisted of 30 days of 5 g of n-3 fatty acids (ten 1-g capsules of fish oil daily) or placebo capsules (ten wheat germ oil capsules daily) with a one-month washout in between each crossover. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured before dosing and every two weeks during the study. Sex steroid hormones, glucose, insulin, and fatty acid composition in platelet membrane phospholipids were measured before dosing and at the end of each crossover. During treatment with fish oil, only the hypertensive had increases in total cholesterol (8%, p less than 0.026), LDL cholesterol (19%, p less than 0.006) and apolipoprotein B (18%, p less than 0.026). Serum androgens (total and free testosterone) were 30% lower in hypertensives than normotensives before any dosing, but were unchanged with placebo or fish oil capsules in either group. Plasma glucose, insulin, platelet aggregation, and the incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into platelet membrane phospholipid subfractions were similar in both normotensive and hypertensive men. Blood pressure was not affected by fish oil treatment in either group of men. These results provide evidence that fish oil may adversely affect serum lipids to yield an atherogenic lipid profile in hypertensive men. PMID:2282101

Hughes, G S; Ringer, T V; Watts, K C; DeLoof, M J; Francom, S F; Spillers, C R

1990-10-01

174

Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

2008-07-01

175

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

2006-01-01

176

Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries; La rente petroliere et le developpement economique des pays exportateurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

Aoun, M.C. [Paris Dauphine Univ., 75 (France)

2008-09-15

177

Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

2011-01-01

178

New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under...

Vance-Harrop Mabel H.; Gusmão Norma B. de; Campos-Takaki Galba Maria de

2003-01-01

179

Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author)

180

Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

International Capital Markets, Oil Producers and the Green Paradox  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rapidly rising carbon tax leads to faster extraction of fossil fuels and accelerates global warming. We analyze how general equilibrium effects operating through the international capital market affect this Green Paradox. In a two-region, two-period world with identical homothetic preferences and without investment, the global interest rate falls and the Green Paradox weakens. With investment or a relatively more impatient oil-importing region, the Green Paradox may be strengthened because ...

Meijden, Gerard C.; Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees A.

2014-01-01

182

19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones Appendix to Part...Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones Where an...choice will be important if a relative value calculation on the privileged...

2010-04-01

183

Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

FLAVIA POP

184

Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

185

Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

Tadjuddin, A.

1989-01-01

186

Renewable energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2009-05-15

187

Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO2 per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

188

Use of Rapeseed Straight Vegetable Oil as Fuel Produced in Small-Scale Exploitations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry ...

Baquero Armans, Grau; Esteban Dalmau, Bernat; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-roger; Puig Vidal, Rita; Rius Carrasco, Antoni

2011-01-01

189

21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172...esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

190

Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

2004-09-30

191

WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muço, 1984; Osmani, 1993, considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in using Albanian olive oils, because of the absence of quality norms. In this frame one of the possible solutions will be the promotion of the olive oil as a territory product.(PDO, PGI

Etleva Muca(Dashi

2012-10-01

192

Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production. PMID:21353534

Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

2011-04-01

193

Composition of oils produced during an echoing, in-situ combustion of a Utah tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Laramie Energy Technology Center (DOE) has completed its second in-situ combustion experiment (TS-2C), which was carried out in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit near Vernal, Utah. During the experiment (183 days) 92 m/sup 3/ (580 barrels) of oil was produced, 25% of the original oil in place. The in-situ process utilized is best described as a series of reverse- and forwardcombustion phases or echoes traversing the 405 m/sup 2/ (0.1 acre) pattern. Several of the chemical and physical properties of the oil produced are significantly altered with respect to the original bitumen. These include pour point, specific gravity, average molecular weight, wax and nickel content, and the percentage of residue boiling at greater than or equal to538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). These and other changes effected on the bitumen durin this experiment result in a product oil that closely resembles a heavy fuel oil.

Thomas, K.P.; Barbour, R.V.; Branthaver, J.F.; Dorrence, S.M.

1983-04-01

194

Producing clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of our investigation was the production of partially bio-derived fuels in the gas oil boiling point range. Our aim was the production of diesel fuel blending components by co-hydrogenation of mixtures of high-sulphur gas oil (about 1.0%) and vegetable oil raw materials with different vegetable oil contents (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100%). The experiments were carried out on a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with a targeted composition (T = 300-380 C, P = 60-80 bar, LHSV = 1.0/h and H{sub 2}/HC = 600 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}). We obtained that both the vegetable oil conversion reactions and the gas oil quality improvement reactions took place. Under the favourable operational conditions (360-380 C, P = 80 bar, LHSV = 1.0/h and H{sub 2}/HC = 600 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and up to 15% vegetable oil content of the feed), the main properties of the high-yield (>90%) products except for the Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP) value satisfied the requirements of the standard of diesel fuels (EN 590:2009). The amount of vegetable oil higher than 15% reduced the desulphurization efficiency, because of the intake of large quantities of oxygen with the triglyceride molecules of the vegetable oil. The products - depending on the vegetable oil content of the feedstocks - have an increased n- and i-paraffin content, so their combustion properties are very favourable, and the emission of particles is lower. (orig.)

Toth, Csaba; Baladincz, Peter; Kovacs, Sandor; Hancsok, Jeno [University of Pannonia, Department of MOL Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing, Veszprem (Hungary)

2011-08-15

195

A Long-Run Dynamic Analysis of FDI, Growth and Oil Export in GCC Countries: An Evidence from VECM Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates a long-run dynamic relationship of GDP, crude oil export and FDI inflows in GCC countries; The United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait. The methodology adopted is based on Error Correction Model (VECM which involves 195 stationary balanced observations over the period 2000-2010. Two major objectives were tested, which are; Impulse response function and Variance Decomposition method. The empirical analysis shows that a shock of FDI inflows will cause a parallel negative influence on the oil export and GDP.  As well as FDI inflows are highly linked to GDP compared to oil export. 

Ahmed Saddam

2014-03-01

196

Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a majorigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

197

Isolation and characterization of saturates from tar sand bitumens and thermally produced oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A desorptive Soxhlet extraction technique and a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure were used to isolate saturates from tar sand bitumens and produced oils. The oils had been thermally recovered by combustion and hot-gas injection from samples of the Asphalt Ridge and the Tar Sand Triangle deposits in Utah. The distributions of the saturates in the produced oils and in the tar sand bitumens have been identified, and the effects of thermal processing conditions on bitumen composition have been evaluated. Oil recovered by reverse combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand contained a lesser amount of saturates compared with the amount in the bitumen; oil recovered by forward combustion of Tar Sand Triangle tar sand contained a greater amount of saturates compared with the amount in the bitumen. The hot-gas injection process at temperatures greater than 493/sup 0/C recovered more oil high in saturate content than either combustion process. Results from field ionization mass spectrometric analysis indicated larger amounts of saturates with a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of less than 400 were present in the product oil from forward combustion than were present in the bitumen from the Tar Sand Triangle. The saturates in the oil from forward combustion were comprised mostly of acyclic alkanes, and mono- and dicycloalkanes. The saturates in the product oil from reverse combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand were comprised of nearly equal amounts of acyclic alkanes, and mono-, di-, and tricycloalkanes. Greater amounts of material with an m/z from about 200 to 500 were present in oils recovered by hot-gas injection than in the bitumens. The product oil yields were due, in part, to low- or high-temperature oxidation reactions. The extent of thermal cracking of the tar sand bitumens was found to be a function of the pyrolysis temperature, and the distribution of saturates reflected the severity of thermal cracking. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Holmes, S.A.

1986-03-01

198

[Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].  

Science.gov (United States)

A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion. PMID:21229744

Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

2010-10-01

199

Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were studied separately at different values that including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The optimum operating conditions to be adopted for producing high quality automatic transmission fluid base oil were reactor temperature 290 oC, pressure 130kg cm?2, liquid hourly space velocity 0.4 h?1 and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio 800 Nm3 M?3. The effect of changing hydrofinishing temperature and liquid hourly space velocity on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN reactions as well as their thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Calculations of activation energy (Ea and free energy of activation (?G indicated that HDS was easier to occur than HDN and these reactions are more faster at higher temperatures. The effect of commercial and formulated additives on the quality of the hydrofinished oil was also studied. Automatic transmission fluid possessing the Dexron IID specification was produced by adding 7 wt% from Infenium T442 additive or by adding 9 wt% from Lubrizol ® 6701 D additive to the hydrofinished light dewaxed oil. Oils with the same efficiency were also produced using a formulated additive containing 4% viscosity index improver, 1.5% anti-oxidant and 1% anti-wear. The effect of increasing Infenium T442, Lubrizol R 6701 D and formulated additive percents on the protection efficiency of the automatic transmission fluid was studied through AC impedance technique. According to this technique, the effect of these additives on the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons can be negligible.

Gamal A.N Gohar

2006-01-01

200

Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

2000-01-12

 
 
 
 
201

The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By using a standard econometric approach, we find that the effects of different deregulation policies are substantial. We also analyse the impact of a policy based on autonomous energy-efficiency improvement. Finally, a combination of both policies is elaborated and quantified. Our results show that a policy geared at more rational use of energy would permit these countries to save enough oil to meet future increases in demand while maintaining stable production capacity. Furthermore, such an energy policy could result in additional oil revenues which would enhance their economic development. (author)

202

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower thaase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

203

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

2001-06-15

204

The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

205

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

206

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30

207

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

Kanokrat Saisa-ard

2014-04-01

208

Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de Chromobacterium mientras que los más polares se obtienen usando las preparaciones de lipasa de hongo «Lilipase A-10». La polaridad del producto está también influenciada por la temperatura del proceso aunque la forma de su efecto es distinta para las diferentes lipasas.

Zaher, F. A.

1998-12-01

209

Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

Lei, Guowen

2012-01-01

210

Antimicrobial activities of laboratory produced essential oil solutions against five selected fungal strains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC...

Ivanova Emilija; Atanasova-Pan?evska Natalija; Kungulovski Džoko

2013-01-01

211

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substra...

