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1

The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

2

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

3

Virgin Olive Oil Acceptability in Emerging Olive Oil-Producing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A sample of 99 habitual consumers sensory-evaluated 2 extra virgin and 2 ordinary olive oils in terms of overall liking and willingness to purchase based on 9-point structured scales and responded to a check-all-that-apply question comprising a list of 18 positive and negative attributes. In the second session, the same consumers evaluated the same oils also based on their respectiv...

Adriana Gámbaro; Ana Claudia Ellis; Laura Raggio

2013-01-01

4

GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

Damir Rajkovi?

2007-12-01

5

Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

Tsuji, Ryuhei

1999-03-01

6

Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

1999-03-01

7

GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned...

Damir Rajkovi?; Nenad Kukulj; Tomislav Kurevija

2007-01-01

8

Palm oil producers: EU should involve developing countries in biofuels debate | EurActiv  

...establish sustainability criteria for biofuels, Dato' Azhar Abdul Hamid, managing director of Sime Darby Plantation, told EurActiv in an interview. Dato' Azhar ...Abdul Hamid is managing director of Sime Darby Plantation, the oil palm cultivation and agri-business arm of Malaysia's leading conglomerate Sime Darby Berhad.... Likewise at Sime Darby, what we do is we have a very stringent child policy, we have a very stringent gender ... Français Dato' Azhar Abdul Hamid Managing Director Sime Darby Plantation Recent BlogActiv posts Bankwatch In Albania, oil’s history casts long shadows over ...

9

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

2009-07-15

10

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

2009-07-15

11

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

12

The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

13

The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

14

A proficiency test for some laboratories in Arab Countries for determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials contaminated soil reference sample with produced water in oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, results of first proficiency test exercise for radiochemical laboratories of some Arab counties using contaminated reference soil sample prepared by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The soil sample was collected from one of the highly radioactively contaminated lagoons with production water in the Syrian oil fields. Laboratories from six countries naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation have been participated in this test, viz. Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Jordan and Syria. The results have evaluated using statistical criteria to evaluate the performance of each laboratory in addition to the overall evaluation for each isotope. This evaluation has indicated that 57% and 86% of the results passed the criteria set for precision and accuracy applied for this test in relation to Radium-226 and Radium-228, respectively. These two isotopes are the most important isotopes in the oil industry. (author)

15

Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

16

Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

17

Oil exporting countries need nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

18

Crude oil exporting countries of Asia and crude oil market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of small existence of oil resources, Asian District expects extensive growth of oil demand. This imposes diversification of domestic energy source, especially the use of the abundant coal and natural gas, saving of oil consumption by the energy policy, and the promotion of oil search and development. Presently the oil exporting Asian countries are five, i.e., People's Republic of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burney, and Burma. Herewith, by focusing on the former four countries, the trend in the oil exporting countries and the features of the crude oil market are outlined, on the basis of the forecast by the research institutes and the national oil companies. (2 figs, 19 tabs)

Yanamoto, Kazunori

1987-05-01

19

Method for producing lubricating oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method for producing lubricating oil operates through the introduction of petroleum oil to a highly dispersed carbon. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the tribomechanical and low temperature properties, as well as the colloidal stability of the oil, the highly dispersed carbon is introduced in the form of a water and carbon paste (VUP) with subsequent removal of water by boiling at a temperature of 110-115/sup 0/C and cooling of the obtained suspension. Used as the VUP is the waste from the production of acetylene by oxidational pyrolysis of methane. For example, (parts by weight), added to 71 oils of industrial 12 are 100 VUP, highly dispersed carbon, which contains 5% pure carbon. The mixture is heated to 110 degrees with mixing until full boil off the water; then it is cooled to 65/sup 0/C. At this temperature with time intervals of 10 minutes, 20 stabilizers - resin bearing residue of distillation of oil in the form of a semi-tar of oils with a viscocity at 100 degrees of 28-32 set are added. Then three additives of DF-11, one depressor from the AzNII are added, after which the mixture is homogenized until the acquisition of a stable, uniform suspension. Because of the reduction in the expenditure of gasoline, the lubricating oil produces an annual savings of approximately 20,000 rubles per 100 KAZ-608 motor vehicles.

Melikadze, L.D.; Chkheidze, A.P.; Iosebidze, D.S.; Kankadze, D.A.; Lomidze, L.Ch.

1980-04-30

20

Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

NONE

2007-11-29

 
 
 
 
21

European cross-country oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCAWE first became involved with oil pipeline safety issues in the mid-1960s when it started collecting information and statistics on incidents and spills related to European cross-country oil pipelines. Annual data have been collected since 1969 through a survey of pipeline operators. The first report was published the same year and annual reports have been published since 1972. Starting in 2006, the annual report has included all historical data with each report superseding the previous one.

Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-04-01

22

The economic growth of oil countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

23

Oil producers facing a common challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

24

Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: > Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. > Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. > Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. > Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

Toft, Peter, E-mail: peter.toft@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

25

Current status and prospect for petroleum situation in former Soviet Union. ; Centering on Russia and oil producing countries around the Caspian Sea. Kyusoren chiiki no sekiyu josei no genjo to tenbo. ; Rosia to Kasupikai shuhen san'yukoku wo chushin ni  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the petroleum situation and its prospect in the former Soviet Union regions as investigated by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute. The oil production in Russia in 1992 has fallen by 14% from the previous year to 396.6 million tons, the decline still continuing. Estimation was made on crude oil production under three economic assumptions as: a case that the Russian crude oil production will stay flat after 1995 under an assumption that the economic restoration would delay into 1995 or thereafter; a pessimistic case that the situation is worse than that; and an optimistic case that the oil production will be activated as a result of foreign capitals having been introduced into countries around the Caspian Sea. The crude oil production in the NIS on the whole is estimated to turn to an increasing trend in the latter part of the 1990's if the Russian oil production falls under the second case but foreign funds have made their course into the oil producing countries around the Caspian Sea. The net export from the entire NIS countries in 1992 was a slight increase over the previous year to 106 million tons. The second case in relation with the Russian oil production may restore the 1992 production in around 2000. Funds required to restructure the economy in Russia and the NIS oil producing countries will be procured from bartering the petroleum and natural gas exports. Improving the foreign fund introducing conditions is the urgent requirement. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

1993-12-01

26

Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies

27

Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Economics Department, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6445 (Iran)

2009-03-15

28

Removing oil from produced water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the design, operation, and performance of a new gas-assisted clarifier system which acts to remove oil from waste water. The system has no moving parts and uses no chemical additives. The results show that the system can be successfully used to reduce the oil content of waste water to acceptable effluent limits. The systems are designed for offshore oil and gas production facilities. Test results are provided which show the reduction of oil and grease from 211 mg/L to 3 mg/L

29

Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

30

Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab

31

CO2 emission reduction technologies for oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is expected that the consumption of crude oil will fall in the case of a strong international climate policy. This may have considerable impact on the economic position of countries of which the economies are highly dependent on the production and export of crude oil. The aim of this paper is to give a preliminary evaluation of options that may be of interest to oil exporting countries as alternative activities, with a special emphasis on CO2 emission reduction options. A number of commodities have been discussed and selected that may be produced by oil exporting economies, and in doing so, generate additional income: electricity, ammonia and direct reduced iron. On the longer term hydrogen and methanol may be added to this list. It should be emphasized that the analysis presented in this report (and hence this conclusion) is preliminary and should be confirmed by more detailed analysis. Although in some cases oil exporting countries already have a good position to produce these commodities, the position might be improved if the production of such commodities with low CO2 emissions is stimulated. Oil exporting countries have a good position to do so, due to the availability of cheap energy and large storage potentials. This improved position can only be accomplished in a context of international cooperation, including that sufficient credits are given to producing `low-CO2 commodities`. CO2 storage, both generated nationally or in other countries, may become an important activity in the future, but this also depends on the credits that are given to avoid CO2 emissions. At least it is important that depletion strategies are chosen in such a way that enough empty or near-empty natural gas fields become available in the medium term. Renewable energy sources are not expected to have prospects in the short or medium term to generate substantial additional income. Further research may be of interest in some cases, e.g. into biomass that can be grown under saline conditions. 30 refs.

Blok, K.; Worrell, E.; Faaij, A.

1997-05-01

32

Trends of import of oil by Asian countries. Import of Middle East oil on the increase; Asia shokoku no sekiyu yunyu doko. Kakudaisuru Chuto sekiyu yunyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the import of oil by Asian countries are stated, based on the records for the period 1975-1996. Described are changes in the import of oil by Asian countries (changes in the amounts of imported oil, crude oil, and oil products); changes in economic growth and energy consumption in Asian countries (GDP, primary energy consumption, oil consumption, oil product consumption, etc.); changes in the production of crude oil in Asian countries; changes in the oil-refining capability of Asian countries; and the trend of import of crude oil from oil producing countries outside the Middle East. Import of oil by Asian countries is dependent on the trends of demand for oil, production of crude oil, and refining capability, these within the region, and the trend of oil supplying capability of countries outside the region. Since the latter half of the 1980s, there has been a sharp increase in the import of crude oil (especially from the Middle East) thanks to a steady increase in demand, stagnation of crude oil production, and improvement on refining capability. 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Endo, H. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-09-01

33

An empirical analysis of oil demand in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy issues of developing countries have not received enough attention in the energy economics literature, in both theoretical and empirical terms. This paper concentrates on the oil sectors of eight major oil-consuming, developing countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan and Thailand. Given their approximate 60 percent share of oil consumption in the developing world, these eight countries have been selected to examine their oil demand behaviour and, consequently, to sketch their future oil demand trends up to the turn of the century. (author)

34

Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ? We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ? The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ? The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ? The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ? These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

35

Crude Oil Prices and Stock Markets in Major Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence on Decoupling Feature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates common cyclical features between crude oil market and stock markets in major oil exporting countries including Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait. The results of the paper indicate, at low oil prices (below $40 per oil barrel) Saudi and Abu-Dhabi markets share common cyclical feature with oil market, but they digress from the oil market as oil prices rose above $40 per barrel. The decoupling feature indicate the capital markets and oil market respond in different pattern ...

Onour, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

36

Oil Price Shocks and Stock Market Returns in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

Mohamed El Hédi AROURI

2010-10-01

37

Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

38

Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)

39

Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

NONE

1995-05-01

40

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Economics Department, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6445 (Iran)

2008-03-15

42

Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

2010-09-15

43

Oil market in the 1990s: implications for ESCWA countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, prepared for the ESCWA Expert Group Meeting in Amman, Jordan, 20-23 November 1989, concerns the outlook for oil markets in the coming decade and the implications of certain market trends for the ESCWA countries, including both the energy exporting and energy importing members of ESCWA. It is argued that increasing oil consumption may well bring world oil production close to physical capacity before the end of the 1990s, thereby provoking an increase in real oil prices. It is further argued that the uncertainty surrounding this scenario is asymmetric; it is more likely that real oil prices will rise than that they will remain stable or fall. Other major trends, including enhanced worldwide concern for the environment and the bilateralization of world trade, also will affect ESCWA countries. The authors conclude that member countries should expand petroleum exploration activities, improve the operating efficiency of their national oil companies, bring domestic energy prices into line with world markets, expand natural gas development and marketing efforts, participate in multilateral trade negotiations, and expand co-ordination in all energy matters. (Author)

44

Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes

45

External debt and oil prices: some prospects for oil-exporting developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the extent to which selected oil-exporting developing countries can continue to depend on their major source of hard currency earnings to service their external debt in particular and to promote the process of future economic growth in general. The four countries under consideration are: Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia and Nigeria. Incorporated into the study are alternative sets of assumptions regarding future oil output, export potential, future oil prices, external debt levels and future interest rates. Both the effects of the recently formulated Baker Plan and the collapse of oil prices are examined within this context.

Sohn, I.

1987-10-01

46

Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

Aurelia Mañé

2005-10-01

47

Recent developments in the oil spill response, arrangements in four Mediterranean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the existing national arrangement for intervention in case of oil spills in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain, Libya, Egypt) are analyzed. These plans were considered by AGIP for incorporation in the Contingency Plans for offshore operations conducted by its subsidiaries in these four countries. More recent development for improvement of these arrangements (example Oil sector Plans in Egypt) are taken into account together with the oil spill cases more likely susceptible to produce a further increase of the existing capabilities. In addition to the cases which have been extensively dealt with in the specialized Newsletters and Bulletins (Khark 5, Aragon spills), this paper also deals with the less known spill of December 1989 in the Egyptian waters of Gulf of Suez. The accident involved a Philippine ship and the GUPCO's platform Sidki, representing an emblematic case of the problems of the heavy use of the Gulf of Suez as a water way and oil production area

48

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

49

Quality Improvement of Olive Oils Produced In The Eastern Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize olive oils and to distinguish the production areas according to the specific soil and climate. The goal is to label "local product" olive oils produced in the eastern region of Morocco. The studies focus on oils from three consecutive olives harvest periods. Olive oils, obtained from eastern small olive oil-producers, characteristics were determined using conventional methods analysis, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. This study shows a marked improvement in quality parameters of olive oils produced in this region. There is a difference in the phenol content between oils of different origins; this parameter content can be used as marker to distinguish olive oils according to the production area

Tanouti K

2011-01-01

50

78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...certain oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation...include loans, grants, income tax incentives, and the provision of goods and services for less than adequate...

2013-09-16

51

Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting and importing countries, differently. So that, in oil exporting countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly positive (negative effect on their TOT, while in oil importing countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly a negative (positive effect on TOT. Furthermore, the findings reveal that in the oil exporting countries, the effect of negative oil price shocks on TOT is more than positive oil price shocks. While, in oil importing countries, it is converse.

Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh

2012-01-01

52

The consumers' environmental policies and the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussion is presented of global environmental problems in their most general form to generate a framework of propositions and criteria for the subsequent discussion of solutions to the problems. These are addressed in sections on oil-exporting countries, oil-importing countries, environmental policies in the OECD, and the responses and strategies of oil-exporting countries.

Mabro, R. (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford (UK))

1992-01-01

53

Has the non-oil sector decoupled from oil sector? A case study of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As oil and gas are exhaustible resources, the need for economic diversification has gained momentum in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries immediately after the end of the first oil boom in 1973-74. Economic diversification, in the context of GCC countries, implies development of the non-oil sector and reduction of the proportion of government revenue and export proceeds from the oil and gas sector. Applying newly developed measures of business cycle synchronicity between oil and ...

Basher, Syed Abul

2010-01-01

54

Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

El-Anshasy, Amany A.

55

Challenges to producing LGB-specific Country of Origin information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluations of whether LGB asylum claimants have a well-foundedfear of persecution frequently require Country of Origin Informationbut information on LGB populations in countries where being LGB iscriminalised is often difficult to obtain.

Christian Pangilinan

2013-04-01

56

Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

57

Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

A Tabatabaee, M. Mazaheri Assadi

2005-01-01

58

Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

NONE

2006-07-01

59

The economic development of oil-exporting countries: The case of Iraq  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study is to measure the response of Iraqi development to the influx of oil-export revenues. The study employs several econometric techniques using data from 1960 to 1980. From 1960 to 1980, Iraq achieved remarkable economic growth, a high rate of investment and employment, more equitable income distribution, a favorable balance of trade, and a stabilized economy. The 1972 government takeover of oil industries and the oil price boom of 1973 brought even more unprecedented growth and prosperity to the nation. Despite this remarkable performance however, the economic structure of Iraq remains dominated by the oil-export sector. In other words, Iraq's ability to reduce its dependence on oil revenues has been constructed because home sectors were not yet developed sufficiently to provide outputs and revenues needed by the country. Recommendations include development of policies designed to link the oil export sector with the rest of the economy, to encourage more investment by the private sector, to expand and improve the productivity of the agricultural and industrial sectors, and to develop inter-nation regional cooperatives capable of expanding the market for locally produced goods.

Khalil, M.A.

1988-01-01

60

78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination...certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1,...

2013-12-23

 
 
 
 
61

Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ? Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ? Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ? There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

62

Cost effectiveness of palm oil in comparison to other oils and fats in the country with special emphasis on lower income group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fats and oils in the form of vegetable oils are integral part of diet and comprise of an important source of calorie density and micronutrients in human diet. The per capita edible oil consumption in India (14.5 kg in 2012-2013 has been steadily rising over the decades but is still short of the average worldwide consumption in the developed countries. Especially the below poverty line population lags far behind in terms of per capita edible oil consumption and therefore is a major reason for widespread malnutrition. Inadequate consumption of edible oils, which acts as vehicle (mainly promotes absorption in intestine for important micronutrients like vitamin A, D, E and K, is the root cause behind this.  Palm oil is an important source of carotenoids (pro-vitamin A, tocols (Vitamin E, sterols, essential fatty acid and is cost effective in comparison to other edible oils. Crude palm oil which is orange red in color is refined, bleached and deodorized to produce the universally known bright golden oil. Palm oil is a natural semi-solid oil and on fraction it yields soft fraction and hard fraction. Olein (liquid fraction is mostly used as a cooking and frying oil. Stearin finds many applications in solid fat formulations and is extensively used in food processing.

R P Singh

2014-11-01

63

Peak Oil and the Evolving Strategies of Oil Importing and Exporting Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical trends of oil intensity from individual countries and groups of countries show that an average increase of GDP of 3% per annum equates to a projected demand for liquids of 101 Million barrels per day (Mbpd) by the year 2030. This analysis shows that this demand cannot be fulfilled by production from current reserves and expected new discoveries. Two models to assess peaks in production of oil are considered: the depletion model (DM), and the giant field model (GFM). The DM model shows Peak Oil (the maximum rate of production) date in the year 2011 with 90 Mbpd. Adding GFM we develop a 'Worst Case' scenario of a plateau in production for the next 5 to 7 years at a rate of 84 Mbpd. A more optimistic case in the 'Giant High Case' scenario is a peak in 2012 at 94 Mbpd. A less steep increase demand can move the peak to 2018. Both models show an oil production rate of the order of 50 to 60 Mbpd by 2030. The demand for oil from countries that are importers is forecast to increase from current import levels of 50 Mbpd to 80 Mbpd. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Norway, today's largest oil exporters, will experience a decline in their export volumes of the order of 4 to 6 Mbpd by 2030. The projected shortfall cannot be offset by exports from other regions. In a business-as-usual case, the shortage of fossil fuel liquids for transportation will be substantial by the year 2030. The necessary decisions for the economic transformation required to mitigate this decline in available oil supply should already have been made and efforts to deploy solutions under way. We have climbed high on the 'Oil Ladder' and yet we must descend one way or another. It may be too late for a gentle descent, but there may still be time to build a thick crash mat to cushion the fall (author)

Aleklett, Kjell (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (SE))

2007-12-15

64

Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by small-scale processors cannot be utilized by the larger scale industries in Ghana or abroad because of its poor quality. There is an urgent need to explore the causes and to identify ways to addre...

Osei-amponsah, C.; Visser, L. E.; Adjei-nsiah, S.; Struik, P. C.; Sakyi-dawson, O.; Stomph, T. J.

2012-01-01

65

Institutional Quality, Economic Growth and Fluctuations of Oil Prices in Oil Dependent Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principle aim of this investigation is the study of fluctuations of oil prices impacts on economic growth of oil-dependent countries with respect to institutional quality. For this purpose we use panel cointegration methodology and error-correction model for 32 oil abundant countries covering the period 1975-2010. The result implies that fluctua- tions of oil prices impact on economic growth of countries depend on institutional quality index so that the impact of fluctuation is avoided by countries with sufficiently good institutions. More ever, the long-run ratio of investment to products effect is negative and small that shows the quality of investment projects is more importance than the quantity of them in the economic growth of these countries. The effect of trade openness on economic growth in the long-run is positive, statistically significant, and economically sizable.

Mohsen Mehrara

2012-03-01

66

Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

67

Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in thration technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.)

68

Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges. [With particular reference to Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author).

Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A. (PETRONAS (MY))

1992-01-01

69

Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced. PMID:24002524

Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

2013-01-01

70

Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. The findings imply high vulnerability of oildependent countries to oil revenues volatility. To insulate the economy from oil revenue volatility requires institutional mechanisms de-linking health expenditures decisions from current revenue.

Mohsen Mehrara

2011-10-01

71

Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

72

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 ?g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 ?g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

73

Oil prices and stock markets. What drives what in the Gulf Corporation Council countries?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Konya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values to study the sensitivity of stock markets to oil prices in GCC (Gulf Corporation Council) countries. Using two different (weekly and monthly) datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21 October 2008, and from January 1996 to December 2007, we show strong statistical evidence that the causal relationship is consistently bi-directional for Saudi Arabia. Stock market price changes in the other GCC member countries do not Granger cause oil price changes, whereas oil price shocks Granger cause stock price changes. Therefore, investors in GCC stock markets should look at the changes in oil prices, whereas investors in oil markets should look at changes in the Saudi stock market. (orig.)

Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO, CNRS, UMR 6221

2010-01-15

74

Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign

75

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

76

The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

77

Oil consumption and output: What causes what? Bootstrap panel causality for 49 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the growth, conservation, neutrality and feedback hypotheses for 49 countries during the period from 1970 to 2010 using panel causality analysis: this technique accounts for both dependence and heterogeneity across the countries. The results provide evidence as to the direction of causality between oil consumption and output and are consistent with the neutrality hypothesis for 24 countries, the growth hypothesis for 5 countries, the conservation hypothesis for 13 countries, and the feedback hypothesis for 7 countries. The findings provide important policy implications for the 49 countries under study. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel causality for 49 countries. ? Examines the “growth, conservation, neutrality and feedback” hypotheses for 49 countries during the period from 1970 to 2010.

78

More countries in recession: Oil supply looking for demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation

79

An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, the likelihood of waste, corruption and wars will be reduced, and there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies to enhance equity across generations.

Hossein Askari

2006-12-01

80

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

Mehrara, Mohsen [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-64456 (Iran)

2007-05-15

82

A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

M. Metin Artukoglu

2002-01-01

83

A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

Metin Artukoglu, M.

2002-01-01

84

Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder tessure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not

85

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

Unknown

2003-04-30

86

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana undertakes a review of petroleum taxation in selected countries around the world and seeks to fashion a way for Ghana’s infantile petroleum industry. In other words, the study seeks to facilitate a smooth tax regime and policy for Ghana. The study is based on literature arising from desk research as well as through telephone interviews. Petroleum taxation regimes of the countries under study portend to mitigate the current inconsistencies and resulting contentions from tax payers in Ghana.

Key words: Oil and gas; Petroleum; Crude oil; Hydrocarbon; Upstream petroleum operations; Taxation; Tax legislation; Royalty; Income tax

Emmanuel B. Amponsah

2012-12-01

87

EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

Y?lmaz BAYAR

2014-04-01

88

Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

89

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

90

GCC Countries and the Nexus between Exchange Rate and Oil Price: What wavelet decomposition reveals?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We employ wavelet decomposition and nonlinear causality test to investigate the nexus between the real oil price and the real effective exchange rate in three GCC countries : Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE. We find strong evidence in favor of a feedback hypothesis in Qatar and UAE and of a neutrality hypothesis in Saudi Arabia. The first observation outcome means that Qatar and UAE should reinforce the downward effect of oil price on real exchange rate by improving diversification policy. The se...

Bouoiyour, Jamal; Selmi, Refk

2014-01-01

91

Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ? Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ? Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

92

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

2011-12-01

93

Global standards and local knowledge building: Upgrading small producers in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global pra...

Perez-aleman, Paola

2012-01-01

94

Long-run and short-run demand for oil by developing countries: an empirical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents some evidence against the log-linear specification of the demand-for-oil function, as applied to aggregate data on developing countries. It is shown that the price of oil has a significant effect on demand in the short run but not in the long run. It is also shown that economic activity, as proxied by output or income, is the most important determinant of the demand for oil and that the elasticity of substitution vis-a-vis coal is extremely low

95

The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

Arbod, G

2007-02-15

96

Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

97

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using mi...

Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.

2012-01-01

98

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

99

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

100

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

102

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

103

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Ireland 2011 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Ireland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2011-08-12

104

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

105

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

106

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

107

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

108

Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

NONE

2010-07-01

109

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia...materially injured by reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia...allegedly subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey...f) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR...

2013-08-22

110

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2007-05-01

111

Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

2012-03-31

112

Flower scent of floral oil-producing Lysimachia punctata as attractant for the oil-bee Macropis fulvipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most flowers offer nectar and/or pollen as a reward for pollinators. However, some plants are known to produce mostly fatty oil in the flowers, instead of nectar. This oil is exclusively collected by specialized oil-bees, the pollinators of the oil-plants. Little is known about chemical communication in this pollination system, especially how the bees find their hosts. We collected the floral and vegetative scent emitted by oil-producing Lysimachia punctata by dynamic headspace, and identified the compounds by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-six compounds were detected in the scent samples, several of which were flower-specific. Pentane extracts of flowers and floral oil were tested on Macropis fulvipes in a biotest. Flower and oil extracts attracted the bees, and some of the compounds identified are seldom found in the floral scent of other plants; these may have been responsible for the attraction of the bees. PMID:17151908

Dötterl, Stefan; Schäffler, Irmgard

2007-02-01

113

The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains. Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity and costs associated with the certification. Small honey producers associations were not able to fulfil some of the FLOCERT criteria. The criterion relating to the preservation of the environment is only partially met by the associations studied.

Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.

114

Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets: the case of GCC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes.

115

Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets. The case of GCC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes. (author)

116

New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs

117

Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

118

Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles. (author)

Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2008-05-15

119

The impact of oil prices on GDP in European countries: An empirical investigation based on asymmetric cointegration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the existence of a long-term relationship between oil prices and GDP in 12 European countries. To account for the fact that economic activity responds asymmetrically to oil price shocks, we propose an approach based on asymmetric cointegration. Our results show that, while standard cointegration is rejected, there is evidence for asymmetric cointegration between oil prices and GDP in the majority of the considered European countries

120

Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil consumption is related to higher IHD mortality rates in developing countries. Palm oil consumption represents a saturated fat source relevant for policies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease burdens.