Kanokrat Saisa-ard; Atipan Saimmai; Suppasil Maneerat1

2014-01-01

212

POTENTIAL OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR PROTECTION OF GRAINS CONTAMINATED BY AFLATOXIN PRODUCED BY Aspergillus flavus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A?atoxin B1 (AFB1 is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano on the mycelial growth and a?atoxin B1 production by Aspergillus ?avus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. ?avus containing 1.3×105 spores/ mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

EdlayneGonçalez

2014-06-01

213

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

2014-01-01

214

Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time) lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from...

Hossein Askari; Faranghees Abbas; George Jabbour; Dohee Kwon

2012-01-01

215

The use of flotation technology in produced water treatment in the oil & gas industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water quality has become an increasingly large area of concern for the oil production industry. A great deal of scientific research has been carried out to determine the consequences of long term exposure of produced water on the environment. Some of this research has given alarming results. It is reported that some of the toxic components in produced water may cause irreversible damage to the surrounding environment. Because of this potential risk, very considerable efforts are bein...

Atarah, Justine Justice Apegase

2011-01-01

216

Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred tank  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil dispersions in aqueous media produced in stirred tanks are part of many industrial processes. The oil drops size and dispersion stability are determined by the impeller geometry, stirring velocity and the physicochemical properties of the mixture. A critical parameter is the total interfacial area which is increased as the drop size is decreased. The mechanism that disperses the oil and generates the drops has not been completely explained. In the present work, castor oil (1% v/v, viscosity 500mPa) and water are stirred with a Scaba impeller in a flat bottom cylindrical tank. The process was recorded with high-speed video and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. Before the stirring, the oil is added at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is suctioned at the impeller shaft and incorporated into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface forces dominate the inertial ones, and drops became spheroidal.

Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Soto, Enrique; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

2010-11-01

217

Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os óleos florais como recompensa a polinizadores estão presentes em onze famílias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na história evolutiva das plantas floríferas. Estes são produzidos em glândulas tricomáticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de óleo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas espé [...] cies produtoras de óleo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espécies nos gêneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que não produz óleo floral. Nós apresentamos uma revisão de todas as espécies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuição geográfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de óleo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de óleo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinização bem-sucedida, sendo a interação entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptação abelha/planta na Região Neotropical. Algumas espécies dependem somente do óleo coletado em espécies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras também podem coletar em várias fontes de óleos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glândulas de óleo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que são em sua maioria espécies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaçados biomas de vegetação aberta da América do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

2013-12-01

218

Arab petroleum stakes: Big lucks and big risks for producers countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actually, four among ten exported petroleum barrels come from Arab countries, in ten years it will be six among ten barrels which will come from Arab countries. But to be beneficial these export increase must be accompanied by a prices increase. It is not actually the case because of the Usa position which prefer a cheap petroleum, but it would be necessary to put right prices until $28/barrel from here until 2000

219

Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker than others? - A note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an important paper, Hall and Jones (1990) show that internatinal differences in output per worker across 127 countries in 1988 are fundamentally determined by variations in, what they term, a country's "social infrastructure". This paper conducts a robustness check of their findings by implementing a testing framework that is radically different to their approach. Specifically, we extimate a stochastic, rather than a deterministic, production frontier and we also model the potential role...

Boyle, Gerry; Mcquinn, Kieran

2003-01-01

220

A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

Burnham, A K

2003-08-20

222

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27

223

Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

2009-04-15

224

More on the Impact of Oil Price Shocks on Stock Market Returns: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

Mohamed El Hédi AROURI

2010-10-01

225

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. ...

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

2013-01-01

226

Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

Oluduro, Olubayo

2012-12-01

227

Nitrogen functional groups in Utah tar sand bitumen and produced oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of nitrogen functional groups in solvent-extracted bitumen and produced oils form the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit have been completed. Although the chemical and physical properties of produced oils (from a reverse/forward combustion project and a steamflood project) were different, the distributions of nitrogen functional groups in these oils were similar. From 54 to 62% of the nitrogen content was non-basic and very weakly basic, comprised mostly of amide and indole-type nitrogen. From 30 to 35% was weakly basic, comprised mostly of pyridine-type nitrogen. Significant differences were found in the hydrogen- and carbon-type distributions in these oils. It is suggested that the nitrogen compounds in these oils differ primarily in the amounts of aromatic/aliphatic hydrogen and carbon rather than in the distribution of nitrogen functionalities. In-situ production methods used to recover oil may predominantly effect the non-nitrogen moieties. 12 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Holmes, S.A. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (USA))

1986-03-01

228

Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifyture research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

229

Potential end uses of oil produced by wet forward combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report an evaluation is made of the potential end uses of an oil produced from Asphalt Ridge tar sand by wet forward combustion. The oil is evaluated with respect to its potential to produce a specification-grade asphalt and an aviation turbine fuel. To accomplish this the oil was vacuum distilled to produce a distillate and a residue. The distillation residue meets all of the ASTM D-3381 Table 1 specification tests for an AC-10 asphalt. However, the 135/sup 0/C (275/sup 0/F) viscosity is low when compared with the more stringent ASTM D-3381 Table 2 requirements. The residue also has an unusually low aging index. This indicates not only that it may not set properly, but also it may be resistant to rapid age hardening. The results from successive freeze-thaw cycling indicate that the residue, when coated on appropriate aggregates, is comparable to or better than some petroleum asphalts coated on the same aggregates. Freeze-thaw cycling to failure is an indirect measure of the resistance of an asphalt-aggregate mixture to moisture-induced loss of strength. The distillate of the thermally produced oil represents about 50 wt % of the oil. The chemical and physical properties of the distillate are better than those of the original bitumen and the thermally produced oil. Combined gas chromatographic/mass spectral analysis of the neutral fraction from the distillate indicates it is composed of predominantly aromatic structures. The aromatic structures are primarily of the 2- and 3-ring type and the saturate structures are primarily of the 3-ring type. It is believed that upon hydrogenation this distillate could be a source of high-density or endothermic aviation turbine fuels.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1987-09-01

230

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products. PMID:25104002

Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

2014-10-01

231

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21

232

New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

2003-01-01

233

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} to KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre-treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale. (author)

Haddadin, Malik S.Y.; Abou Arqoub, Ansam A.; Abu Reesh, Ibrahim [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Jordan University, Queen Rania Street, Amman, 11942 (Jordan); Haddadin, Jamal [Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P.O. Box 59, Mutah 61710 (Jordan)

2009-04-15

234

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale

235

The Causal Relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index: Empirical Evidence from Selected European Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index for the five selected European countries, using seasonally adjusted monthly data from August 1995 to December 2007. Toda and Yamamoto causality test (1995 are employed to investigate causality. The results indicate that there is a unidirectional causality between producer price index and consumer price index, running from producer price index to consumer price index in Finland and France and bidirectional causality between two indices in Germany. In the case of the Netherlands and Sweden, no significant causality is detected.

Selcuk AKCAY

2011-10-01

236

Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment The case of oil-exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation r...

Waisman, H.; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, J. -c

2013-01-01

237

Are There Smaller Leverage Effects in Less-Developed Markets? Evidence from an Oil Exporting Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study uses daily data from the Tehran Stock Market (TSM to illustrate the nature of stock market volatility in an undeveloped and young stock market. Although most studies suggest that a negative shock to stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of equal magnitude but there is no evidence of asymmetric effect in TSM. Determine the nature of stock market volatility in an oil exporting country. Approach: Trading in Tehran Stock Market (TSM is based on orders sent by the brokers. The data consist of 2375 daily observations of the closing value of the Tehran stock market from 3/30/1998 to 5/04/2007. Our empirical finding shows that the unconditional variance is 0.18 but visual inspections of the time series suggests that volatility of the stock return rate displays the clustering phenomenon associated with GARCH processes. Results: The estimation and test results for all models suggest that the leverage effect term, ?, is not significant at 5% level. Although, in Asym. CARCH model based on normal distribution for errors, the estimated coefficient on the asymmetry term is -0.066 with a z-statistics of -1.749 recognized as significant at 10% level, but it has the wrong sign. It seems that good news and bad news has the same effect on stock prices in TSM, a result that is contradictory to other studies for developed countries. Conclusion: The estimated models containing TARCH, EGARCH, asymmetric CARCH and PARCH with different assumptions on error distributions suggest no strong and significant asymmetric effect. There are some reasons for this finding: (1 In Iran with Islamic laws, debt contracts are illegal or at least not enforced and Iranian firms do not have any financial leverage. As a result, we would expect to find smaller leverage effects in volatility in Iran than in the United States, for example. In deed the institutional differences with western financial markets manifest themselves in different return characteristics. (2 Stock prices in the TSM by regulation and intervention cannot exceed from some range. The strong serial correlation in returns necessitating long lags in the mean equations is possibly due to such regulations. (3 The history of TSM is very short compared to other stock markets and the information flow in this market is very slow. The estimated coefficients on the expected risk (as a measure of the risk-return tradeoff are not significant. These findings suggest that the TSM is not efficient.

Mosayeb Phalavani

2010-01-01

238

Investigation of waxes isolated from heavy oils produced from Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sands. [Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late 1970's, the Laramie Energy Technology Center operated two in-situ combustion projects in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit of Utah. Some of the heavy oils produced were observed to have high pour points, which resulted in handling problems in cold weather. These heavy oils contain waxes, which were found to be n-alkane homologues ranging past carbon number 60. These alkanes seem to have been derived from what are probably Ozokerite veins, which are found in the tar sand deposit. Samples from these veins and waxes derived from produced heavy oils were studied using /sup 13/C NMR, IR, and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

Branthaver, J.F.; Thomas, K.P.; Dorrence, S.M.; Heppner, R.A.; Ryan, M.J.

1983-01-01

239

An investigation of waxes isolated from heavy oils produced from northwest asphalt ridge tar sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late 1970's, the Laramie Energy Technology Center operated two in-situ combustion projects in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit of Utah. Some of the heavy oils produced were observed to have high pour points, which resulted in handling problems in cold weather. These heavy oils contain waxes, which were found to be n-alkane homologues ranging past carbon number 60. These alkanes seem to have been derived from what are probably Ozokerite veins, which are found in the tar sand deposit. Samples from these veins and waxes derived from produced heavy oils were studied using /sup 13/C NMR, IR, and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

Branthaver, J.F.; Dorrence, S.M.; Heppner, R.A.; Ryan, M.J.; Thomas, K.P.