Chen Brian K

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip  

Science.gov (United States)

Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

2009-03-01

122

Oil and gas situation in Gulf countries, Middle East. 3; Chuto wangan shokoku no sekiyu gas jijo. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas situation in some United Arab Emirates (UAE) member countries and in Qatar is reported. The report involves the political and economic trends, oil exploitation and production, oil consumption, oil refining, oil export, natural gas exploitation, natural gas export, and natural gas production and consumption. In each member country of the UAE, in principle, the emir is privileged to grant the oil related right to the party who negotiates with the emir directly. In Abu Dhabi, where more than 90% of all the oil reserve in the UAE is in existence, decisions relative to oil are totally subject to Supreme Petroleum Council (with the Crown Prince acting as chairman), and ADNOC (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company) is under the management of the council. In Qatar, QGPC (Qatar General Petroleum Corporation) executes various jobs in and out of the country related to the oil and gas industries, such as exploration, exploitation, production, refining, shipment, and selling. The oil and gas related policies followed by UAE countries (Abu Dhabi and Dubai) and by Qatar are also described. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Tanimoto, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-09-01

123

World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

2014-07-01

124

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24

125

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01

126

Short- and long-term effects of accidental oil pollution in waters of the Nordic countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the present report is to support Nordic Countries with environmental impact assessments of accidental oil spills in Nordic areas, in the work to control and reduce the cause of these effects. The Nordic Seas have specific habitats with specialised key-species which have different sensitivities to oil spills. This report studies the short- and long-term effects of accidental oil spills in these habitats. Birds and questionably marine mammals are under greatest threat from both short- and long-term effects. The plankton community will also be affected, but is quickly re-established. The impact on pelagic fish is negligible in short term but not in a long time perspective, and benthic fauna will be practically unaffected by short-term effects. They can however in a long-term suffer significantly from settled oil slicks. In the foreseeable future the number of minor oil spills is likely to increase, as will the risk for major accidents. Thus there is a strong need for mapping and identifying important and sensitive species and habitat. With senistivity atlases for the Nordic seas and coastal areas precautious measures can be implemented to reduce the magnitude of the short- and long term impact from an oil spill. (au)

2008-07-01

127

Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

128

Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

129

Global standards and local knowledge building: upgrading small producers in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global practices, indigenous private and public actors create local institutions to develop capabilities for product and process innovations that contribute to economic development and enhance food security. Local innovation depends on collective strategic efforts through increasing networks among small producers and other organizations, including firms, nongovernmental organizations, and government, that foster knowledge circulation and bring diverse resources and support to build local capabilities. PMID:21670309

Perez-Aleman, Paola

2012-07-31

130

Preliminary Characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils produced in eastern area of Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional olive oil production is limited by its high cost, mainly due to labour expenses for harvesting and pruning. New olive cultivars (e.g. Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki) with greater adaptability to modern irrigated high-density orchards and producing good quality olive oils are highly demanded by an olive oil industry in continuous change The aim of this study is the characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils from three cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki) recentl...

Mansouri, F.; Ben Moumen, A.; Lopez, G.; Fauconnier, Marie-laure; Sindic, Marianne; Serghini-caid, H.; Elamrani, A.

2013-01-01

131

Global climate change and the role of the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article places emphasis on the role of oil in the energy-environment debate. The attitude of OPEC to the greenhouse effect is outlined. Sound economic justification should be sought before any major environmental step is taken. For many years OPEC has sought to encourage an equitable global energy policy, increased energy conservation and the rational development of other energy sources. Any environmental policy which is adopted must accommodate the interests of both developed and developing countries.

Salmon, R. (OPEC, Vienna (Austria))

1992-03-01

132

Opening address: EC/OAPEC/OPEC seminar on the medium- and long-term outlook- energy balances in oil-importing and oil-exporting countries, Luxembourg, 17-19 March 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAPEC's efforts to promote cooperation with industrialized countries data from its organization two decades ago and its statement that the legitimate interest of consumer countries to obtain petroleum supplies for their markets on equitable terms should receive due consideration. This was followed by participation and sponsorship of international meetings and efforts to widen the scope of contacts and consuming nations. Recent events demonstrate the need for discipline and coordination in the oil market and cooperative efforts to stabilize prices. The discrepancy between income levels of the OAPEC and developed countries underscores the importance of stable oil revenues to the producers. A framework of interdependence between producers and consumers will be in the best interest of all.

Attiga, A.A.

1987-04-01

133

Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent. Integrated treatment system is vital for treating palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent.

A.Y. Zahrim

2014-01-01

134

The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

135

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

136

Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlinedlined

137

19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Example 1. A raw, perishable skin of an animal grown in one beneficiary country is...2. A raw, perishable skin of an animal grown in a non-beneficiary...3. A raw, perishable skin of an animal grown in a...

2010-04-01

138

19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

...country in the production or manufacture of an article imported into...if the direct costs attributable...intermediate article in the production or manufacture...or different article imported into the U.S., the cost or value...

2010-04-01

139

Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery. PMID:20652442

She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

2011-01-01

140

Oil demand in developing countries showing sharp increase. Ichijirushii zoka wo miseru hatten tojokoku no sekiyu joyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the oil demand in developing countries showing a sharp increase. The paper classifies developing countries into five groups with reference to the annual average increase rate by countries of oil demand during a period from 1985 to 1990, and summarizes features of each group, excluding the countries consuming less than 100,000 b/d of oil. Korea, Thailand and Singapore whose economy has generally expanded sharply showed more than 9% increase in the oil demand. The group with an increase rate of more than 6% and less than 9% lists nine nations including four nations in the Asian NIEs and ASEAN with high economic growth rates. In the non-OECD developing countries, the average countries are those with an increase rate of more than 3% and less than 6%. Countries included in the group with 0% to 3% increase rate have their economies generally stagnant. The only country showing an increase rate of less than 0% is Algeria. The paper also mentions future prospects on oil demand in developing countries. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Tsusaka, M. (The Economic Research Institute of The Middle East, Tokyo (Japan))

1993-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

Unknown

2002-05-31

142

Energy efficiency developments in IEA countries 30 years after the oil crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents findings from a study that examines how energy efficiency and factors such as economic structure, income, lifestyle, climate, prices and fuel mix have shaped developments in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries since the first oil price shock in 1973. The results show that IEA countries have made significantly progress in energy efficiency since 1973. However an alarming finding is that energy savings rates across all sectors and in almost all countries have slowed since the late 1980s. This indicates that the oil price shocks in the 1970s and the resulting energy policies did considerably more to control growth in energy demand and CO2 emissions than energy efficiency and climate policies implemented in the 1990s. Energy price developments offer some explanation of these long-term trends. The lower prices that followed the high price period of 1973-1986, combined with the fact that energy intensities were already significantly reduced resulted in considerably lower energy expenditures for both industry and private consumers from the mid 1980s. The energy share of total production cost in some industries fell by as much as 50% from the early 1980s until the late 1990s. Similarly, the share of energy costs for stationary uses in IEA household budgets fell by 20-50% over the same period, while the fuel cost per kilometre driven by private cars fell between 20% and 60%, depending on the country. The slowing rate of energ on the country. The slowing rate of energy efficiency improvements is the primary reason for the weaker decoupling of CO2 emissions from GDP growth since 1990. Failing to accelerate improvement of energy efficiency would thus have serious implications for many countries prospects of controlling growth in future emissions

143

Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other pu...

Sanjay Gandhi Bojan; Senthil Kumaran; Sam Chelladurai

2011-01-01

144

A versatile approach to produce superhydrophobic materials used for oil-water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing functional materials that can be used for oil-water separation in an efficient and cost-effective process is highly desired yet still challenging. Herein, three functional materials used for oil-water separation are readily produced by a dip coating process. Three typical porous materials including copper mesh, fabric, and sponge were dipped into the solution of polyfluorowax-hydrophobic SiO2 to alter their surface texture and chemistry, allowing them to exhibit superhydrophobic property. It was found that the resulting superhydrophobic copper mesh and fabric can be used as a membrane to separate oil-water mixture efficiency; while the obtained superhydrophobic sponge was demonstrated as an oil sorbent scaffold to absorb oil from the oil-water mixture selectively. More importantly, these superhydrophobic materials can retain their oil-water separation efficiency even after 10 cycles of oil-water separation. PMID:25086383

Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xue, Qunji

2014-10-15

145

Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

2008-07-01

146

Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

l to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

147

An Empirical investigation of the effects of major exogenous shocks on the growth of non-oil and oil-exporting developing countries from 1965 to 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the period of 1965-1985, non-oil developing countries (NODCs) and oil-exporting developing countries (OXDCs) faced numerous shocks which had a significant effect on their economic growth. This research deals with an empirical investigation using time-series analysis to study the effects of export earnings, export and import prices, and international interest rates on the economic growth of non-oil and oil-exporting developing countries. The model is a conventional specification type based on the functional relationship between economic growth and external factors plus capital and labor inputs. The model was tested for twenty-five non-oil and nine oil-exporting developing countries. The results point to exports as being the most-important factors in NODCs' and OXDCs' economic growth. The findings indicate that as NODCs' export earnings increase, growth expands. The empirical results for oil-exporting developing countries indicate that exports are the most important factor in their economic growth, and that the growth of export earnings will expand OXDCs' economic growth.

Rahimbrougerdi, A.

1988-01-01

148

The relevance of asymmetry issues for residential oil and natural gas demand: evidence from selected OECD countries, 1970-95  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In times of low oil prices, oil demand in OECD countries has not rebounded as textbook economic theory would suggest. On the other hand, natural gas demand has increased, despite prices being at almost the same level as in 1985. In this paper, the impact of volatile prices on oil demand is investigated. Different econometric approaches are applied. The major conclusions of these investigations are: (i) with respect to the the choice of fuels, strong patterns of asymmetry exist; (ii) the maximum historical oil price is the dominating parameter on residual oil demand; and (iii) volatile prices have a greater influence on energy demand than high but rather constant prices

149

Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other purposes. The properties like kinematic viscosity, acid number, specific gravity, Cetane number, etc of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standard but the yield quantity was comparatively low (80.50% because of the high free fatty acid content in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The overall efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke diesel engine coupled with a electric generator was high (24.38% at maximum load conditions compare to raw Jatropha Curcas oil and petro diesel as fuels which gives only 19.6% and 20.11%, respectively shows the possibilities of using biodiesel produced as a fuel in diesel engine.

Sanjay Gandhi Bojan

2011-08-01

150

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

151

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

152

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

Yousefi, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Wirjanto, T.S. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics

2003-11-01

153

Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia.

Yousefi, Ayoub [Department of Economics, Business and Mathematics, King' s College, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 2M3 (Canada); Wirjanto, Tony S. [Department of Economics, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada) N2L 3G1

2003-11-01

154

PC pump innovator : Oil Lift's products now in about 20 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pump reliability is particularly important internationally because maintenance is often less available and more costly. This article discussed the international expansion of Oil Lift, a company which has products in approximately 20 countries. When Oil Lift was started, opportunities still existed on the surface equipment side of PC pumps that had not been addressed. Stuffing boxes were prone to regular crude leakage, which generated cleanup bills and production shut-downs while they were fixed. In addition, PC pump drives were belt-driven, creating additional problems because stuffing boxes were located below the drives, making them awkward to service. The article discussed how Oil Lift designed gear drives mounted below the stuffing box, thereby reducing failures from approximately every 2 months on average to every 2 years without maintenance. It was concluded that Oil Lift carefully considers whether it should operate directly in a region or select a locally-based distributor. A foreign distributor is usually the preferred approach for the company, since creating an overseas office is expensive. A foreign distributor can offer established relations with customers and should understand the local business culture. 1 fig.

Byfield, M.

2009-11-15

155

Phytochemical analysis of the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. from various European Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the essential oil composition of Achillea millefolium L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries, were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.9-9.5 mL kg-1. A total of 102 components were identified. The quantitatively most important components of yarrow were sabinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, linalool, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, camphor, borneol, fenchyl acetate, bornyl acetate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, caryophyllene oxide, beta-bisabolol, delta-cadinol, chamazulene etc. Samples from Estonia contained high amounts of monoterpenes and chamazulene. High amounts of monoterpenes and chamazulene were also found in samples from Hungary, Greek, Moldavia, Latvia, Lithuania and Germany. The oils from France, Belgium, Russia, Armenia, Spain and Italy were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes and contained a little amount of chamazulene. The drugs from Greece, Estonia, Moldavia and Scotland were rich in sesquiterpenes. The Millefolii herba grown in Estonia conforms to the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) standards in the aspect of the essential oil contents. PMID:17127661

Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain

2006-10-01

156

Epidemiology of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These ?-lactamases hydrolyse almost all ?-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination. PMID:24955354

Djahmi, Nassima; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Pantel, Alix; Dekhil, Mazouz; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

157

Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area  

Science.gov (United States)

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Štšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

2014-01-01

158

Comparison of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oils produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea is reported to possess a higher 1,8-cineole content than other Eucalyptus species. Variations in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of E. cinerea oil produced by hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques and a comparison between glycoside-bound and free volatile constituents produced by HD have been studied. It was found that HD produced higher oil (free volatiles) content (3.1%) as compared with SCE (1.1%), whereas bound volatiles constituted only about 0.4%. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the oil samples revealed significant difference in their chemical composition. The essential oil (free volatiles) produced by HD contained 1,8-cineole (85.1%) as the major constituent, followed by a-terpineol (7.2%) and limonene (4.4%). In the bound volatile fraction produced by HD, 1,8 cineole (20.6%), alpha-terpineol (7.6%), p-cymene (6.3%), and limonene (4.5%) were found as major constituents. The extract produced by SCE was dominated by 1,8-cineole (70.4%), a-terpineol (8.6%), globulol (3.1%), aromadendrene (2%), citronellal (1.7%), viridiflorol (1.3%), phytol (1.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1%). Although HD produced higher oil yields, SCE produced better extract in terms of the number of components detected. PMID:21366057

Mann, Tavleen S; Kiran Babu, Garikapati D; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

2011-01-01

159

Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

160

Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

2004-09-30

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

Wynn, L. K.

1985-01-01

162

Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa F-2, was used to recover oil from refinery oily sludge in laboratory and pilot-scale experiments. The optimum values of carbon to nitrogen ratio, temperature, sludge-water ratio and inoculum size for oil recovery were determined as 10, 35 °C, 1:4 and 4%, respectively. An oil recovery of up to 91.5% was obtained with the equipping of draft tubes during the field pilot-scale studies. The results showed that strain F-2 has the potential for industrial applications and may be used in oil recovery from oily sludge. PMID:22609650

Yan, Ping; Lu, Mang; Yang, Qin; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Chen, Rong

2012-07-01

163

Use of Rapeseed Straight Vegetable Oil as Fuel Produced in Small-Scale Exploitations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry ...