1983-01-01

240

Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

The Role of Savings in Reducing the Effect of Oil Price Volatility for Sustainable Economic Growth in Oil Based Economies: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate the simultaneous links between oil price changes, national savings, legal and institutional development, and economic growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries. Our study includes six GCC countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. We base our analysis on annual data that covers the period from 1980 to 2011. We implement different methodologies on time series cross sectional data: First, we test our model using fixed effect and random effect model techniques; Second, we employ Arellano-Bond/Blundell-Bond estimator to reduce the endogeneity problem that is common in this kind of studies. Results reveal a nonlinear and concave relationship between saving rates and economic growth. This result suggests that, at low level of economic growth, the increase in savings leads to high economic growth. However, as the countries’ revenues and surpluses increase significantly (at higher levels in revenues and savings, high level of savings lead to lower growth in the economy. This might due to the lack of absorption capacity of the GCC markets. In addition, controlling for different factors, oil price changes explain the variability in the economic growth of the GCC countries. Economic globalization affects growth negatively, while institutional quality plays no role in economic growth of the GCC markets.

Ritab Al-Khouri

2014-03-01

242

Potential for predicting oil accumulation on the basis of geologiccommercial features of a producing bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides study results of multi-dimensional correlation ties between extracted oil and the geologic-commercial features of producing beds (from various wells). Tests were conducted at the VII block of Central-Aznakayevskaya area, which is a part of the Romashkino field. The correlation used such data as open porosity, permeability, oil saturation, number of producing beds in the well, sandiness, thickness of saturated layer, time period well has been operating. It was shown that with stable production parameters there is a substantial correlational connection between recovered oil and the geologic-commercial features of the bed. The correlation coefficient varies from 0.73 to 0.79. The square of this coefficient, called the coefficient of determination reflects the degree of variation in the predicted value (in this case the accumulated oil recovery). It changes from 0.53 to 0.63 (i.e. does not take into account the share of variation in quantity of accumulation, equal to 0.37-0.47). The derived data as well as similar formula collected under differing geologic conditions may be used to provide an approximated forecast of oil recovery when working a field with similar technological parameters.

Khitrova, G.A.; Ellanskiy, M.M.; Timofeyev, V.A.

1984-01-01

243

Feasibility of Producing Acceptable Carotene and Energy Rich Taro Crisps with Deep Palm-Oil Frying in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Corms of a high yielding taro genotype (NCe006) were used to assess the feasibility of producing acceptable pro vitamin A and energy rich taro crisps after deep oil frying with crude red palm oil. Frying with refined palm oil was used as control. Results showed that the taro crisps produced with the crude palm oil had 44 ?g/g carotene content while the crisps fried with refined palm oil had only 0.77 ?g/g carotene content. Sensory evaluation scores by semi ...

Ukpabi, U. J.; Chijioke, U.; Mbanaso, E. N. A.

2013-01-01

244

Energy security. The external legal relations of the European Union with energy producing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyzes in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy. T...

Haghighi, Sanam Salem

2006-01-01

245

Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster ...

Ga?mbaro, A.; Raggio, L.; Ellis, A. C.; Amarillo, M.

2014-01-01

246

Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

2014-12-15

247

Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C??:?, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C??:?, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C??:?) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10?? M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10?? M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

2013-01-01

248

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus are present in produced brines from Oklahoma oil reservoirs with a wide range of salinities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine wells producing from six different reservoirs with salinities ranging from 2.1% to 15.9% were surveyed for presence of surface-active compounds and biosurfactant-producing microbes. Degenerate primers were designed to detect the presence of the surfactin/lichenysin (srfA3/licA3) gene involved in lipopeptide biosurfactant production in members of Bacillus subtilis/licheniformis group and the rhlR gene involved in regulation of rhamnolipid production in pseudomonads. Polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing confirmed the presence of the srfA3/licA3 genes in brines collected from all nine wells. The presence of B. subtilis/licheniformis strains was confirmed by sequencing two other genes commonly used for taxonomic identification of bacteria, gyrA (gyrase A) and the 16S rRNA gene. Neither rhlR nor 16S rRNA gene related to pseudomonads was detected in any of the brines. Intrinsic levels of surface-active compounds in brines were low or not detected, but biosurfactant production could be stimulated by nutrient addition. Supplementation with a known biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strain together with nutrients increased biosurfactant production. The genetic potential to produce lipopeptide biosurfactants (e.g., srfA3/licA3 gene) is prevalent, and nutrient addition stimulated biosurfactant production in brines from diverse reservoirs, suggesting that a biostimulation approach for biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery may be technically feasible. PMID:21562978

Simpson, D Randall; Natraj, Nisha Ravi; McInerney, Michael J; Duncan, Kathleen E

2011-08-01

249

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

1996-02-01

250

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

Charles Ogugua Nwuche

2011-02-01

251

Extent of replacement of methyl ester of rice bran oil by producer gas in Cl engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methyl ester of rice bran oil (MERBO), known as bio-diesel, is receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engine. Although MERBO has several advantages over fossil diesel, in the present scenario, the use of MERBO is restricted due to its high cost. Therefore, use of producer gas to fuel a CI engine along with MERBO seems to be the most interesting option for substitution of fossil diesel. In the present study MERBO was partially replaced by producer gas. The performance of CI engine was compared with fossil diesel partially replaced by producer gas in the CI engine. It was found that MERBO blended with producer gas give higher brake thermal efficiency than fossil diesel producer gas mixture. The addition of producer gas to MERBO has significantly reduced NO{sub x}, but it also increases the concentration of other pollutants. (author)

Singh, R.N.; Pathak, B.S. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Gujarat (India). Thermochemical Conversion Division; Singh, S.P. [School of Energy and Development, Indore (India)

2007-12-15

252

Oil removal from produced water by conjugation of flotation and photo-Fenton processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work investigates the conjugation of flotation and photo-Fenton techniques on oil removal performance from oilfield produced water. The experiments were conducted in a column flotation and annular lamp reactor for induced air flotation and photodegradation steps, respectively. A nonionic surfactant was used as a flotation agent. The flotation experimental data were analyzed in terms of a first-order kinetic rate model. Two experimental designs were employed to evaluate the oil removal efficiency: fractional experimental design and central composite rotational design (CCRD). Overall oil removal of 99% was reached in the optimum experimental condition after 10 min of flotation followed by 45 min of photo-Fenton. The results of the conjugation of induced air flotation and photo-Fenton processes allowed meeting the wastewater limits established by the legislations for disposal. PMID:25239685

da Silva, Syllos Santos; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; de Barros Neto, Eduardo Lins; Foletto, Edson Luiz

2015-01-01

253

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90 in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 µm were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

HELMAR SCHUBERT

2000-11-01

254

Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

255

Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

1993-07-01

256

Reservoir characterization : how much oil can we produce from CO{sub 2} flooding?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed miscible and immiscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding technologies currently used in Canada. It is estimated that Alberta has incremental carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reserves of 660 MMbbl, while Saskatchewan has an estimated 575 MMbbl. CO{sub 2} sites and sources included ethane processing and fertilizer plants, petrochemical plants, and hydrogen plants. Oil sands processing plants and ethanol production plants also produce CO{sub 2} as a by-product. In CO{sub 2} flooding, static criteria are typically used to determine the minimum size of the oil in place, as well as the initial cost of infrastructure. Miscible pressure concerns are also measured. Typically, sites that are suitable for water-flooding are also suitable for miscible flooding. Pressure data are used to identify continuity issues. Dynamic screening is used to determine peak oil rates and oil and water responses to infill programs. Miscible flooding is used where hydrocarbons have sweep efficiency, and also in medium grade oil pools with high permeability and high porosity. It was concluded that the total incremental resource recovery volumes achieved using CO{sub 2} are variable. tabs., figs.

Baker, R. [Epic Consulting Services Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

257

Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

2011-05-15

258

Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products. PMID:22688247

Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

2012-01-01

259

Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of???1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

2014-01-01

260

Potential impact of production chemicals on the toxicity of produced water discharges from North Sea oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production chemicals are used on offshore oil production platforms to prevent corrosion and scale formation, and to assist oil-water separation. A proportion of these chemicals may enter the marine environment via the produced water discharge. This study investigated the potential impact of 11 oil field production chemicals on the toxicity of the produced water discharge. The Microtox(r) system was used for toxicity assessment of the chemicals, both directly in aqueous preparations and following their partitioning between oil (crude and low toxicity mineral base oil) and North Sea brine. For the majority of the chemicals tested, the toxicity of the aqueous phase to the test organism following partitioning against crude oil, was not significantly altered by the presence of process chemicals when used in their normal field dosage concentrations. However, there was evidence that certain chemicals could increase the partitioning of oil components into the aqueous phase by an order of magnitude, when applied at high dosage concentrations. (Author)

 
 
 
 
261

Producing High Quality Edible Oil by using Eco-Friendly Technology: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of health and environmental issues specifically related to the use of chemical ingredients in foods both in producing processes and as a preservative agent has encouraged the emergence of non-chemically processed products on the market. This condition is predicted to continue increasing with high market response. This review will discuss some developments, surrounding the edible oil extraction and purification technology, including some alternative to substitute conventional solvent extraction in order to produce a chemically free edible oil product. Enzymatic and ultrasound assisted/pre-treatment in aqueous, cold pressing and supercritical fluid extraction will be highlighted, as well as adsorptive refining and other processes as an alternative for purification technology.

Noor A. Febrianto

2011-08-01

262

The use of babassu oil as substrate to produce bioemulsifiers by Candida lipolytica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced an extracellular emulsifier when using babassu oil as its sole carbon source during batch and fed batch fermentations at 27 degrees C. Emulsification activity was detected after 60 h of growth in all conditions studied. The bioemulsifier was isolated after 144 h of fermentation from the best condition studied. The biopolymer seems to be a polysaccharide-protein-lipid complex. PMID:10446719

Sarubbo, L A; Porto, A L; Campos-Takaki, G M

1999-05-01

263

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

EdlayneGonçalez; MarciaOrtiz MayoMarques; RobertoCarlosFelicio

2014-01-01

264

Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeability. The main finding in this thesis was that...