Baquero Armans, Grau; Esteban Dalmau, Bernat; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-roger; Puig Vidal, Rita; Rius Carrasco, Antoni

2011-01-01

164

Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production. PMID:21353534

Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

2011-04-01

165

THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point characterizes natural resources, especially of oil and mining of precious metals. Therefore, we can say that the power exerted on natural resources determines the ranking of countries of the world economic power and living standards of the population. Use of natural resources as an effective weapon in the economic consolidation became state policy and the expansion of exploration and exploitation in foreign lands required the development of complex regulations. Therefore, this study aims at presenting an analytic perspective of foreign law - specific states with relevant impact on the exploitation of natural resources - and the presentation of some features of international law.

C?t?lina Georgeta DINU

2014-05-01

166

Econometric study of an oil-exporting country: the case of Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this study is to contribute toward an analytical and empirical work on the oil-based developing economy of Iran. It focuses on the aggregate behavior of the Iranian economy through a simple linear econometric model. After a survey of the literature on the theoretical framework of macroeconomic models for the developing countries in general, and for the oil-exporting developing countries in particular, a linear econometric model for the Iranian economy if formulated and its logical and economic aspects are explained. The proposed model consists of basic consumption, production, foreign trade, and employment relationship. Results obtained from the estimation of the consumption functions seem to indicate that the aggregate Iranian consumption behavior can be best explained by Fiedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that the links between different sectors of the Iranian economy are very weak and the import-substitution strategy of the government during the period of study failed to establish a genuine domestic industrial base and to reduce its dependence on foreign resources.

Heiat, A.

1987-01-01

167

Producing clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of our investigation was the production of partially bio-derived fuels in the gas oil boiling point range. Our aim was the production of diesel fuel blending components by co-hydrogenation of mixtures of high-sulphur gas oil (about 1.0%) and vegetable oil raw materials with different vegetable oil contents (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100%). The experiments were carried out on a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with a targeted composition (T = 300-380 C, P = 60-80 bar, LHSV = 1.0/h and H{sub 2}/HC = 600 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}). We obtained that both the vegetable oil conversion reactions and the gas oil quality improvement reactions took place. Under the favourable operational conditions (360-380 C, P = 80 bar, LHSV = 1.0/h and H{sub 2}/HC = 600 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and up to 15% vegetable oil content of the feed), the main properties of the high-yield (>90%) products except for the Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP) value satisfied the requirements of the standard of diesel fuels (EN 590:2009). The amount of vegetable oil higher than 15% reduced the desulphurization efficiency, because of the intake of large quantities of oxygen with the triglyceride molecules of the vegetable oil. The products - depending on the vegetable oil content of the feedstocks - have an increased n- and i-paraffin content, so their combustion properties are very favourable, and the emission of particles is lower. (orig.)

Toth, Csaba; Baladincz, Peter; Kovacs, Sandor; Hancsok, Jeno [University of Pannonia, Department of MOL Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing, Veszprem (Hungary)

2011-08-15

168

Optical detection of gas in producing oil wells  

Science.gov (United States)

A new production logging device has been field tested that uses innovative sensing technology to enable the direct detection and quantification of gas in multiphase flows. Four optical probes, deployed 90 degrees apart on the arms of a centralizer-like tool, measure the optical reflectance of the surrounding fluid. The probes are evenly spaced in the pipe cross section, and their orientation in space is accurately known through use of an integrated relative- bearing sensor. In gas-liquid mixtures, the optical signal reflected by the probe is used to determine gas holdup and a gas bubble count, which is related to gas flow rate. In addition, the individual sensor measurements are used to build an image of the gas flow in the well. These images are particularly useful in deviated and horizontal wells for better understanding the multiphase flow patterns and interpreting their inherent phase segregation occurring at such deviations. The new tool has been successfully field tested in wells throughout the world and the tool's capabilities are illustrated by example form both field and laboratory data sets. The new tool has been designed to detect the presence of gas, and hence its major application is to identify gas entries in oil/water wells or water/oil/condensate in gas wells. Because of its high sensitivity to minute amounts of gas, the tool can also be used to locate the bubble point when logging in the tubing. The introduction of optical sensing technology in this new tool represents an innovation in production logging. The provided data enable the direct detection and quantification of gas or liquid in multiphase mixtures, allowing the precise diagnosis of well problems and helping design of production enhancement interventions.

Cens, Fabien; Theron, Bernard; Vuhoang, D.; Faur, Marian; Rezgui, Fadhel; McKeon, D.

2000-12-01

169

21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. 172.225...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172...of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters...of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be...

2010-04-01

170

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...reporting for oil and gas producing activities...Federal securities laws and the Energy Policy...reporting for oil and gas producing activities...Federal securities laws and the Energy Policy...engaged in oil and gas producing activities...Federal securities laws and for the...

2010-04-01

171

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and reporting for oil and gas producing...Commission engaged in oil and gas producing...in part, in the production of crude oil or natural gas...producing operations of companies regulated for ratemaking...individual-company-cost-of-service basis may,...

2010-04-01

172

Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries; La rente petroliere et le developpement economique des pays exportateurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

Aoun, M.C. [Paris Dauphine Univ., 75 (France)

2008-09-15

173

Composition of oils produced during an echoing, in-situ combustion of a Utah tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Laramie Energy Technology Center (DOE) has completed its second in-situ combustion experiment (TS-2C), which was carried out in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit near Vernal, Utah. During the experiment (183 days) 92 m/sup 3/ (580 barrels) of oil was produced, 25% of the original oil in place. The in-situ process utilized is best described as a series of reverse- and forwardcombustion phases or echoes traversing the 405 m/sup 2/ (0.1 acre) pattern. Several of the chemical and physical properties of the oil produced are significantly altered with respect to the original bitumen. These include pour point, specific gravity, average molecular weight, wax and nickel content, and the percentage of residue boiling at greater than or equal to538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). These and other changes effected on the bitumen durin this experiment result in a product oil that closely resembles a heavy fuel oil.

Thomas, K.P.; Barbour, R.V.; Branthaver, J.F.; Dorrence, S.M.

1983-04-01

174

Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. PMID:24753476

Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonçalves, Maria L A; Caramão, Elina B; dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

2014-06-01

175

WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muço, 1984; Osmani, 1993, considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in using Albanian olive oils, because of the absence of quality norms. In this frame one of the possible solutions will be the promotion of the olive oil as a territory product.(PDO, PGI

Etleva Muca(Dashi

2012-10-01

176

Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

Kalmoor, M.A.

1988-01-01

177

Energy and the economy in oil-exporting countries: general-equilibrium analysis and application to Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key energy-policy dilemma faced by many oil-exporting countries concerns how to allocate energy resources between exports and domestic use. Standard economic analysis recommends border energy pricing as the optimal solution, given no distortions elsewhere. However, distortions in oil-exporting countries, such as monopoly power in export markets, oil quotas, import tariffs, capacity constraints in domestic energy supply, and import restrictions, have direct consequences on the efficient pricing and use of energy resources. We develop an economy-wide optimization model of an oil-exporting country focusing on optimal resource allocation, which is used to calculate the optimal energy prices in the presence of several distortions. The model is used to estimate the optimal prices for oil products, natural gas, and electricity in Venezuela, and to evaluate the impacts of energy price adjustments on energy consumption and the overall economy. It was found that subsidies in the domestic energy market have been extremely large and that a substantial reduction, but not elimination, of the subsidies would bring large benefits to the economy. The approach offers a general methodology for energy pricing policy analysis in oil-exporting countries that can be used in practical applications.

Smith-Perera, R.E.

1987-01-01

178

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

2001-06-15

179

Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author)

180

Isolation and characterization of saturates from tar sand bitumens and thermally produced oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A desorptive Soxhlet extraction technique and a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure were used to isolate saturates from tar sand bitumens and produced oils. The oils had been thermally recovered by combustion and hot-gas injection from samples of the Asphalt Ridge and the Tar Sand Triangle deposits in Utah. The distributions of the saturates in the produced oils and in the tar sand bitumens have been identified, and the effects of thermal processing conditions on bitumen composition have been evaluated. Oil recovered by reverse combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand contained a lesser amount of saturates compared with the amount in the bitumen; oil recovered by forward combustion of Tar Sand Triangle tar sand contained a greater amount of saturates compared with the amount in the bitumen. The hot-gas injection process at temperatures greater than 493/sup 0/C recovered more oil high in saturate content than either combustion process. Results from field ionization mass spectrometric analysis indicated larger amounts of saturates with a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of less than 400 were present in the product oil from forward combustion than were present in the bitumen from the Tar Sand Triangle. The saturates in the oil from forward combustion were comprised mostly of acyclic alkanes, and mono- and dicycloalkanes. The saturates in the product oil from reverse combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand were comprised of nearly equal amounts of acyclic alkanes, and mono-, di-, and tricycloalkanes. Greater amounts of material with an m/z from about 200 to 500 were present in oils recovered by hot-gas injection than in the bitumens. The product oil yields were due, in part, to low- or high-temperature oxidation reactions. The extent of thermal cracking of the tar sand bitumens was found to be a function of the pyrolysis temperature, and the distribution of saturates reflected the severity of thermal cracking. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Holmes, S.A.

1986-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were studied separately at different values that including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The optimum operating conditions to be adopted for producing high quality automatic transmission fluid base oil were reactor temperature 290 oC, pressure 130kg cm?2, liquid hourly space velocity 0.4 h?1 and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio 800 Nm3 M?3. The effect of changing hydrofinishing temperature and liquid hourly space velocity on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN reactions as well as their thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Calculations of activation energy (Ea and free energy of activation (?G indicated that HDS was easier to occur than HDN and these reactions are more faster at higher temperatures. The effect of commercial and formulated additives on the quality of the hydrofinished oil was also studied. Automatic transmission fluid possessing the Dexron IID specification was produced by adding 7 wt% from Infenium T442 additive or by adding 9 wt% from Lubrizol ® 6701 D additive to the hydrofinished light dewaxed oil. Oils with the same efficiency were also produced using a formulated additive containing 4% viscosity index improver, 1.5% anti-oxidant and 1% anti-wear. The effect of increasing Infenium T442, Lubrizol R 6701 D and formulated additive percents on the protection efficiency of the automatic transmission fluid was studied through AC impedance technique. According to this technique, the effect of these additives on the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons can be negligible.

Gamal A.N Gohar

2006-01-01

182

Demulsifier for produced oil-in-water emulsions containing spent mud acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable oil-in-water emulsions in produced fluids from wells undergoing acidization treatments are demulsified by treatment of the produced fluids with a long chain carboxylic acid ester of a polyhydric alcohol such as sorbitan monolaurate, surbitan monopalmitate or sorbitan monooleate as a demulsification agent.

Royle, R.A.

1983-09-06

183

Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

2000-01-12

184

Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de Chromobacterium mientras que los más polares se obtienen usando las preparaciones de lipasa de hongo «Lilipase A-10». La polaridad del producto está también influenciada por la temperatura del proceso aunque la forma de su efecto es distinta para las diferentes lipasas.

Zaher, F. A.

1998-12-01

185

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30

186

Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

Tadjuddin, A.

1989-01-01

187

78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Mexico. The Central American Regional Security Initiative...cooperation through the Central American Integrated System (SICA...Multilateral cooperation to stem the smuggling of essential...help provide Central American countries with the development...Africa Although no West African country is...

2013-09-25

188

Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

Lei, Guowen

2012-01-01

189

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

Tanasri Sihabut

2010-03-01

190

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be inv...

Tanasri Sihabut; Nikhom Laemsak

2010-01-01

191

Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers [...] for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP) and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

Izabel Cristina da Silva, Grem; Bianca Natividade Barreto, Lima; Wiliam Ferreira, Carneiro; Yure Gomes de Carvalho, Queirós; Claudia Regina Elias, Mansur.