Gundersen, Pa?l Lee

2013-01-01

265

Producing High Quality Edible Oil by using Eco-Friendly Technology: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development of health and environmental issues specifically related to the use of chemical ingredients in foods both in producing processes and as a preservative agent has encouraged the emergence of non-chemically processed products on the market. This condition is predicted to continue increasing with high market response. This review will discuss some developments, surrounding the edible oil extraction and purification technology, including some alternative to substitute conventional solve...

Febrianto, Noor A.; Yang, Tajul A.

2011-01-01

266

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

Yi-Wei Lin

2012-07-01

267

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producer...

Chander, Mahesh; Bodapati, Subrahmanyeswari; Mukherjee, Reena; Kumar, Sanjay

2011-01-01

268

Molecular characterization of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the countries of the Gulf cooperation council: dominance of OXA-48 and NDM producers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were determined in hospitals in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Isolates were subjected to PCR-based detection of antibiotic-resistant genes and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) assessments of clonality. Sixty-two isolates which screened positive for potential carbapenemase production were assessed, and 45 were found to produce carbapenemase. The most common carbapenemases were of the OXA-48 (35 isolates) and NDM (16 isolates) types; 6 isolates were found to coproduce the OXA-48 and NDM types. No KPC-type, VIM-type, or IMP-type producers were detected. Multiple clones were detected with seven clusters of clonally related Klebsiella pneumoniae. Awareness of CRE in GCC countries has important implications for controlling the spread of CRE in the Middle East and in hospitals accommodating patients transferred from the region. PMID:24637692

Zowawi, Hosam M; Sartor, Anna L; Balkhy, Hanan H; Walsh, Timothy R; Al Johani, Sameera M; AlJindan, Reem Y; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Ibrahim, Emad; Al-Jardani, Amina; Al-Abri, Seif; Al Salman, Jameela; Dashti, Ali A; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Schlebusch, Sanmarié; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Paterson, David L

2014-06-01

269

Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment wil...

Othman, Jamal

2003-01-01

270

Spillover effects of oil price shocks across stock markets  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil price shock can impose detrimental effects to an economy. In this study, we empirically study the spillover effects of oil price shock on determining volatilities of stock markets across the main oil importing and oil producing countries. In particular, we are interested to compare the relative impact of oil price shock on the volatilities of stock markets and how each stock market reacts to oil price shock for oil importing and oil producing countries. We focus the study in four main oil importer and four oil producers respectively using the daily data starting from January 2009 to December 2013. The multivariate GARCH(1,1) model is applied for the purpose of this study. The results of the study suggest that there exist spillover effect between crude oil price and stock returns for all the countries. The short run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is lower than oil-importing countries but the long run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is higher than oil-importing countries. In general the short run persistency is smaller and the long run persistency is very high. The results hold for volatility of oil price and stock returns and also spillover volatility in all countries.

Ng, Zhan Jian; Sek, Siok Kun

2014-12-01

271

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the s...

Yi-Wei Lin; Cherng-Yuan Lin

2012-01-01

272

My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

2012-12-01

273

Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde más intenso eran también de baja calidad, describiéndolos como con sabor extraño, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y defectuosos. Este estudio demuestra que en los países con olivicultura emergente pero con poca tradición de consumo de aceite de oliva, los consumidores aún no tienen preferencias comerciales claras sobre el color de este producto, aunque coinciden en rechazar y considerar como de baja calidad a los aceites de oliva amarillos posiblemente por asociarlos con los aceites de semillas que habitualmente se encuentran en el mercado.

Gámbaro, A.

2014-06-01

274

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotopes in produced water during oil production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotope concentrations in produced water have been evaluated during oil production. Samples of produced water were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis over a period of 5 months, the samples being derived from 11 main oil production wells at three Syrian oil fields. The highest average 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations in these samples of water were found to be 41, 37.5 and 1.1 Bq l-1, respectively. The data obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio were evaluated statistically and displayed using the Box Plot method. Clear variations can be observed from one field to another, indicating differences in the geological formation of the reservoir. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio variations reflect the variability of the Th/U mass ratio of the geological formation, suggesting two different source rock types. The calculated mean Th/U mass ratio for these two possible types of source rock were 2.4 and 5.78. In addition, the 228Ra/226Ra mean activity ratio was also used to estimate the age of some deposited scales in tubulars. The results were compared with the 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio dating method. Monthly variations of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in produced water were alsoactivity ratio in produced water were also observed, the major causes for these variations being related to the type of injection water and interwell reactions. Possible relationships between 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations, the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio and physical and chemical properties of produced water were statistically evaluated. No linear correlations were found. (author)

275

Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although biodiesel cannot entirely replace petroleum based diesel fuels, there are at least five reasons that justify its development. It provides a market for excess production of vegetable oils, it decreases the dependence on imported petroleum, it does not contribute to global warming due to its closed carbon cycle, the exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate emissions from biodiesel are lower than with regular diesel fuel, when added to regular diesel fuel in an amount up to 20% it can convert fuel into an acceptable fuel. Transesterification reaction is the most commonly applied technique to produce biodiesel. Transesterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower-soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour points, flash points, kinematic viscosities, hydrogen/carbon ratios, sulfur contents, ash contents and triglycerides. The physico-chemical characteristic of biodiesel treated with ozone showed improvement of pour point and flash point indicating higher degree of safety for fuel. Methyl esters mixed with their corresponding ozonated oil were subjected to comparison and evaluation for their thermal properties by the thermo gravimetric analysis differential thermal analysis from which the calculated heat of enthalpy and comparison with the heat of conventional diesel. The results showed that the oxygen content of biodiesel samples treated with ozone increased weight % and resulted in more extensive chemical reaction, promoted combustion characteristics and less carbon residue was produced. Gas chromatography appeared more suitable to address the problem of determining/verifying biodiesel methyl ester and showed that methyl ester content was impurity free. Ultra violet-detection was used for rapid quantization of triglycerols. From the analyses performed biodiesel treated with ozone modified the thermal and oxidative stability shown by the high combustion efficiency indicated by the high heat of enthalpy and reducing the emission of particulate matter.

El Diwani, G.; El Rafie, S. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Dept.

2008-07-01

276

“How to” of fiscal sustainability in oil-rich countries: the case of Azerbaijan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessing fiscal sustainability – i.e. considering whether or not a country can maintain its current fiscal policies without running into solvency problems and possible default – requires projections on a government’s future revenue stream, expenditures and contingent liabilities within a macroeconomic framework. Such an exercise is always subject to uncertainty. In commodity-rich countries dependent upon resource revenues, this is intensified by unpredictable and volatile commodity ...

Bandiera, L.; Budina, N.; Wijnbergen, S.

2010-01-01

277

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

278

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01

279

The long-run relationship between savings and investment in oil-exporting developing countries: A case study of the Gulf Arab States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between national saving and investment over the long term is examined for six Gulf Arab oil-exporting developing countries -- Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. We show that, provided some large outliers are properly accounted for, long-run equilibrium relationships between saving and investment (both total and fixed) exist in these countries. Since these countries have typically large current account surpluses such relationships cannot b...

Basher, Syed Abul; Fachin, Stefano

2011-01-01

280

Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and ce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

 
 
 
 
281

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

2013-01-01

282

Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

283

Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

1995-12-31

284

Determining effective fluid saturation, relative permeability, heterogeneity and displacement efficiency in drainage zones of oil wells producing under waterdrive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waterflooding is the most commonly used secondary oil recovery process because it can be carried out conveniently and effectively at a relatively low cost. However, increasing demands for oil and general practice responsible resource management requires considerable improvement in oil production efficiency by various means, including better reservoir characterization for optimal design of waterflooding operations. Getter more reliable information about reservoir properties in well drainage zones is among the various issues that need to be addressed for this purpose. Reservoir characterization is needed for efficient design and realization of waterflooding and subsequent use of potential enhanced oil recovery methods. This paper presented a newly developed and practical method for analyzing well production history obtained after water breakthrough to infer for various well-drainage zone diagnostics for oil wells producing under waterdrive. The method can determine effective fluid saturation, displacement efficiency, heterogeneity and relative permeability of oil and water. This paper also presented the formulation and methodology to characterize the parameters of radial unsteady-state flow of oil and water through producing-well drainage regions in oil reservoirs. The results can provide valuable information regarding the temporal conditions and behaviour of oil and water in the drainage zone, which can then be used for effective control of sustainable and reliable production of oil reservoirs. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs.

Toth, J.; Bodi, T.; Szucs, P. [Miskolc Univ. (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Earth Sciences; Civan, F. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering

2010-11-15

285

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

Fotouh, K.H.