192

POTENTIAL OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR PROTECTION OF GRAINS CONTAMINATED BY AFLATOXIN PRODUCED BY Aspergillus flavus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A?atoxin B1 (AFB1 is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano on the mycelial growth and a?atoxin B1 production by Aspergillus ?avus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. ?avus containing 1.3×105 spores/ mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

EdlayneGonçalez

2014-06-01

193

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

2014-01-01

194

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H.; Goncalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

2014-01-01

195

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

196

Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os óleos florais como recompensa a polinizadores estão presentes em onze famílias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na história evolutiva das plantas floríferas. Estes são produzidos em glândulas tricomáticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de óleo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas espé [...] cies produtoras de óleo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espécies nos gêneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que não produz óleo floral. Nós apresentamos uma revisão de todas as espécies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuição geográfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de óleo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de óleo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinização bem-sucedida, sendo a interação entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptação abelha/planta na Região Neotropical. Algumas espécies dependem somente do óleo coletado em espécies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras também podem coletar em várias fontes de óleos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glândulas de óleo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que são em sua maioria espécies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaçados biomas de vegetação aberta da América do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

2013-12-01

197

Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os óleos florais como recompensa a polinizadores estão presentes em onze famílias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na história evolutiva das plantas floríferas. Estes são produzidos em glândulas tricomáticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de óleo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas espé [...] cies produtoras de óleo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espécies nos gêneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que não produz óleo floral. Nós apresentamos uma revisão de todas as espécies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuição geográfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de óleo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de óleo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinização bem-sucedida, sendo a interação entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptação abelha/planta na Região Neotropical. Algumas espécies dependem somente do óleo coletado em espécies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras também podem coletar em várias fontes de óleos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glândulas de óleo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que são em sua maioria espécies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaçados biomas de vegetação aberta da América do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

198

A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

2011-07-01

199

Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi  

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Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

200

Identification of estrogen-like alkylphenols in produced water from offshore oil installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Produced water released into the sea from oil installations contains a vast number of organic compounds. This work focuses on the analysis and identification of phenols in produced water, in particular long-chain para-substituted alkylphenols, which act as endocrine disruptors for marine biota. Some alkylphenol standards, unavailable commercially, have been synthesised and some compounds of interest identified. However, a complete identification is not possible since conventional GC techniques cannot achieve the desired degree of separation. An overview of the levels of the 52 known alkylphenols in produced water from nine oil installations in the North and Norwegian Seas has been made. The previously unidentified alkylphenols in produced water have been characterised by means of alkylphenol retention indices (APRI) and mass spectrometry, and their total amounts estimated for the same nine locations. Our results confirm the presence of naphthols and other as yet unidentified compounds in produced water, while thiophenols were not detected by the used technique. PMID:17714776

Boitsov, Stepan; Mjøs, Svein A; Meier, Sonnich

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Science.gov (United States)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27

202

Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

Oluduro, Olubayo

2012-12-01

203

Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

2013-01-01

204

Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

205

Nitrogen functional groups in Utah tar sand bitumen and produced oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of nitrogen functional groups in solvent-extracted bitumen and produced oils form the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit have been completed. Although the chemical and physical properties of produced oils (from a reverse/forward combustion project and a steamflood project) were different, the distributions of nitrogen functional groups in these oils were similar. From 54 to 62% of the nitrogen content was non-basic and very weakly basic, comprised mostly of amide and indole-type nitrogen. From 30 to 35% was weakly basic, comprised mostly of pyridine-type nitrogen. Significant differences were found in the hydrogen- and carbon-type distributions in these oils. It is suggested that the nitrogen compounds in these oils differ primarily in the amounts of aromatic/aliphatic hydrogen and carbon rather than in the distribution of nitrogen functionalities. In-situ production methods used to recover oil may predominantly effect the non-nitrogen moieties. 12 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Holmes, S.A. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (USA))

1986-03-01

206

Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

207

Potential end uses of oil produced by wet forward combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report an evaluation is made of the potential end uses of an oil produced from Asphalt Ridge tar sand by wet forward combustion. The oil is evaluated with respect to its potential to produce a specification-grade asphalt and an aviation turbine fuel. To accomplish this the oil was vacuum distilled to produce a distillate and a residue. The distillation residue meets all of the ASTM D-3381 Table 1 specification tests for an AC-10 asphalt. However, the 135/sup 0/C (275/sup 0/F) viscosity is low when compared with the more stringent ASTM D-3381 Table 2 requirements. The residue also has an unusually low aging index. This indicates not only that it may not set properly, but also it may be resistant to rapid age hardening. The results from successive freeze-thaw cycling indicate that the residue, when coated on appropriate aggregates, is comparable to or better than some petroleum asphalts coated on the same aggregates. Freeze-thaw cycling to failure is an indirect measure of the resistance of an asphalt-aggregate mixture to moisture-induced loss of strength. The distillate of the thermally produced oil represents about 50 wt % of the oil. The chemical and physical properties of the distillate are better than those of the original bitumen and the thermally produced oil. Combined gas chromatographic/mass spectral analysis of the neutral fraction from the distillate indicates it is composed of predominantly aromatic structures. The aromatic structures are primarily of the 2- and 3-ring type and the saturate structures are primarily of the 3-ring type. It is believed that upon hydrogenation this distillate could be a source of high-density or endothermic aviation turbine fuels.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1987-09-01

208

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products. PMID:25104002

Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

2014-10-01

209

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale

210

Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} to KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre-treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale. (author)

Haddadin, Malik S.Y.; Abou Arqoub, Ansam A.; Abu Reesh, Ibrahim [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Jordan University, Queen Rania Street, Amman, 11942 (Jordan); Haddadin, Jamal [Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P.O. Box 59, Mutah 61710 (Jordan)

2009-04-15

211

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21

212

The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By using a standard econometric approach, we find that the effects of different deregulation policies are substantial. We also analyse the impact of a policy based on autonomous energy-efficiency improvement. Finally, a combination of both policies is elaborated and quantified. Our results show that a policy geared at more rational use of energy would permit these countries to save enough oil to meet future increases in demand while maintaining stable production capacity. Furthermore, such an energy policy could result in additional oil revenues which would enhance their economic development. (author)

Birol, F.; Aleagha, A.V.; Ferroukhi, R. [OPEC Secretariat, Vienna (Austria). Research Div.

1995-03-01

213

Investigation of waxes isolated from heavy oils produced from Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sands. [Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late 1970's, the Laramie Energy Technology Center operated two in-situ combustion projects in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit of Utah. Some of the heavy oils produced were observed to have high pour points, which resulted in handling problems in cold weather. These heavy oils contain waxes, which were found to be n-alkane homologues ranging past carbon number 60. These alkanes seem to have been derived from what are probably Ozokerite veins, which are found in the tar sand deposit. Samples from these veins and waxes derived from produced heavy oils were studied using /sup 13/C NMR, IR, and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

Branthaver, J.F.; Thomas, K.P.; Dorrence, S.M.; Heppner, R.A.; Ryan, M.J.

1983-01-01

214

An investigation of waxes isolated from heavy oils produced from northwest asphalt ridge tar sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late 1970's, the Laramie Energy Technology Center operated two in-situ combustion projects in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit of Utah. Some of the heavy oils produced were observed to have high pour points, which resulted in handling problems in cold weather. These heavy oils contain waxes, which were found to be n-alkane homologues ranging past carbon number 60. These alkanes seem to have been derived from what are probably Ozokerite veins, which are found in the tar sand deposit. Samples from these veins and waxes derived from produced heavy oils were studied using /sup 13/C NMR, IR, and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

Branthaver, J.F.; Dorrence, S.M.; Heppner, R.A.; Ryan, M.J.; Thomas, K.P.

1983-01-01

215

The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks.

Rodriguez, A.E.

1991-01-01

216

The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

217

Attribute analysis and quality assessment of extra virgin olive oil produced in Sitia, Crete, Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, extra virgin olive oil produced in the mountainous organic semi- intensive production systems of Krya (Sitia, Crete, Greece) was under investigation in different stages of production. The region is characterized by high altitude, sloping and difficulty to access systems that are considered as high risk of abandonment but its sustainability has extreme survival importance for the local population that consists of producers and suppliers that strive daily to improv...

Kalarchakis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

218

Method for producing oils and fats with a high antioxidant content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The invention relates to a novel method for producing oils and fats with a high anti-oxidant content, as a result of the action of compounds of a phenolic nature, and more concretely, as a result of hydroxytyrosol and fatty esters of hydroxytyrosyl.

Cert, Arturo; Romero, A.; Mateos, Raquel; Alcudia-gonza?lez, Felipe; Espartero, Jose? L.; Trujillo Pe?rez-lanzac, Mariana

2010-01-01

219

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29

220

The Causal Relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index: Empirical Evidence from Selected European Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index for the five selected European countries, using seasonally adjusted monthly data from August 1995 to December 2007. Toda and Yamamoto causality test (1995 are employed to investigate causality. The results indicate that there is a unidirectional causality between producer price index and consumer price index, running from producer price index to consumer price index in Finland and France and bidirectional causality between two indices in Germany. In the case of the Netherlands and Sweden, no significant causality is detected.

Selcuk AKCAY

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Economic growth, openness and foreign direct investment in oil-rich countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of trade openness and foreign direct investment on economic growth through the transfer of technology have been examined. To investigate this issue, we use a sample of 19 oil-rich countries over the time period 1991-2006.We estimate two models to investigate this issue. At first, we estimate a model including TO (the ratio of import plus export to GDP as trade openness, the ratio of FDI to GDP and some other variables as independent variables. The result of this model implies that FDI has positive and significant effect on economic growth while trade openness has negative and significant effect. To examine the negative coefficient of trade openness more, another model is estimated. Export to GDP and Import to GDP were separately considered as trade openness in second model and other variables were same. The result of second model indicates that FDI has positive and significant effect while both trade openness indices have insignificant effect on economic growth.

Mehrara Mohsen

2013-09-01

222

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Litsea cubeba seed to produce bio-oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Litsea cubeba seed was conducted over different temperature (250-350°C), time (30-120 min), reactor loading (0.5-4.5 g) and Na2CO3 loading (0-10 wt.%). Temperature was the most influential factor affecting the yields of product fractions. The highest bio-oil yield of 56.9 wt.% was achieved at 290°C, 60 min, and reactor loading of 2.5 g. The presence of Na2CO3 favored the conversion of the feedstock but suppressed the production of bio-oil. The higher heating values of the bio-oil were estimated at around 40.8 MJ/kg. The bio-oil, which mainly consisted of toluene, 1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-benzene, fatty acids, fatty acid amides, and fatty acid esters, had a smaller total acid number than that of the oil obtained from the direct extraction of the starting material. It also contained nitrogen that was far below the bio-oil produced from the HTL of microalgae, making it more suitable for the subsequent refining. PMID:24140857

Wang, Feng; Chang, Zhoufan; Duan, Peigao; Yan, Weihong; Xu, Yuping; Zhang, Lei; Miao, Juan; Fan, Yunchang

2013-12-01

223

Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

2014-01-01

224

Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus are present in produced brines from Oklahoma oil reservoirs with a wide range of salinities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine wells producing from six different reservoirs with salinities ranging from 2.1% to 15.9% were surveyed for presence of surface-active compounds and biosurfactant-producing microbes. Degenerate primers were designed to detect the presence of the surfactin/lichenysin (srfA3/licA3) gene involved in lipopeptide biosurfactant production in members of Bacillus subtilis/licheniformis group and the rhlR gene involved in regulation of rhamnolipid production in pseudomonads. Polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing confirmed the presence of the srfA3/licA3 genes in brines collected from all nine wells. The presence of B. subtilis/licheniformis strains was confirmed by sequencing two other genes commonly used for taxonomic identification of bacteria, gyrA (gyrase A) and the 16S rRNA gene. Neither rhlR nor 16S rRNA gene related to pseudomonads was detected in any of the brines. Intrinsic levels of surface-active compounds in brines were low or not detected, but biosurfactant production could be stimulated by nutrient addition. Supplementation with a known biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strain together with nutrients increased biosurfactant production. The genetic potential to produce lipopeptide biosurfactants (e.g., srfA3/licA3 gene) is prevalent, and nutrient addition stimulated biosurfactant production in brines from diverse reservoirs, suggesting that a biostimulation approach for biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery may be technically feasible. PMID:21562978

Simpson, D Randall; Natraj, Nisha Ravi; McInerney, Michael J; Duncan, Kathleen E

2011-08-01

225

Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

2014-12-15

226

New perspectives for sustainably produced palm oil?; Neue Perspektiven fuer nachhaltiges Palmoel?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power generation from biomass is one of the key issues of renewable power generation today, and the demand for raw materials like palm oil is increasing accordingly. Malaysia, the world's second biggest producer after Indonesia, considers that the time has come for a change of perspective in the political discussion of the global biomass potential. Palm oil may indeed become a staple in biomass supply for power generation and mobility, but only if rigid sustainability criteria are maintained to prevent environmental damage from the very biomass utilization technology originally developed to protect the environment.

Boenigk, Florian [KaiserCommunication GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Bereich erneuerbare Energien

2010-12-15

227

Extent of replacement of methyl ester of rice bran oil by producer gas in Cl engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methyl ester of rice bran oil (MERBO), known as bio-diesel, is receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engine. Although MERBO has several advantages over fossil diesel, in the present scenario, the use of MERBO is restricted due to its high cost. Therefore, use of producer gas to fuel a CI engine along with MERBO seems to be the most interesting option for substitution of fossil diesel. In the present study MERBO was partially replaced by producer gas. The performance of CI engine was compared with fossil diesel partially replaced by producer gas in the CI engine. It was found that MERBO blended with producer gas give higher brake thermal efficiency than fossil diesel producer gas mixture. The addition of producer gas to MERBO has significantly reduced NO{sub x}, but it also increases the concentration of other pollutants. (author)

Singh, R.N.; Pathak, B.S. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Gujarat (India). Thermochemical Conversion Division; Singh, S.P. [School of Energy and Development, Indore (India)

2007-12-15

228

Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered [...] (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Charles Ogugua, Nwuche; James Chukwuma, Ogbonna.

2011-02-01

229

More on the Impact of Oil Price Shocks on Stock Market Returns: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

Mohamed El Hédi AROURI

2010-10-01

230

WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probable candidate for financial crisis.

Nadhem Selmi

2014-04-01

231

Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

2009-04-15

232

Policy of oil supply in the process of industrialization of OPEC countries. Die Erdoelangebotspolitik im Prozess der Industrialisierung der OPEC-Laender  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first chapter provides a survey of the development of the petroleum industry in the OPEC countries to the end of the fifties and deals with the foundation of OPEC and its oil price policy till the October 1973 increase in the price for crude oil as well as the events preceding that development. The second chapter describes the economic situation of the OPEC countries in the early seventies with special regard to the importance of petroleum for the gross national product, employment, the national budget and foreign trade of OPEC countries. The third chapter looks into the conditions, institutions and strategies of industrialization in the OPEC countries, develops a typology of those countries, and investigates the course of oil-independent industrialization in the OPEC countries to the end of the seventies. Chapter four studies oil-dependent industrialization in the OPEC countries taking into consideration the world markets of the respective industrial products and the competiveness of those industries as compared to the industries of the developing and industrialized countries. Finally that chapter deals with problems of industrialization in the OPEC countries which arose from the fact that OPEC countries, to the end of the seventies, tried to push forward their industrialization at a pace unsuited to the conditions of industrialization given. The interdependences of industrialization and the policy of oil supply of OPEC countries are discussed in the fifth chapter.