1995-09-30

286

Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

287

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2003-12-15

288

Radioactivity in produced water from oil and gas installations - doses to biota and humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial amounts of produced water containing elevated levels of 226Ra and 228Ra are discharged into the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. The average concentration in the discharges is 3.3 and 2.8 Bq/L of 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The main objective of the project described in the paper is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium in produced water produced by oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. One of the objectives of the study is to provide information to enable risk assessment based on doses from ionizing radiation to marine biota and man. Reference organisms for the North Sea area have been chosen for calculation of absorbed dose to biota. The dose calculations rely on specific knowledge of activity concentration in the reference organism, activity concentration in seawater and sediments, dose conversion factors and time spent at different locations relative to the point of discharge. Based on the calculated doses to marine biota, 'potential no effect concentrations' are recommended. (author)

289

Circulating usage of partially-produced fluid as power fluid for jet pump in deep-heavy-oil production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Common artificial lift methods are not adequate for producing oil from wells deeper than 3000 metres. Jet pumping has been proposed as a more efficient artificial lifting technique for such wells since the low pressure fluid in the reservoir can be boosted and recovered by mixing it with a high pressure fluid pumped downhole from the surface. The advantages of the jet pumping method include its simplicity, lack of moving parts, small size, and ability to pump highly viscous fluids or fluids with strong corrosivity. Light oil can also be used as a power fluid in deep heavy oil wells because of the lower viscosity of the produced fluids and the reduced pressure loss in the production string. This paper proposed a new technique in which a portion of the produced fluid was combined with light oil to produce a fluid light-oil mixture for jet pumping in deep heavy oil wells. The main challenge was to determine the optimal ratio of the light oil that would minimize the amount of light oil needed for the power fluid while ensuring low viscosity of the fluid in the power string and reasonable well head power fluid pressure. The equilibrium viscosity of the mixed power fluid was determined using a newly constructed theoretical model, and an iterative method was used to calculate the optimal ratio of light oil to the mixed power fluid. The pressure loss and working performance of jet pumps is influenced by the viscosity and the ratio of light oil and the diluent rate ratio. Although the effects of temperature of the power fluid on the surface are not clear, the effect of reservoir fluid viscosity on well head pressure was found to be minor when the light oil viscosity (VLO) was low. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

Chen, S.; Li, H.; Zhang, Q. [China Univ. of Petroleum (China); He, J. [Tarim Petroleum Ltd. (China); Yang, D. [Society of petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

2005-11-01

290

Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

2008-09-01

291

Effect of an in situ-produced oil shale processing water on metabolism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of in situ-produced oil shale retort water on the metabolism of various substrates was studied both in vivo and in vitro. The induction observed in rats was classified as Type I due to an increase in metabolism of hexobarbital and ethylmorphine without subsequent increases in zoxazolamine metabolism. The maximal absorption of the cytochrome-P-450-CO complex was observed to be 450 m..mu.., also consistent with Type I inducers. Cytochrome P-450 levels were also significantly increased over controls.

Nelson, K.F.; North, D.S.; Payne, G.R.; Anderson, A.D.; Poulson, R.E.; Farrier, D.S.

1978-01-01

292

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotopes in produced water during oil production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotope concentrations in produced water have been evaluated during oil production. Samples of produced water were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis over a period of 5 months, the samples being derived from 11 main oil production wells at three Syrian oilfields. The highest average 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations in these samples of water were found to be 41, 37.5 and 1.1 Bq l-1, respectively. The data obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio were evaluated statistically and displayed using the Box Plot method; clear variations can be observed from one field to another, indicating differences in the geological formation of the reservoir. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio variations reflect the variability of the Th/U mass ratio of the geological formation, suggesting two different source rock types. The calculated mean Th/U mass ratio for these two possible types of source rock were 2.4 and 5.78. In addition, the 228Ra/226Ra mean activity ratio was also used to estimate the age of some deposited scales in tubulars; the results were compared with the 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio dating method. Monthly variations of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in produced water6Ra activity ratio in produced water were also observed, the major causes for these variations being related to the type of injection water and interwell reactions. Possible relationships between 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations, the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio and physical and chemical properties of produced water were statistically evaluated; no linear correlations were found

293

Wettability of Oil-Producing Reservoir Rocks as Determined from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Wettability has a dominant effect in oil recovery by waterflooding and in many other processes of industrial and environmental interest. Recently, the suggestion has been made that surface science analytical techniques (SSAT) could be used to rapidly determine the wettability of reservoir materials. Here, we bring the capability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to bear on the wettability evaluation of producing reservoir rocks. For a suite of freshly exposed fracture surfaces of rocks we investigate the relationship between wettability and surface composition as determined from XPS. The classical wettability index as measured with the Amott-Harvey test is used here as an indicator of the wettability of natural sandstones. The XPS spectra of oil-wet surfaces of rocks reveal the existence of organic carbon and also of an "organic" silicon species, of the kind Si-CH relevant to silanes, having a well-defined binding energy which differs from that of the Si-O species of mineral grains. We provide quantifiable evidence that chemisorbed organic material on the pore surfaces defines the oil-wetting character of various reservoir sandstones studied here which on a mineralogic basis are expected to be water-wet. This view is supported by a strong correlation between C content of pore surfaces and rock wettability. The results also suggest a correlation between organic silicon content on the pore surfaces and rock hydrophobicity. PMID:8954667

Toledo; Araujo; Leon

1996-11-10

294

Technical efficiency analysis of banks in major oil exporting Middle East countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates efficiency performance of thirty six banks operating in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the period 2006-2008 . Our results indicate in general GCC banks showed considerable pure technical efficiency in the past three years with the year 2007 exhibit the most efficient year, as the number of pure technical efficient banks reached 33 percent of the total banks compared to 25 percent in 2008. The fall in technical efficiency in 2008 is due to simultaneo...

Onour, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Abdelgadir

2011-01-01

295

Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author) ones. (author)

296

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil ...

Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi; Newton Müller Pereira; Rogério Gomes; Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

2013-01-01

297

Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning. PMID:23625419

Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

2013-05-01

298

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

Unknown

2002-11-01

299

Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL.

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

300

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Unknown

1999-10-31

 
 
 
 
301

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Donald Duttlinger

1999-12-01

302

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Unknown

2000-05-01

303

Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was the Portuguese Galega sp. Olives were picked and technologically handled under predetermined and supervised conditions. Olive oils produced were better classified when the sensory analysis by a panel was applied than when an electronic sensory analysis was performed, even after sensor optimization. This observation is in accordance with the fact that olive oil has a low volatility matrix and “flavor”, rather than aroma, can give a clearer characterization than electronic sensory analysis alone, where aroma is the main characteristic evaluated.

El análisis sensorial y el análisis de aromas por medio de sistemas sensoriales electrónicos han sido utilizado para comparar aceites de oliva producidos a través de dos sistemas de extracción diferentes. Los métodos de extracción comparados han sido el sistema de prensas y el decantador de dos fases. Las muestras fueron producidas durante las cosechas del periodo 2002- 2004, y las aceitunas eran todas de la misma variedad portuguesa Gallega sp. Las aceitunas fueron seleccionadas y tratadas tecnológicamente bajo condiciones predeterminadas y supervisadas. Los aceites producidos resultaron mejor clasificados cuando fue aplicado el análisis sensorial por panel que cuando se utilizó el análisis con detección electrónica de aromas, incluso después de la optimización de los sensores. Esta observación está de acuerdo con el hecho de que los aceites son una matriz poco volátil y que es el “flavour”, más que el aroma, el que junto con el gusto puede proporcionar una caracterización mejor que la detección electrónica, en la que el aroma es la principal característica evaluada.

Vaz Freire, L. T.

2011-12-01

304

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotopes in produced water during oil production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotope concentrations in produced water have been evaluated during oil production. Samples of produced water were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis over a period of 5 months, the samples being derived from 11 main oil production wells at three Syrian oilfields. The highest average 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations in these samples of water were found to be 41, 37.5 and 1.1 Bql(-1), respectively. The data obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio were evaluated statistically and displayed using the Box Plot method; clear variations can be observed from one field to another, indicating differences in the geological formation of the reservoir. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio variations reflect the variability of the Th/U mass ratio of the geological formation, suggesting two different source rock types. The calculated mean Th/U mass ratio for these two possible types of source rock were 2.4 and 5.78. In addition, the 228Ra/226Ra mean activity ratio was also used to estimate the age of some deposited scales in tubulars; the results were compared with the 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio dating method. Monthly variations of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in produced water were also observed, the major causes for these variations being related to the type of injection water and interwell reactions. Possible relationships between 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations, the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio and physical and chemical properties of produced water were statistically evaluated; no linear correlations were found. PMID:16386910

Al-Masri, M S

2006-05-01

305

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization efficiently has an impact on business economics as the focus remains on proven applicable technologies, which target cost reduction and efficiency gains.

Donald Duttlinger

2001-11-01

306

Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae -A Case-Control Study in a Low Prevalence Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum blactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prev...

Søraas, Arne Vasli Lund; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Sandven, Irene; Brunborg, Cathrine; Jenum, Pa?l

2013-01-01

307

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) functions as a cohesive national organization that implements industry's directives through active regional programs. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) organization includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. PTTC relies on 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) as its main program delivery mechanism to industry. Through its regions, PTTC connects with independent oil and gas producers--through technology workshops, resources centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY98, and its strategy for achieving further growth in the future.

Unknown

1998-10-31

308

Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N) starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD) formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3. PMID:23874918

Zhang, Yun-Ming; Chen, Hui; He, Chen-Liu; Wang, Qiang

2013-01-01

309

Geochemical monitoring of waxes and asphaltenes in oils produced during the transition from primary to secondary water flood recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented on changes in the content and composition of waxes and asphaltenes of oil produced during the transition from primary to secondary recovery following water flooding. Oil samples have been collected for a period of about three years from one well in Prairie Gem field in central Oklahoma. Wax and asphaltene fractions have been isolated from the produced oils and analyzed, qualitatively and quantitatively, by high temperature gas chromatography. The results demonstrate significant variations in the asphaltene and wax content of the oil produced during the transition period from primary to secondary water flood recovery, ranging from 0.7 to 5 wt%, and 11 to 33 wt%, respectively. Moreover, these variations are found to be accompanied by changes in wax composition and to precede specific production events. The oil produced a month before the response of the well to water flooding indicated an enhanced concentration of nC{sub 22}-C{sub 35} alkanes in the wax. The following episode of wax plugging in well equipment was preceded by increased amounts of asphaltenes and high molecular weight (nC{sub 35}-C{sub 50}) alkanes in the wax of produced oils. Changes in the asphaltene and wax compositions are discussed in terms of processes displacing weakly adsorbed organic material from the pore spaces of the reservoir under increased reservoir pressure and flowing fluid volumes related to water flooding. (author)

Chouparova, E.; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma (United States). School of Geology and Geophysis

1998-12-31

310

Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement.

Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A. [Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)] e-mail: maliriani@uaeu.ac.ae

2005-12-01

311

Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

312

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994 (Figure 1. This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994(Figura 1. Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto.

Edwin Rodríguez

2004-01-01

313

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD) presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados [...] cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación) y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994)(Figura 1). Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR) y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico) aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located ne [...] ar the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994) (Figure 1). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.