Kamal Sadeq, A.

1983-01-01

233

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties. Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise

Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

234

Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90 in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 µm were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

HELMAR SCHUBERT

2000-11-01

235

Dynamics of knowledge base complexity: an inquiry into oil producing countries’ struggle to build innovation capabilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to conventional wisdom, the petroleum industry is classified as a ‘resource based’ and ‘mature’ industry. It is subject to the ‘resource curse’ thesis, exhausted of ‘technological opportunities’ with limited capacity for knowledge based economic growth. This study questions the adequacy of this line of reasoning. Exploring the technological complexity of the sector, a complementary argument is presented. We show that the sector has recently experienced...

Maleki, Ali

2013-01-01

236

Are There Smaller Leverage Effects in Less-Developed Markets? Evidence from an Oil Exporting Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study uses daily data from the Tehran Stock Market (TSM to illustrate the nature of stock market volatility in an undeveloped and young stock market. Although most studies suggest that a negative shock to stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of equal magnitude but there is no evidence of asymmetric effect in TSM. Determine the nature of stock market volatility in an oil exporting country. Approach: Trading in Tehran Stock Market (TSM is based on orders sent by the brokers. The data consist of 2375 daily observations of the closing value of the Tehran stock market from 3/30/1998 to 5/04/2007. Our empirical finding shows that the unconditional variance is 0.18 but visual inspections of the time series suggests that volatility of the stock return rate displays the clustering phenomenon associated with GARCH processes. Results: The estimation and test results for all models suggest that the leverage effect term, ?, is not significant at 5% level. Although, in Asym. CARCH model based on normal distribution for errors, the estimated coefficient on the asymmetry term is -0.066 with a z-statistics of -1.749 recognized as significant at 10% level, but it has the wrong sign. It seems that good news and bad news has the same effect on stock prices in TSM, a result that is contradictory to other studies for developed countries. Conclusion: The estimated models containing TARCH, EGARCH, asymmetric CARCH and PARCH with different assumptions on error distributions suggest no strong and significant asymmetric effect. There are some reasons for this finding: (1 In Iran with Islamic laws, debt contracts are illegal or at least not enforced and Iranian firms do not have any financial leverage. As a result, we would expect to find smaller leverage effects in volatility in Iran than in the United States, for example. In deed the institutional differences with western financial markets manifest themselves in different return characteristics. (2 Stock prices in the TSM by regulation and intervention cannot exceed from some range. The strong serial correlation in returns necessitating long lags in the mean equations is possibly due to such regulations. (3 The history of TSM is very short compared to other stock markets and the information flow in this market is very slow. The estimated coefficients on the expected risk (as a measure of the risk-return tradeoff are not significant. These findings suggest that the TSM is not efficient.

Mosayeb Phalavani

2010-01-01

237

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

1996-02-01

238

Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. ? Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. ? The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. ? Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. ? The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow impr, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

239

Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of???1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1065-1075, 2014. PMID:24850435

Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

2014-09-01

240

Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns the organising of a company and another concerns relationships between companies. These frameworks are used for the analysis of producers and retailers, and for the relationships between them. Very interesting results have been found, and these have supported a new way of looking at management of organisations and management of relationships.

Skytte, Hans

 
 
 
 
241

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

Unknown

2001-05-01

242

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

243

Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeability. The main finding in this thesis was that...

Gundersen, Pa?l Lee

2013-01-01

244

Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 2...

Pillay, Avin E.; Salih, Fadhil M.; Maleek, Muthana I.

2010-01-01

245

Potential impact of production chemicals on the toxicity of produced water discharges from North Sea oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production chemicals are used on offshore oil production platforms to prevent corrosion and scale formation, and to assist oil-water separation. A proportion of these chemicals may enter the marine environment via the produced water discharge. This study investigated the potential impact of 11 oil field production chemicals on the toxicity of the produced water discharge. The Microtox(r) system was used for toxicity assessment of the chemicals, both directly in aqueous preparations and following their partitioning between oil (crude and low toxicity mineral base oil) and North Sea brine. For the majority of the chemicals tested, the toxicity of the aqueous phase to the test organism following partitioning against crude oil, was not significantly altered by the presence of process chemicals when used in their normal field dosage concentrations. However, there was evidence that certain chemicals could increase the partitioning of oil components into the aqueous phase by an order of magnitude, when applied at high dosage concentrations. (Author)

246

Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid to SFO was investigated. FO contained the largest amount of PUFA and RFO the lowest. However, SFO had a higher PV initially and during storage at 2degreesC, whereas the PV of FO was highest during storage at 20degreesC. The level of volatile oxidation products was highest in SFO during the entire storage period, and off-flavors were more pronounced in SFO. The lower oxidative stability of SFO was probably related to theinitially lower quality (regarding oxidation products), which is apparently a result of the long production procedure required. Addition of metal chelators did not reduce the oxidation of the SFO

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

2004-01-01

247

The Role of Savings in Reducing the Effect of Oil Price Volatility for Sustainable Economic Growth in Oil Based Economies: The Case of GCC Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate the simultaneous links between oil price changes, national savings, legal and institutional development, and economic growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries. Our study includes six GCC countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. We base our analysis on annual data that covers the period from 1980 to 2011. We implement different methodologies on time series cross sectional data: First, we test our model using fixed effect and random effect model techniques; Second, we employ Arellano-Bond/Blundell-Bond estimator to reduce the endogeneity problem that is common in this kind of studies. Results reveal a nonlinear and concave relationship between saving rates and economic growth. This result suggests that, at low level of economic growth, the increase in savings leads to high economic growth. However, as the countries’ revenues and surpluses increase significantly (at higher levels in revenues and savings, high level of savings lead to lower growth in the economy. This might due to the lack of absorption capacity of the GCC markets. In addition, controlling for different factors, oil price changes explain the variability in the economic growth of the GCC countries. Economic globalization affects growth negatively, while institutional quality plays no role in economic growth of the GCC markets.

Ritab Al-Khouri

2014-03-01

248

Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

Yi-Wei Lin

2012-07-01

249

Molecular characterization of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the countries of the Gulf cooperation council: dominance of OXA-48 and NDM producers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were determined in hospitals in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Isolates were subjected to PCR-based detection of antibiotic-resistant genes and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) assessments of clonality. Sixty-two isolates which screened positive for potential carbapenemase production were assessed, and 45 were found to produce carbapenemase. The most common carbapenemases were of the OXA-48 (35 isolates) and NDM (16 isolates) types; 6 isolates were found to coproduce the OXA-48 and NDM types. No KPC-type, VIM-type, or IMP-type producers were detected. Multiple clones were detected with seven clusters of clonally related Klebsiella pneumoniae. Awareness of CRE in GCC countries has important implications for controlling the spread of CRE in the Middle East and in hospitals accommodating patients transferred from the region. PMID:24637692

Zowawi, Hosam M; Sartor, Anna L; Balkhy, Hanan H; Walsh, Timothy R; Al Johani, Sameera M; AlJindan, Reem Y; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Ibrahim, Emad; Al-Jardani, Amina; Al-Abri, Seif; Al Salman, Jameela; Dashti, Ali A; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Schlebusch, Sanmarié; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Paterson, David L

2014-06-01

250

A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs

251

Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

252

Lipid profile of in vitro oil produced through cell culture of Jatropha curcas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent increases in energy demands as a consequence of population growth and industrialization, and pollution caused during the extraction and combustion of fossil fuel sources have driven the development of new energy sources that do not cause pollution and are inexpensive and renewable. Consequently, it is necessary to develop alternative ways of generating biofuels that put less pressure on agricultural lands and water supplies, and ensure ecosystems conservation. In order to achieve the proposed goals related to energetic coverage and independence, several approaches have been developed, including biodiesel production using vegetal oils as feedstock. The aim of the current research project was to apply a nonconventional bioprocess for in vitro biomass and oil production of Jatropha curcas, for assessing different J. curcas varieties, where seed tissue was isolated and used for callus induction. Once friable callus was obtained, cell suspension cultures were established. The cell viability, fatty acid content, and characteristics were used to select the most promising cell line according to its fatty acid profile and ability to grow and develop under in vitro conditions. Oil produced by cell suspension culture of the Jatropha varieties studied was extracted and characterized by GC/MS. Differences encountered among Jatropha varieties were related to their fatty acid profiles, oil content (% on dry basis), and cell viability measurements (%). PMID:22970586

Correa, Sandra M; Atehortúa, Lucía

2012-01-01

253

Safety evaluation of oleic-rich triglyceride oil produced by a heterotrophic microalgal fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numbers of macro- and microalgae have been used as food sources in various cultures for centuries. Several microalgae are currently being developed as modern food ingredients. The dietary safety of oleic-rich microalgal oil produced using a heterotrophic fermentation process was assessed in a 13-week feeding trial in rats with genotoxic potential evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the genotoxicity assays, the test oil was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli tester strains (?5000?g/plate) with or without metabolic activation. Further, no clastogenic response occurred in chromosome aberration assays in the bone marrow of mice administered a single intraperitoneal dose (2000mg/kg). In the subchronic study, rats consumed feed containing 0, 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000ppm oleic-rich oil for 90days. No treatment-related mortalities or adverse effects occurred in general condition, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights or histopathology. Although several endpoints exhibited statistically significant effects, none were dose-related or considered adverse. Taking all studies into consideration, the NOAEL for the oleic-rich oil was 100,000ppm, the highest concentration tested and equivalent to dietary NOAELs of 5200mg/kg bw/day and 6419mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively. PMID:24394481

Szabo, Nancy J; Matulka, Ray A; Marone, Palma Ann; Bauter, Mark R; Chan, Teresa; Franklin, Scott; Carney, John R; McQuaid, Sarah L; Rakitsky, Walter; Green, Richard; Licari, Peter

2014-03-01

254

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01

255

Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produce...

Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

2009-01-01

256

Synthesis, characterization, and oil recovery application of biosurfactant produced by indigenous pseudomonas aeruginosa WJ-1 using waste vegetable oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bacterial strain was isolated and cultured from the oil excavation areas in tropical zone in northern China. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, WJ-1, was identical to those of cultured representatives of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentage lipid (?74%, w/w) and carbohydrate (?20%, w/w) in addition to a minor fraction of protein (?6%, w/w). The best production of 50.2 g/l was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 6.0% (w/v) glucose and 0.75% (w/v) sodium nitrate supplemented with 0.1% (v/v) element solution at 37 °C and 180 rpm after 96 h. The optimum biosurfactant production pH value was found to be 6.0-8.0. The biosurfactant of WJ-1, with the critical micelle concentration of 0.014 g/L, could reduce surface tension to 24.5 mN/m and emulsified kerosene up to EI(24) ?95. The results obtained from time course study indicated that the surface tension reduction and emulsification potential was increased in the same way to cell growth. However, maximum biosurfactant production occurred and established in the stationary growth phase (after 90 h). Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and mass spectrum analysis indicate the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The core holder flooding experiments demonstrated that the oil recovery efficiency of strain and its biosurfactant was 23.02% residual oil. PMID:22198867

Xia, Wen-Jie; Luo, Zhi-Bin; Dong, Han-Ping; Yu, Li; Cui, Qing-Feng; Bi, Yong-Qiang

2012-03-01

257

Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding. PMID:19897349

Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

2010-07-01

258

Using catalytic methods for producing basic oil from domestic raw material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is given of catalysts and catalytic methods for producing high quality lubricating oils. The results of studies in laboratory and semiindustrial scales, conducted to explain the capability of producing basic lubricating oils from domestic raw material with the use of various catalytic methods, are cited. Serving as the raw material was a vacuum distillate of oil from the Velebit deposit (a 343 to 540 degree fraction) with the following properties: density of 0.9187 per 15 degrees, a viscosity of 83.8 centistokes per 38 degrees and 8.12 centistokes at 99 degrees; a viscosity index of 61, an inflamation point of 200 degrees; a stagnation point of -24 degrees; a sulfur content of 0.32 percent and an anylin point (AT) of 88.2 degrees. The fraction was hydrated: in laboratory conditions in an aluminum, nickel and molybdenum catalyst at 8 to 11 megapascals, 340 to 380 degrees, a cubic feeding speed of 0.5 to 1 per hour, a supply of H/sub 2/ of 1,000 liters per liter of raw material. It was also hydrated in semiindustrial conditions, which are cited.

Selakovic, O.; Cavcic, E.; Jovanovic, M.

1980-01-01

259

Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and ce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

260

Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

2009-01-07

 
 
 
 
261

Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2003-01-01

262

Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

1995-12-31

263

Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

264

78 FR 77421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...  

Science.gov (United States)

...determination of OCTG from India was requested by the petitioner...Country Tubular Goods from India, the Republic of Korea, the...new deadline falls on a non-business day, in accordance with the Department's practice, the deadline will become...Country Tubular Goods from India,'' dated concurrently...

2013-12-23

265

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2003-12-15

266

Use of inhibitors for scale control in brine-producing gas and oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field and laboratory work have shown that calcium-carbonate scale formation in waters produced with natural gas and oil can be prevented by injection of phosphonate inhibitor into the formation, even if the formation is sandstone without calcite binging material. Inhibitor squeeze jobs have been carried out on DOE's geopressured-geothermal Gladys McCall brine-gas well and GRI's co-production wells in the Hitchcock field. Following the inhibitor squeeze on Gladys McCall, the well produced over five million barrels of water at a rate of approximately 30,000 BPD without calcium-carbonate scaling. Before the inhibitor squeeze, the well could not be produced above 15,000 BPD without significant scale formation. In the GRI brine-gas co-production field tests, inhibitor squeezes have been used to successfully prevant scaling. Laboratory work has been conducted to determine what types of oil field waters are subject to scaling. This research has led to the development of a saturation index and accompanying nomographs which allow prediction of when scale will develop into a problem in brine production.

Tomson, M.B.; Prestwich, S.

1986-01-01

267

Structural characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2 isolated from oil reservoir water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactant-producing microorganisms inhabiting oil reservoirs are of great potential in industrial applications. Yet, till now, the knowledge about the structure and physicochemical property of their metabolites are still limited. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2, a newly isolated strain from an oil reservoir. The purification was conducted by silica gel column chromatography followed by pre-RP HPLC and the structural characterization was carried out by GC-MS combined with MS/MS. The results show that the biosurfactant produced by FIN2 is rhamnolipid in nature and its four main fractions were identified to be Rha-C10-C10(46.1 %), Rha-Rha-C10-C10(20.1 %), Rha-C8-C10 (7.5 %) and Rha-C10-C12:1(5.5 %), respectively. Meanwhile, the rarely reported rhamnolipid congeners containing ?-hydroxy fatty acids of C6, C9, C10:1 and C11 were also proved to be present in the rhamnolipid mixture produced. The rhamnolipid mixture exhibited a strong surface activity by lowering the surface tension of distilled water to 28.6 mN/m with a CMC value of 195 mg/l. PMID:24297330

Liu, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

2014-05-01

268

Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

Fotouh, K.H.

1995-09-30

269

Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

2008-09-01

270

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...reservoir” refers to a reservoir that shares the following characteristics with the reservoir of interest: (i) Same geological...recognized for contractual services performed on behalf of investors in oil and gas producing activities managed by the...

2010-04-01

271

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...heaters, manifolds, measuring devices, and production storage tanks...systems, such as: (1 ) Lifting the oil and gas to the surface...production costs (sometimes called lifting costs) are: (A) Costs...produced along with production (lifting) costs identified...

2010-04-01

272

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...producing activities include: (A) The search for crude oil, including condensate and natural...facilities. (D) Property taxes and insurance applicable to proved properties and wells...water injection, steam injection, air injection, salt-water disposal,...

2010-04-01

273

Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries.; Dynamiques des economies des pays exportateurs et reorganisation de leurs industries petrolieres (Elements d`analyse et de proposition)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries` economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ``exporting countries`` to ``countries that (among other activities) export oil`` and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab.

De La Vega Navarro, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

1994-09-01

274

Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde más intenso eran también de baja calidad, describiéndolos como con sabor extraño, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y defectuosos. Este estudio demuestra que en los países con olivicultura emergente pero con poca tradición de consumo de aceite de oliva, los consumidores aún no tienen preferencias comerciales claras sobre el color de este producto, aunque coinciden en rechazar y considerar como de baja calidad a los aceites de oliva amarillos posiblemente por asociarlos con los aceites de semillas que habitualmente se encuentran en el mercado.

Gámbaro, A.

2014-06-01

275

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

2012-03-01

276

Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

Milin, Cedomila

2001-12-01

277

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Unknown

1999-10-31

278

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Donald Duttlinger

1999-12-01

279

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

Unknown

2000-05-01

280

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

Unknown

2002-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization efficiently has an impact on business economics as the focus remains on proven applicable technologies, which target cost reduction and efficiency gains.

Donald Duttlinger

2001-11-01

282

Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N) starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD) formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3. PMID:23874918

Zhang, Yun-Ming; Chen, Hui; He, Chen-Liu; Wang, Qiang

2013-01-01

283

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

2012-10-01

284

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) functions as a cohesive national organization that implements industry's directives through active regional programs. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) organization includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. PTTC relies on 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) as its main program delivery mechanism to industry. Through its regions, PTTC connects with independent oil and gas producers--through technology workshops, resources centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY98, and its strategy for achieving further growth in the future.

Unknown

1998-10-31

285

Survey of organophosphorus pesticide residues in virgin olive oils produced in Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dimethoate, diazinon, parathion methyl, pirimiphos methyl, malathion, fenthion, chlorpyriphos, methidathion and azinphos methyl were determined in 71 olive oil samples produced in Chile from different varieties of olives (arbequina, frantoio, picual, lechino and blend) at three different harvest periods (2007, 2008 and 2009). The target pesticides were determined using a validated analytical method based on microwave-assisted liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction with subsequent GC-FPD detection and GC-MS/MS for confirmation purposes. In 79% of the samples, five of the nine pesticides tested were detected with a frequency of one pesticide per sample. The highest detection rates were observed for the residues of chlorpyriphos and diazinon. The average concentration of chlorpyriphos, diazinon, azinphos methyl and methidathion were 0.084, 0.057, 0.024 and 0.010 µg g(-1), respectively. Higher contents of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were found in regions where intensive agriculture is practiced. However, the levels of OPPs were reassuringly low and indicate that olive oil produced and exported from Chile does not currently represent any risk for consumers. PMID:24785499

Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Díaz, Juan

2010-01-01

286

The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

t only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

287

Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author)

288

Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological contamination of soil environment of an industrial zone, which one can render parasitic influencing to health working, and also being diffused in nearest territory of a residential zone to create a health danger of the population. Therefore, the hygienic control in firms of a petroleum industry is necessary

289

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

Unknown

2000-11-01

290

A prototype vegetable oil cooker for tropical and subtropical countries; Prototyp des Pflanzenoel-Haushaltkochers fuer tropische und subtropische Laender  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood is still the main source of energy in rural regions of tropical and subtropical countries. The resulting loss of forests has serious ecological consequences, and alternative fuels for cooking are required. A prototype pressure cooker was therefore developed at Hohenheim University which is fuelled continuously with rapeseed oil or other vegetable oils. The specific chemical and physical characteristics of the vegetable oils required modifications of the tank, evaporator and burner as well as a new ignition system. [German] In den laendlichen Gebieten der Tropen und Subtropen ist Brennholz die hautpsaechliche Energiequelle. Die damit zusammenhaengende, stetig zunehmende Abholzung fuehrt vor allem in Trockengebieten zu schwerwiegenden oekologischen Folgen. Der Einsatz alternativer Energien zum Kochen ist daher notwendig. So bietet z.B. die Verwendung von Pflanzenoelen als Kochbrennstoff eine Reihe von oekologischen und sozio-oekonomischen Vorteilen, wie z.B. eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Verbrennung und eine Langzeitsicherung des Energiebedarfes durch eine nachhaltige Brennstoffproduktion. An der Universitaet Hohenheim wurde deshalb der Prototyp eines Druckkochers entwickelt, der mit reinen Pflanzenoelen wie Raps- oder Purgiernussoel kontinuierlich betrieben werden kann. Wegen der chemischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften der Pflanzenoele mussten hierzu der Tank, der Verdampfer und der Brenneraufsatz gegenueber bekannten Kochgeraeten grundlegend geaendert sowie eine neuartige Zuendeinrichtung konstruiert werden. (orig.)

Stumpf, E.; Muehlbauer, W. [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik in den Tropen und Subtropen

2000-07-01

291

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2007 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CONCAWE has collected 37 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At over 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2007 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 37 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by intelligence pigs is also reported. 9 spillage incidents were reported in 2007, corresponding to 0.28 spillages per 1000 km of line, just under the 5-year average and well below the long-term running average of 0.55, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 1 incident was due to mechanical failure, 2 incidents to corrosion and 6 were connected to third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities is the main cause of spillage incidents.

292

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2008 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CONCAWE has collected 38 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At over 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 780 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2008 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 38 years is analysed in various ways including gross and net spillage volumes and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 12 spillage incidents were reported in 2008, corresponding to 0.34 spillages per 1000 km of line, somewhat above the 5-year average of 0.28 but well below the long-term running average of 0.54, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid 70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 7 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 incident to corrosion and 4 were connected to third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

293

Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2010 and since 1971  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CONCAWE has collected 40 years of spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines. At about 35,000 km the inventory covered currently includes the vast majority of such pipelines in Europe, transporting around 800 million m3 per year of crude oil and oil products. This report covers the performance of these pipelines in 2010 and a full historical perspective since 1971. The performance over the whole 40 years is analysed in various ways, including gross and net spillage volumes, and spillage causes grouped into five main categories: mechanical failure, operational, corrosion, natural hazard and third party. The rate of inspections by in-line tools (intelligence pigs) is also reported. 4 spillage incidents were reported in 2010, corresponding to 0.12 spillages per 1000 km of line, well below the 5-year average of 0.25 and the long-term running average of 0.52, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid-70s. There were no fires, fatalities or injuries connected with these spills. 2 incidents were due to mechanical failure, 1 to external corrosion, and 1 was connected to past third party activities. Over the long term, third party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although mechanical failures have increased in recent years, a trend that needs to be scrutinised in years to come.

294

Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s, which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs on land. This unfortunate incident makes the oil bearing and host community to demand compensation, which in most times breeds in conflict such that the two parties engage in tirade of accusations and counteraccusations. The conflict is such that it has defiled all known antidotes, real or imaginary. Until arbitration was resurrected, studied and applied, before it became the messiah or saviour of the two warring groups. Hitherto, the conflict had led to the destruction of equipment/tools, loss of income, loss of company/man hours, peace, and abduction/kidnapping of expatriates/indigenous staffers. In the light of the grave consequences, the author recommended both direct and indirect approaches to deal with the incessant conflicts between the oil and gas firms and oil bearing and host community. Having known that conflict is an ill-wind that blows nobody any good.

Chima Jack-Osimiri

2011-04-01

295

The development of a small-scale palm oil mill producing crude palm oil by the vacumm frying process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to design and develop a new dry palm oil milling process which yields a good quality Crude Palm Oil (CPO) without mixing of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) in the first extraction. The process uses vacuum fruit frying process with a twin screw press. The advantages of this process are (1) no waste water (2) a good quality crude palm oil in the first extraction (3) safety due to no pressure vessel and better working condition for workers since there is no smoke during the frying p...

Limworaphan, C.; Kooptanond, C.; Klinpikul, S.

2000-01-01

296

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi...by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi...subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey. Unless the Department...Commission's views are due within five business days thereafter, or by August...the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part...

2013-07-10

297

Antimicrobial activities of laboratory produced essential oil solutions against five selected fungal strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Aspergillus niger I.N. 1110, Aspergillus sojae CCF and Penicillium spp. FNS FCC 266. A variation of the microtiter plate-based antimicrobial assay was used in order to assess the antimicrobial activity of the solutions. By applying this assay minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the Biokill solutions were determined for each strain of the selected test microorganisms. The results demonstrated that all variations of Biokill showed antimicrobial activity at concentrations lower than 2.5?g/mL. Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO showed the best antimicrobial properties against all the selected strains with MICs less than 1.25?g/mL. These results indicated that Biokill could find application in the pharmaceutical industry, in food preservation and conservation, in the prevention and treat­ment of plants infected by certain phytopathogens, etc.

Ivanova Emilija

2013-01-01

298

Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

None available

2000-04-12

299

Properties of non-segregating tailings produced from the Aurora Oil Sands Mine tailings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The properties of non-segregating tailings (NST) produced from the Aurora Oil Sands Mine tailings were discussed in this presentation. The purpose of the experimental program was to demonstrate the performance of calcium oxide (CaO) additive to produce NST from Syncrude Canada Ltd.'s Aurora Mine tailings. Several experiments were performed to determine the segregation boundary of the NST mix with an SFR of 5; the effect of the CaO dosage on the segregation boundary of the NST mix with an SFR of 5; and, the effect of the CaO dosage on the release water chemistry. The materials used and NST mix designs were discussed. The presentation also provided results in graphical format related to: effect of CaO amendments; sedimentation behaviour; release water chemistry; geochemical reactions; pH and alkalinity; and cation exchange reactions. It was concluded that the NST production process with CaO additive could produce non-segregating tailings from the blend of Aurora Mine's cyclone underflow and thickener underflow tailings. tabs., figs.

Donahue, R.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S.; Scott, J.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Ozum, B. [Apex Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

300

Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) ay BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

 
 
 
 
301

Combustion characteristics of waste-oil produced biodiesel/diesel fuel blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, waste cooking oil from restaurants was used to produce neat (pure) biodiesel through transesterification, and this converted biodiesel was then used to prepare biodiesel/diesel blends. The goal of this study was to compare the trace formation from the exhaust tail gas of a diesel engine when operated using the different fuel type: neat biodiesel, biodiesel/diesel blends, and normal diesel fuels. B20 produced the lowest CO concentration for all engine speeds. B50 produced higher CO{sub 2} than other fuels for all engine speeds, except at 2000 rpm where B20 gave the highest. The biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend fuels produced higher NOx for various engine speeds as expected. SO{sub 2} formation not only showed an increasing trend with increased engine speed but also showed an increasing trend as the percentage of diesel increased in the fuels. Among the collected data, the PM concentrations from B100 engines were higher than from other fuelled engines for the tested engine speed and most biodiesel-contained fuels produced higher PM than the pure diesel fuel did. Overall, we may conclude that B20 and B50 are the optimum fuel blends. The species of trace formation in the biodiesel-contained fuelled engine exhaust were mainly C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}, DEP, and DPS. For the B100, B80, B50, and D fuelled engines, C{sub 15}H{sub 32} was the dominant species for all engine speeds, while squalene (C{sub 30}H{sub 50}) was the dominant for B20. DEP was only observed in the B100, B80, and B50 fuelled engines in this study. The D fuelled engine showed a higher DPS production for engine speeds higher than 1200 rpm. 21 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Ya-fen Lin; Yo-ping Greg Wu; Chang-Tang Chang [National Ilan University, Taiwan (China). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2007-08-15

302

Subsidence over producing oil and gas fields, and gas leakage to the surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsidence over producing oil and gas fields, caused by a reduction of formation fluid pressure and consequent compaction of reservoir rocks, enhances existing fractures and creates new ones. A theoretical prediction of the whole set of associated deformation can not be completely reliable because of physical obscurity and incompleteness of the effective-stress theory and associated models and their inadequacy to describe the three-dimensional processes in a geological environment. Empirically, incompleteness of the overburden weight transmission to the compacting reservoir is obvious from the existence of vertical tensile strain and elongation of formation overlying the reservoir. All this emphasizes the importance of empirical approach. The authors reviewed field observations of subsidence deformations made by many authors

303

Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

Mohd Sahaid Kalil

2003-01-01

304

Characterization of rhamnolipids produced by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strain grown on waste oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa EBN-8 mutant rhamnolipids produced on waste oils were investigated using normal-phase thin layer chromatography and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Negative ion mode mass spectra yielded [M - H](-) ions and their fragment ions, which gave some indications on the sequence of rhamnolipid biosynthesis. Five rhamnolipid homologs [viz. RC(10)C(10) (m/z 503), RC(12)C(10) or RC(10)C(12) (531), RRC(10)C(8) or RRC(8)C(10) (621), RRC(10)C(10) (649) and RRC(12)C(10) or RRC(10)C(12) (677)] were detected in four rhamnolipid combinations under the different carbon sources. The prevalence of rhamnolipids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and one-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. We also observed some correlations between the tensioactive characteristics and structural chemistry of the rhamnolipid surfactants. PMID:20183494

Raza, Zulfiqar A; Khalid, Zafar M; Banat, Ibrahim M

2009-11-01

305

Opening Pandora's box? Inclusive institutions and the onset of internal conflict in oil-rich countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The literature on institutional determinants of intra-state violence commonly asserts that the presence of multiple political parties reduces the conflict potential within countries. By co-opting oppositional groups into an institutionalized political arena, dissidents would prefer parliamentary means over violent rebellion in order to pursue their goals. The present article shows that this proposition does not necessarily hold true for resource-abundant states. In the presence of vast natura...

Wegenast, Tim

2013-01-01

306

Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ? The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ? The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ? Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ? Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and compared different technologies in a unique “Clean Energy Economy” improved document (Paris, November 16–17, 2011), by the contribution of this vision too (see reference). In concert with “energy efficiency” improvement both for plants and buildings, in the frame of the “smart cities” scenarios, and the upstanding use of “energy savings”, the energetic planning on regional scale where these cities are located, are strategic for the year 2050: this planning is strongly depending by the underground availability and typology. Therefore, if both literature and European Policy are going fast to improve the concept of “smart cities” this paper stresses the concept of “smart regions”, more strategic than “smart cities”, passing throughout a discussion on the synergic and conflicting use of underground to produce energy for the “smart regions” as a whole. The paper highlights the research lines which are urgent to plan the soundest energy mix for each region by considering the underground performances case by case: a worldwide mapping, by GIS tools of this kind of information could be strategic for all the “world energy management” authorities, up to ONU, with its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the G20, the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Platforms such as the “Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants” (EU-ZEP Platform), the Steel Platform, the Biomass Platform too. All of these organizations agree on the need for synergistic and coexistent uses of underground for geological storage of CO2, CH4, nuclear waste and geothermic exploitation. The paper is therefore a discussion of the tools, methods and approaches to these underground affecting technologies, after a gross view of the different uses of underground to produce energy for each use, with their main critical issues (i.e. public acceptance in different cases). The paper gives some gross evaluation for the Lazio Region and some hints from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calcu

307

Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a range of stora...

Scollard, Johann

2011-01-01

308

Saving-Growth Nexus in an Oil-Rich Exporting Country: A Case of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study considers the saving-growth nexus in Nigeria using annual data over the period 1970-2013. For this purpose, ARDL bounds testing approach to co-integration and error correction model (ECM for short run dynamics have been applied. According to empirical analyses, real GDP per capita, labour force, total savings, Oil revenue, Population growth, and Human capital are co-integrated. Compared to other variables, savings and population growth are major determinant of economic growth in the long-run. Results also revealed that the speed of adjustment to restore equilibrium is -0.549 which confirms stable long-run relationship. In short-run, Savings, Oil revenue, Population growth, human capital and labour force appear to play a more important role. Thus, a bi-directional causality exists between savings and economic growth in Nigeria; leading to a feedback effect, such that, both the Keynes and the Solow model are relevant for Nigeria. Thus, policy makers are required to implement policies mix aimed at increasing savings and growth in Nigeria.

Adebowale Musefiu Adeleke

2014-08-01

309

Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

310

OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

Mariana, BUICAN

2013-12-01

311

Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

Avin E. Pillay

2010-03-01

312

Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

313

Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

2014-03-01

314

Outlook for the refining industries and trade in oil products in OAPEC and OPEC member countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future impact of refineries in OAPEC/OPEC members will depend on the size of the surplus they will have. It is generally agreed that the bulk of the construction and expansion is largely in place and that comparatively little capacity will be added in the next few years. Nevertheless, internal demand is expected to increased by about 50% in the next eight years. That is, the combined OAPEC/OPEC consumption will be 6.0 million b/d in 1995, compared with 3.8 million b/d in 1985/86. The expected increase of more than 2 million b/d in OAPEC/OPEC demand compared with the expected expansion in refining of 1 million b/d indicates a decline in the quantity of exportable products over this period by about 1 million b/d. Product exports from OAPEC/OPEC members are expected to be 1.6 million b/d in 1995, versus 2.6 million b/d in 1985/86. Some of these exports will be destined for markets in the developing countries and the centrally planned economy countries. 4 tables.

Alwattari, A.; Michaux, J.; Hamad, A.; Saiki, K. (eds.)

1987-01-01

315

Interactions between oil substrates and glucose on pure cultures of ruminal lipase-producing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis of free fatty acids from lipids is a prerequisite for biohydrogenation, a process that effectively saturates free fatty acids. Anaerovibrio lipolyticus 5s and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens have long been thought to be the major contributors to ruminal lipolysis; however, Propionibacterium avidum and acnes recently have been identified as contributing lipase activity in the rumen. In order to further characterize the lipase activity of these bacterial populations, each was grown with three different lipid substrates, olive oil, corn oil, and flaxseed oil (3 %). Because different finishing rations contain varying levels of glycogen (a source of free glucose) this study also documented the effects of glucose on lipolysis. P. avidum and A. lipolyticus 5s demonstrated the most rapid rates (P oil and flaxseed oil, respectively. A. lipolyticus, B. fibrisolvens, and P. avidum more effectively hydrolyzed flaxseed oil than olive oil or corn oil, especially in the presence of 0.02 % glucose. Conversely, P. acnes hydrolyzed corn oil more readily than olive oil or flaxseed oil and glucose had no effect on lipolytic rate. Thus, these bacterial species demonstrated different specificities for oil substrates and different sensitivities to glucose. PMID:23609414

Edwards, H D; Anderson, R C; Taylor, T M; Miller, R K; Hardin, M D; Nisbet, D J; Krueger, N A; Smith, S B

2013-07-01

316

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD) presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados [...] cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación) y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994)(Figura 1). Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR) y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico) aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located ne [...] ar the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994) (Figure 1). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.

Edwin, Rodríguez; Jaime, Orjuela.

2004-12-01

317

FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994 (Figure 1. This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994(Figura 1. Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto.

Edwin Rodríguez

2004-01-01

318

A way to increase heavy vacuum gas oil conversion and produce near zero sulphur gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work investigates the hydrotreating process of heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO), feed for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), in order to yield diesel and FCC cracking gasoline with 50 and 10 ppm sulphur. The study was performed in the Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas FCC feed hydrotreating unit at following conditions: LHSV between 0.81 and 1.19 hr{sup -1}; Total reactor pressure of 50 bar; WABT in the range 346-399 C, Hydrogen-containing gas rate of 340 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} oil. The HVGO was hydrotreated over the Topsoe TK-558 Brim catalyst. Two charges of that catalyst were investigated: a fresh charge and an ex-situ regenerated charge. It was found that 10 ppm sulphur FCC gasoline can be produced if the FCC feed sulphur is not higher than 200 ppm. Diesel sulphur was found to be three times lower than the hydrotreated HVGO, which means that 10 ppm sulphur in that diesel could be achieved if the sulphur in the FCC feed is 30 ppm. The hydrodesulphurization (HDS) was found to be described by 1.6 order kinetics. Activation energy of the HDS was found to be 32.6 kcal/mol. Cracking that occurs along with the HDS reaction was described by first order kinetics with activation energy of 24.7 kcal/mol. The hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) was found to be described by first order kinetics with activation energy of 15.7 kcal/mol. The operating conditions were established for production of FCC gasoline with 10 ppm sulphur. (orig.)

Stratiev, Dicho [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria). Research and Development Dept.

2009-12-15

319

An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application  

Science.gov (United States)

Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and temperature.

Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

2014-05-01

320

Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

 
 
 
 
321

Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement.

Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A. [Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)] e-mail: maliriani@uaeu.ac.ae

2005-12-01

322

Evaluation of the Influence That Was Produced by Phytoremediation of Soil Microorganisms at Oil Showings  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoremediation has been identified as a potentially environmentally friendly and cost effective technique for the treatment of contaminated soil. However, phytoremediation has an unknown mechanism. In this study, we focus on the effects of the cultivation of Italian ryegrass on the soil microbes collected at oil showings, which were expected to have a variety of crude oil degradable microorganisms. We evaluated the number of crude oil degradable microorganism, microbial activity, microflora using the PCR-DGGE method and the change in the concentration of crude oil in the soil. The results indicated that the microflora was affected by the cultivation of Itarian ryegrass, and that the microbial activity and the number of crude oil degradable microorganisms were also improved by the cultivation. Moreover, the concentration of crude oil in the rhizosphere soil decreased significantly when compared to the uncultivated soil. These results suggested that cultivation could regulate microflora selectively, which degraded crude oil.

Kaimi, Etsuko; Kawakita, Morikazu; Mukaidani, Tsukasa; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shin-Ichi; Yasuda, Yoshio

323

Byrsonic acid--the clue to floral mimicry involving oil-producing flowers and oil-collecting bees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetrapedia diversipes and other Apidae (Anthophoridae) may be deceived by floral similarities between Malpighiaceae and Orchidaceae of the Oncidiinae subtribe. The latter do not usually exudate floral oils. Thus, visitors may pollinate the flowers in a deceit/food/pollination syndrome. We studied the chemical compositions of Byrsonima intermedia (Malpighiaceae) floral oil and T. diversipes (Anthophoridae) cell provisions. From B. intermedia floral oil, we isolated a novel fatty acid (3R, 7R)-3,7-diacetoxy-docosanoic acid, here named byrsonic acid, and from T diversipes cell provisions we isolated two novel fatty acid derivatives 3,7-dihydroxy-eicosanoic acid and 3,7-dihydroxy-docosanoic acid, here named tetrapedic acids A and B, respectively. The three fatty acid derivatives have common features: possess long chains (20 or 22 carbon atoms) with no double bond and either hydroxy or acetoxy groups at carbons 3 and 7. This characteristic was also encountered in the fatty acid moiety of oncidinol (2S, 3'R, 7'R)-l-acetyl-2-[3', 7'-diacetoxyeicosanyl)-glycerol, a major floral oil constituent of several Oncidiinae species (Orchidaceae). Thus, both tetrapedic A (C20) and B (C22) could be the biotransformation products of oncidinol and byrsonic acid by T. diversipes hydrolases. These are the chemical clues for bee visitation and oil collecting from both plant species. The results indicate that the deceit/pollination syndrome should not be applied to all Oncidiinae flowers. PMID:17530390

Reis, Mariza G; de Faria, D Aparecida; dos Santos, Isabel Alves; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E; Marsaioli, Anita J

2007-07-01

324

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils and triglycerides by thermotolerant and zoopathogenic species of Aspergillus from Nigerian palm produce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. and Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Wint obtained from Nigerian palm produce to degrade vegetable oils and triglycerides and the production and activity of their extracellular lipases were studied. Both species readily hydrolysed palm oil and palm kernel oil among others liberating free fatty acids in the process. Good growth with mycelia production of both fungi were also recorded on the triglycerides used as sources of carbon at 37 degrees C with the best results obtained on palmitic and oleic acids, the predominant fatty acids in palm oil. Extracellular lipases were detected in the culture filtrates of both fungi within 48 h of incubation on an oat-meal chaff medium at 37 degrees C. Peak enzyme production occurred within the 10-day incubation period. The lipases of both fungal species were most active at a pH of 5.6 and a temperature of 45 degrees C. The best glyceride for assaying the lipase activities of these fungi was trihexanoin while palm oil was a better vegetable oil than the conventional groundnut oil used for the same purpose. Because of the zoopathogenic nature of these fungi, attention is drawn to the potential health risks which their presence on the palm products where they were obtained pose to the consumers. PMID:7040975

Ogundero, V W

1982-01-15

325

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

326

Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

327

Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

2006-01-01

328

Oil in the North Yemen. Impact of petroleum discoveries in western Arabia on the development of the country and the