Edwin, Rodríguez; Jaime, Orjuela.

2004-12-01

314

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

Unknown

2000-11-01

315

Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

316

Antimicrobial activities of laboratory produced essential oil solutions against five selected fungal strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Aspergillus niger I.N. 1110, Aspergillus sojae CCF and Penicillium spp. FNS FCC 266. A variation of the microtiter plate-based antimicrobial assay was used in order to assess the antimicrobial activity of the solutions. By applying this assay minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the Biokill solutions were determined for each strain of the selected test microorganisms. The results demonstrated that all variations of Biokill showed antimicrobial activity at concentrations lower than 2.5?g/mL. Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO showed the best antimicrobial properties against all the selected strains with MICs less than 1.25?g/mL. These results indicated that Biokill could find application in the pharmaceutical industry, in food preservation and conservation, in the prevention and treat­ment of plants infected by certain phytopathogens, etc.

Ivanova Emilija

2013-01-01

317

Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

None available

2000-04-12

318

OIL EFFECT ON WORLD ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the macroeconomic effects of the oil trade on the world economy, taking into account a number of factors that characterise it: evolution of oil price, as well as dynamics of oil exports, economic increase based on oil of the producing and consuming countries, attempts to diversify their economies inorder to get rid of the oil dependence, tendencies and length of these processes, co-operation and role of the countries that are involved in the exchange affairs that deal with this fundamental product called: “the blood of economy”.

Daniela SARPE

2006-01-01

319

Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

320

Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) ay BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

 
 
 
 
321

Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

Mohd Sahaid Kalil

2003-01-01

322

Subsidence over producing oil and gas fields, and gas leakage to the surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsidence over producing oil and gas fields, caused by a reduction of formation fluid pressure and consequent compaction of reservoir rocks, enhances existing fractures and creates new ones. A theoretical prediction of the whole set of associated deformation can not be completely reliable because of physical obscurity and incompleteness of the effective-stress theory and associated models and their inadequacy to describe the three-dimensional processes in a geological environment. Empirically, incompleteness of the overburden weight transmission to the compacting reservoir is obvious from the existence of vertical tensile strain and elongation of formation overlying the reservoir. All this emphasizes the importance of empirical approach. The authors reviewed field observations of subsidence deformations made by many authors

323

Effect of an in-situ-produced oil shale processing water on metabolism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effect of an in-situ produced oil shale processing water on metabolism and on liver enzyme activities in rats were studied by allowing rats to consume retort water. When rats were injected with sodium hexobarbital, at 125 mg/kg of body weight, the length of sleep time in rats drinking retort water was less than control rats drinking tap water. Sodium hexobarbital was metabolized by liver homogenates in vitro at a faster rate by rats drinking retort water than those drinking tap water. In-vivo and in-vitro studies showed no change in the rate of metabolism of zoxazolamine pretreated with retort water. Ethylmorphine demethylation activity was significantly increased in liver microsomes obtained from rats maintained on retort water. Concentrations of terminal cytochrome P-450 were considerably higher in animals pretreated with retort water, but protein levels were not significantly higher. The data indicate that retort water is a Type I inducer.

Nelson, K.F. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Poulson, R.E.

1978-01-01

324

Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new linear saturated terminal diisocyanate was synthesized from oleic acid via Curtius rearrangement, and its chemical structure was identified by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and MS. The feasibility of utilizing this new diisocyanate for the production of polyurethanes (PUs) was demonstrated by reacting it with commercial petroleum-derived polyols and canola oil-derived polyols, respectively. The physical properties of the PUs prepared from fatty acid-derived diisocyanate were compared to those prepared from the same polyols with a similar but petroleum-derived commercially available diisocyanate: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. It was found that the fatty acid-derived diisocyanate was capable of producing PUs with comparable properties within acceptable tolerances. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear saturated terminal diisocyanate derived from fatty acids and corresponding PUs mostly from lipid feedstock. PMID:19281152

Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

2009-04-13

325

The Talara forearc basin, NW Peru: depositional models of oil-producing Cenozoic clastic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Talara Basin is an unusual forearc basin, inasmuch as it displays many features which are not characteristic of such a tectonic context. These features apparently result from the basin's location at the intersection of the Amazonas Aulacogen, the Andean orogenic belt, and the subduction zone of the Peru-Chile Trench. The history of the Talara forearc basin is dominated by extensional rather than compressional tectonic activity, which reached a peak after the Eocene in association with low-angle gravity slides. This tectonism began with a prolonged synsedimentary phase, which, during the Paleocene-Eocene, generated a complex system of horsts and grabens bounded by major high-angle normal faults trending NE-SW and NW-SE. Closely related to repeated phases of uplift and erosion in the eastern Andean source areas, this structural pattern controlled unusually thick and coarse clastic sedimentation during the Paleocene-Eocene; a thickness of about 22,000 ft has been preserved, from which volcanics are essentially absent. The depositional environments were a series of interfering, transverse and longitudinal, deltaic and submarine fan systems, all of which contain distal portions in which organic-rich marine shales were deposited. Given these conditions, it is not surprising that the Talara Basin has produced to date more than a billion (10[sup 9]) barrels of oil. Although oil is produced from these depositional systems both on-and offshore, the latter environment has been barely explored near the present-day coastline, and is believed to have enormous potential for future development. (author)

Carozzi, A.V. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology); Palomino, J.R. (Butler (J.R.) and Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

326

Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a range of stora...

Scollard, Johann

2011-01-01

327

Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

328

Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

2014-03-01

329

An oil barrel against a hundred lies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this book, the author shades light on the OPEC's strategy of exhausting the other oil producing countries' reserves in order to be in a monopoly situation. It reveals the content of oil contracts, the sordid reality of the relations between oil companies and producing countries. Thanks to a cross-comparison between declarations and inquiries, it points out the errors made by experts and their, sometimes disastrous, consequences for indebted countries. Finally it proposes a scenario of the World's situation by the year 2050 and demonstrates that a break up of our oil dependence and a change of our behaviours have become urgent priorities. (J.S.)

330

Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been...

Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

2013-01-01

331

Oil exports under GATT and the WTO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

Abdallah, H. [Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum, Cairo (Egypt)

2005-12-15

332

Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

2013-06-01

333

An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application  

Science.gov (United States)

Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and temperature.

Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

2014-05-01

334

Water produced in the Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields of heavy metals and radionuclide distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text:Oil and gas production in the process of formation waters are the deep layers of the earth, together with the oil and gas condensate from the water surface. Later, water oil and gas produced on the platform with different separation processes allocated, in order to increase oil production wells or re-determination of the surface of the Earth's lakes and hole in the shed. Been taken into account that every year, millions of cubic meters of produced waters discharged from oil platforms, it is clear that the environmental impact of their mischief. Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields in the waters of the reservoir and the natural radionuclide distribution of heavy metals have been investigated presented in this work. Nitrate acid solution was washed with pure polyethylene samples after pickling banks after completion, keeping a temperature of 4-S was included in the laboratory. Concentrations of elements from the stock standard solutions appreciating commercial preparations included in the presentation of the working standard solutions which are determined by using curve degree

335

Structural characterization of novel extracellular liamocins (mannitol oils) produced by Aureobasidium pullulans strain NRRL 50380.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aureobasidium pullulans is a common, ubiquitous fungus, which is used industrially to produce the polysaccharide pullulan. We have previously shown that A. pullulans produces various heavier-than-water oils, first named here as liamocins, that accumulate in fermentations. Here we report the structural characterization of four liamocins, A1, A2, B1, and B2, produced by A. pullulans strain NRRL 50380 using a combination of MALDI-TOF/MS, quadrupole-TOF/MS, isotopic labeling, NMR, GC/MS, and classical carbohydrate analysis. The data showed that the liamocins are composed of a single mannitol headgroup partially O-acylated with three (for liamocin A1 and A2) or four (for liamocin B1 and B2) 3,5-dihydroxydecanoic ester groups. Liamocins A1 and B1 are non-acetylated, whereas A2 and B2 each contain a single 3'-O-acetyl group. Each of these compounds is characterized by pseudomolecular [M+Na](+) ions in the MALDI-TOF/MS spectra at m/z 763.22, 949.35, 805.22, and 991.37, respectively. The 186Da mass difference between A-type and B-type liamocins corresponds to one O-linked 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate group. HMBC NMR showed that one 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate carbonyl group is ester linked to a primary hydroxyl on the mannitol. Other long range (13)C-(1)H couplings across 1,5-ester bridges showed that the 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate groups form 1-5-linked polyester chains, similar in structure to the antibiotic substance exophilin A. Moreover, the MS analysis identified several non-conjugated poly-3,5-dihydroxydecanoate esters as minor components that are tentatively assigned as exophilins A1, A2, B1, and B2. The liamocins, and three of the exophilins, are new, previously unreported structures. PMID:23435167

Price, Neil P J; Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Vermillion, Karl E; Bowman, Michael J; Leathers, Timothy D

2013-04-01

336

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils and triglycerides by thermotolerant and zoopathogenic species of Aspergillus from Nigerian palm produce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. and Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Wint obtained from Nigerian palm produce to degrade vegetable oils and triglycerides and the production and activity of their extracellular lipases were studied. Both species readily hydrolysed palm oil and palm kernel oil among others liberating free fatty acids in the process. Good growth with mycelia production of both fungi were also recorded on the triglycerides used as sources of carbon at 37 degrees C with the best results obtained on palmitic and oleic acids, the predominant fatty acids in palm oil. Extracellular lipases were detected in the culture filtrates of both fungi within 48 h of incubation on an oat-meal chaff medium at 37 degrees C. Peak enzyme production occurred within the 10-day incubation period. The lipases of both fungal species were most active at a pH of 5.6 and a temperature of 45 degrees C. The best glyceride for assaying the lipase activities of these fungi was trihexanoin while palm oil was a better vegetable oil than the conventional groundnut oil used for the same purpose. Because of the zoopathogenic nature of these fungi, attention is drawn to the potential health risks which their presence on the palm products where they were obtained pose to the consumers. PMID:7040975

Ogundero, V W

1982-01-15

337

Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N2O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (?3.0 to 5.3 kg CO2eq kg?1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

338

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2009-12-15

339

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

340

Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effect of alloy nickel content vs PREN on the selection of austenitic oil country tubular goods for sour gas service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditionally, in the selection of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) for sour gas service, Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA`s) are screened first by their pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) and then by environmental cracking data generated in sour brine environments. The theory is that a pit occurs first, which provides a stress-riser for initiation of anodic chloride stress corrosion cracking (KC). Among the primary CRA`s currently used in the cold worked condition for OCTG in sour gas wells are alloy 825 (UNS N08825) and alloy 28 (UNS N08028). While alloy 28 has a somewhat higher PREN than alloy 825, alloy 825 has a significantly higher nickel content. Slow strain rate (SSR) tests conducted in severe sour brine environments showed that the higher nickel content of alloy 825 results in better stress corrosion cracking resistance than that exhibited by alloy 28. The effect of nickel content on chloride SCC resistance of austenitic alloys was originally reported by H.R. Copson in 1959. This suggests that in some cases for austenitic alloys, the nickel content of the CRA may be more important than the PREN in OCTG selection.

Hibner, E.L.; Tassen, C.S. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Skogsberg, J.W. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

342

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship Between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control it [...] s production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

Giovanna, Guimarães Gielfi; Newton, Müller Pereira; Rogério, Gomes; Vinícius, Cardoso de Barros Fornari.

2013-02-01

343

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT, the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi

2013-04-01

344

78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...operation has enough acreage for rotation such that the total acreage required to produce the crop is about one-third...participants to fully supply the market with the total amount of spearmint oil allotted under the volume regulation provisions of the...

2013-02-11

345

Removal of Radium isotopes from oil co-produced water using Bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters pH over other comparable parameters. (author)

346

Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta state (Nigeria))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg-1. The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe. (authors)

347

Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass  

Science.gov (United States)

The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the ethanol to acetic acid ratio of 3. Crude pyrolytic oil obtained from the RTI International had distillation temperatures from 164.8°C to 365.5°C and 50% volumetric fraction of the crude bio-oil was distillable. Esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased distillability up to 55% volumetric fraction. The esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased pH of 6.12. Diesel range pyrolytic bio-oil distilled from esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had quite comparable properties with commercial diesel, with an energy content of 41.41 MJ/kg, water content of 0.58 wt%, and viscosity of 7.45 cP.

Cheng, Dan

348

Biodegradable Nanocapsules produced via Layer-by-Layer Technique on Oil based Templates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we focused the attention on the development of nanocapsules like carriers for their capability to embed high payloads of active substances. Moreover we just used natural materials like vegetal oils and natural polysaccharides to avoid side effects from the use of such nanocarriers. In particular, we chose to start from an oil core template for the preparation of nanocarriers to be used in bio-nano-technology fields. Indeed, oil in water emulsions can easily reach sizes down to 10...

Vecchione, Raffaele

2013-01-01

349

Evaluation and characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface-active agents or surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that comprise both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, allowing the reduction of the surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the formation of oil in water or water in oil emulsions. Due to their interesting properties, surfactants are widely used by petroleum industries to reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir. However, since chemical surfactants present some limitations related to environment...

Pereira, J. F.; Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Costa, Rita; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.

2013-01-01

350

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

1995-07-01

351

Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected b...

Sanjuan-galindo, Rene; Soto, Enrique; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

2010-01-01

352

Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods. PMID:20492235

Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

2010-03-01

353

Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

354

The changing pattern in international trade and capital flows of the Gulf cooperation council countries in comparison with other oil-exporting countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC cou...

Peeters, Marga

2010-01-01

355

Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water) was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( [...] FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005) consists of a lipopeptide similar to surfactin. The influences of temperature and the composition of oil + biosurfactant + water were determined by using phase diagrams. Three types of oil were used, namely: motor oil, hydrogenated naphthenic oil (NH140) and castor bean oil. The emulsified systems were analyzed using optical micrography. The results presented here indicated that the biosurfactant produced in this work presents a potential use as stabilizing agent for oil-in-water emulsions.

M., Sousa; I. T., Dantas; F. X., Feitosa; A. E. V., Alencar; S. A., Soares; V. M. M., Melo; L. R. B., Gonçalves; H. B., Sant' ana.

2014-09-01

356

Molecular Characterization of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council: Dominance of OXA-48 and NDM Producers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were determined in hospitals in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Isolates were subjected to PCR-based detection of antibiotic-resistant genes and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) assessments of clonality. Sixty-two isolates which screened positive for potential carbapenemase production ...

Zowawi, Hosam M.; Sartor, Anna L.; Balkhy, Hanan H.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Al Johani, Sameera M.; Aljindan, Reem Y.; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Ibrahim, Emad; Al-jardani, Amina; Al-abri, Seif; Al Salman, Jameela; Dashti, Ali A.; Kutbi, Abdullah H.; Schlebusch, Sanmarie?; Sidjabat, Hanna E.

2014-01-01

357

New oil coolers for large-capacity turbines produced by the ural turbine works  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of industrial application of a new oil cooler type MB-125-165 for turbines developed at by specialists of the Ural Turbine Works are presented. Its technical specifications and design features are detailed. The results of long-term (more than 10 years) usage confirm the efficiency, reliability, and environmental safety of type MB-125-165 oil coolers.

Brodov, Yu. M.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Aronson, K. E.; Zhelonkin, N. V.

2014-12-01

358

[Effects of polyacrylamide on settling and separation of oil droplets in polymer flooding produced water].  

Science.gov (United States)

The research found anion polyacrylamide (HPAM) had positive and negative effects on oil-water separation. Polymer made oily wastewater's viscosity increase and reduce rising velocity, and polymer can also increase intensity of water films between oil droplets and lengthen coalescence time of oil droplets. Those were not in favor of settling and separation for oil droplets. The positive effects on separation were that polyacrylamide had flocculating activity and made small droplets contact each other and combine into big droplets. When polymer's molecular weight was 2.72 x 10(6), and concentration was less than 800 mg/L, polymer was in favor of oil droplets settling and separation. The prime reason for oily wastewater of polymer flooding difficult to dispose was that initial median diameters of oil droplets were small. The transverse flow oil separator can intensify oil droplets combination and shorten rising time. The locale experiments showed the separator was suitable for dealing with oily wastewater of polymer flooding. PMID:12048822

Deng, Shubo; Zhou, Fusheng; Chen, Zhongxi; Xia, Fujun; Yu, Gang; Jiang, Zhanpeng

2002-03-01

359

Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Properties of Medium-Density Fibreboard Produced from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are readily available residues from palm oil industry and have tremendous potential to be used as fibre raw material for Medium-density Fibreboard (MDF) manufacture. However, some of the properties of the MDF produced from EFB have been reported to be relatively inferior to those made from rubberwood, presumably due to presence of residual oil in the fibres. In this study, the effects of EFB fibre treatment (soaking in 2% NaOH, boiling in water, both soaking and boil...

Anwar, U. M. K.; Mohd Nor, M. Y.; Astimar, A. A.; Paridah, M. T.; Norul Izani, M. A.

2012-01-01

360

Why heavy oilfields exist? The dynamic interplay of oil charge, basin dynamics, caprock leakage and gas generating biodegradation that produces heavy oilfields  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy oil and bitumen resources develop by extensive in-reservoir oil biodegradation resulting in a wide range of oil compositional gradients that reflect the complex interplay of oil charge rate and composition, biodegradation in oil-water transition zones at the base of oil columns and geologically controlled in-reservoir diffusive mixing over geological time. Worldwide, observed compositional gradients are maintained by unaltered oil charge near the top of reservoirs and concomitant degradation at the base of the reservoirs at rates comparable to the charge rates of oil fields. Across the Alberta oil sands, elevated CO2, high CH4 and low C2+ gas contents, steep oil compositional gradients, high aqueous bicarbonate concentrations and isotopic values in equilibrium with enriched d13CCO2 gas signatures are indicative of active persistence of active biodegradation to the present. Numerical models of carbon isotope systematics identify the dominant reaction pathway of subsurface hydrocarbon biodegradation as methanogenic alkane degradation by CO2 reduction, which produces large volumes of isotopically light methane and heavy CO2 in solution gas. Simple charge-degrade numerical models predict generation of 3 to 6 times reservoir volumes of biogenic gas in the genesis of heavy oil over geological time, which would have displaced oils from the traps. Gas caps in shallow reservoirs are small at best, suggesting seal leakage is pervasive and this is confirmed by degraded oil in many heavy oil caprocks. Also much less CO2 is measured in biodegraded oil field gases than is predicted based on reaction stoichiometry. The paucity of large gas caps, evidence of methane-rich and sometimes oil charged cap rocks, anomalously high formation water alkalinity and enriched aqueous d13Ccarbonate values in shallow Alberta biodegraded oil reservoirs point to leaky reservoir top seals and dissolution of biogenic gas into the water and oil phases. Indeed we consider top seal leakage of biogenic gas required to produce heavy oil and super heavy oil fields to maintain active biodegradation at the oil-water contact by transport of nutrients through the water phase. This would otherwise be curtailed by petroleum completely filling the reservoir to the underseal. The abundance of heavy oil and super heavy oil in shallow reservoirs reflect leaky reservoir seals at these depths and systematic removal of large volumes of gas generated by petroleum biodegradation and sometimes spill of oil. In uplifted basins with shallow heavy oil resources, degassing of oil and discharge of biodegradation generated gas may also have episodically contributed substantial carbon loads to the atmospheric carbon budget.

Adams, J. J.; Larter, S. R.; Huang, H.; Bennett, B.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

2010-07-01

362

Presenting visual acuities in a referral eye center in an oil-producing area of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the pattern of presenting visual acuities at an eye center in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Study Design: Retrospective chart review Methods: A retrospective review of patient records attending a private referral eye center providing services for company patients and the general public in the region. Information was obtained from computerized medical records of 6533 patients who attended the center for various eye concerns in a 5-year period (January 1998 to December 2002. Results: A total of 6533 patients were seen in this 5-year period of which 2472 (37.8% were company patients and 4061 (62.2%. were private patients. There were 3879 males (59.4% and 2654 females (40.6%. A visual acuity of 6/6 or better was seen in 50.8% of the patients. In 76.6% of patients, a visual acuity of 6/18 or better was recorded. There were 21.4% of patients in the low vision group. Bilateral blindness occurred in 2.1% of patients. Monocular blindness occurred in 3.7% of patients. Low vision occurred in 16.9% of company patients and 24.1% of private patients. Bilateral blindness occurred in 0.9% of company patients and 2.7% of private patients, while monocular blindness occurred in 1.2% of company patients and 5.2% of private patients. The main ocular problems were refractive error, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, headaches, ocular trauma, retina and related pathologies, cataract, uveitis, pterygium and corneal problems. Conclusion: The incidence of low vision and blindness is high in the oil-producing area of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Low vision and blindness were more common in private patients than in company patients.

Waziri-Erameh Joseph

2009-01-01

363

Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

Hossein Askari

2012-04-01

364

The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

2009-01-01

365

Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh byproducts : influence of temperature during storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crude herring oil, extracted from fresh byproducts, was stored at 0, 20, and 50°C in order to study the effect of temperature on lipid oxidation. The oil had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), and free fatty acids of 0.7 meq peroxides/kg of lipid, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. During storage, the oil reached the secondary oxidation stage for all 3 temperatures. The formation of fluorescent compounds was inhibited at 0°C. Significant decrease of the ?-tocopherol content wa...

Aidos, I.; Lourenco, S.; Padt, A.; Luten, J. B.; Boom, R. M.

2002-01-01

366

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90) in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the drople...

HELMAR SCHUBERT; SABINE BROSEL; Vladisavljevic, Goran T.

2000-01-01

367

Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

368

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and tak...

Edwin Rodríguez; Jaime Orjuela

2004-01-01

369

An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

Edy Soewono

2007-04-01

370

Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

371

Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil against extended spectrum ? lactamase produced by urinary isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%, thymol (13.38% and p-cymene (8.27%. All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.

Samad Nejad Ebrahimi

2011-04-01

372

DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

2003-11-01

373

Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank  

CERN Document Server

In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that contribute to elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface f...

Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

2010-01-01

374

The oil barrel price  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

375

Oil My Love  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

376

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish a Technology Transfer Resource Center (TRC) at Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) to assist the Independent Oil Producers, in the state of Texas, (TIP) obtain and apply oil recovery technology to their operation. The University will conduct a field pilot project in cooperation with an Independent Producer to demonstrate how technology application improves the economic performance of a project. Experience gained from the project will be disseminated to other Independents. These activities will be coordinated with neighboring state Universities and private research entities active in technology transfer programs. The University`s goal is to stimulate Petroleum Engineering education and research at the university as a result of participating in these activities. The long term goal is to establish the first Petroleum Engineering Department at a Historically Black University.

Fotouh, K.H.

1996-10-01

377

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2004-01-01

378

Assessment of the discharge of NORM to the North Sea from produced water by the Norwegian oil and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The discharge of naturally occurring radioactivity from non nuclear industries, such as the oil and gas industry, has recently become a subject of much discussion. In connection with oil and gas exploitation in the North Sea, large volumes of produced water are co-produced with the oil and gas of which most is discharged into the marine environment. Due to the solubility of the radium isotopes, of which 226Ra and 228Ra are the most long-lived, the produced water normally contains enhanced levels of these naturally occurring radionuclides. Previously observed levels in produced waters from Norwegian production platforms, shows activity levels of about three orders of magnitude larger than normally encountered in sea water. A study recently published by the EU (MARINA II) have concluded that liquid discharges to the marine environment from NORM industries (mainly phosphoric acid production and oil and gas exploitation) gives a larger contribution to the collective dose to the EU population than liquid discharges from the nuclear industry. Due to lack of published data on the radionuclide concentration in the produced water, it has however been large uncertainties on the discharge of 226Ra and 228Ra from the Norwegian oil and gas industry into the North Sea. In order to improve the estimated discharge of NORM, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority have asked the oil and gas producers on the Norwegian continentd gas producers on the Norwegian continental shelf to sample and analyse produced water from each production platform with respect to 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb monthly, for a period of six months during 2003 and early 2004. The purpose of this investigation has been to obtain more precise and reliable estimates of the NORM discharge in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The study is also considered important for work in the OSPAR radioactivity group, where relevant NORM industries will be identified, and discharge data collected the next few years. The paper includes a review of previously reported data on the activity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas production platforms. The results from the analyses of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in produced water from 40 production platforms in the North Sea, sampled in 2003 and 2004, will be presented and discussed together with platform specific discharge data. The activity concentration in the analysed samples ranged from below detection limit to up to 13 Bq/L for 226Ra and up to 21 Bq/L for 228Ra. All results for 210Pb were below the detection limit (0.4 to 1.1 Bq/L). From these results the total discharged activity of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb from Norwegian production platforms in the North Sea in 2003 have been estimated to 440 GBq, 375 GBq and < 90 GBq, respectively. The study also reveals that large short term variations in the activity concentration can occur, which must be taken in consideration when designing a monitoring program for this type of industrial activity. (author)

379

A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

2013-12-01

380

Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region  

Science.gov (United States)

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June-July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January-February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be -7 and 0-6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (?20% in total). In total, 50-57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48-53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formic acid (HCOOH is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June–July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January–February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%. A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2 underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10. Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be ?7 and 0–6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (?20% in total. In total, 50–57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48–53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

B. Yuan

2014-09-01

382

Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

Fisher, R.

1995-08-01

383

Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

2015-02-01

384

Establishing Clonal Relationships between VIM-1-Like Metallo-?-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Four European Countries by Multilocus Sequence Typing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing VIM-1-like acquired metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), isolated from four European countries (Greece, Hungary, Italy, and Sweden), were analyzed for genetic relatedness by several methodologies, including fliC sequence analysis, macrorestriction profiling of genomic DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The four approaches yielded consist...

Giske, Christian G.; Libisch, Bala?zs; Colinon, Ce?line; Scoulica, Effie; Pagani, Laura; Fu?zi, Miklo?s; Kronvall, Go?ran; Rossolini, Gian Maria

2006-01-01

385

Structural and Developmental Studies on Oil Producing Reproductive Organs in Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anatomical changes in lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle reproductive organs were investigated, with emphasis on the ontogeny of essential oil glands and their relation to organ development. Perianth had a leaf-like internal structure, with the developmental changes restricted to the ground system. Ovary diameter increased by cell divisions until fruit color change and by increase in size, wall thickness and intercellular space towards fruit maturity. Development of oil glands in flower and fruit peel revealed a similar pattern and was investigated in the ovary wall. Glands seemed to develop from some epidermal and subepidermal cells, into a conical stalk and a globular or oblong structure consisting of a central cavity surrounded by a protective sheath. Initiation of ovary oil glands started at preanthesis and was restricted to young green fruit. Mature oil glands continued to enlarge throughout fruit growth. Disputes regarding the manner of cavity opening in Citrus could be resolved by considering the three dimensional aspect of the oil glands.

Maryam Rafiei

2007-01-01

386

Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

387

Changes produced in oils during vacuum and traditional frying of potato chips.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the effect of vacuum frying (VF) and traditional frying (TF) on oil degradation, fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol content was investigated. Two different refined sunflower oils were used: sunflower oil with high oleic acid content (HOSO) and sunflower oil with synthetic antioxidant (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) (TBHQ-SO). Oil degradation was monitored by measuring the free acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (p-AV),) total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability (OE). Oils samples were taken every 4h of frying during 10 consecutive days. Values of FFA, p-AV, TPC using TBHQ-SO with traditional frying were (0.201, 207.0, 25.0) significantly higher than the obtained values with vacuum frying (0.073, 25.8, 11.2). The same parameters by using HOSO were (0.327, 82.0, 21.9) with traditional frying and (0.099, 33.3, 6.4) with vacuum frying. The EO was 2.44 and 7.95 with TBHQ-SO traditional and vacuum frying respectively, and with for HOSO 0.65 and 2.67, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids percentage decreased in all treatments except in TBHQ-SOv. The alpha-tocopherol content decreased in all treatments at different rates. At the end of the frying processes the percentages of alpha-tocopherol reduction were TBHQ-SOv (4.90%), TBHQ-SOt (53.62%), HOSOv (96.87%), HOSOt (99.76%). PMID:24176387

Crosa, María José; Skerl, Verónica; Cadenazzi, Mónica; Olazábal, Laura; Silva, Roberto; Suburú, Gabriela; Torres, Marina

2014-03-01

388

Anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for treating heavy oil produced water with high concentrations of salt and poor nutrient.  

Science.gov (United States)

The start-up and operational performance (total 212 days, including the start-up of 164 days) of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), which is used to treat heavy oil produced water, was studied without the temperature control. Inoculums were mixtures of acclimated sediment taken from a heavy oil produced water treatment plant and digested sludge from a sewage wastewater treatment plant. The rod-shaped and spherical granules with colors of henna and black, in which Clostridia, Methanosarcina and Methanothrx sp. were main populations, were observed in each compartment of ABR after the reactor's successful start-up (day 164). Rhodopseudomonas with the activity of lipase and halotolerant, as a kind of photosynthetic bacteria, was also observed in the first five compartments. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the spherical granule sludge was compact and contained a large amount of organics, amorphous materials, and crystals of Fe(2)O(3), FeS, and CaCO(3), whereas the rod-shaped granule sludge was incompact without crystals of Fe(2)O(3), FeS, and CaCO(3). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the skeleton construction of this rod-shaped granule was filamentous bacteria and amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The ABR, after successful start up, can achieve high average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil removals of 65% and 88% for heavy oil produced water with poor nutrient (COD:TN:TP, 1200:15:1) and high salt concentration (1.15-1.46%), respectively. Furthermore, ABR kept stable during 2.5 times the COD level shock load (0.50 kg COD m-3 d-1) for four days. PMID:18793845

Ji, G D; Sun, T H; Ni, J R; Tong, J J

2009-02-01

389

Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

2009-01-15

390

Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly af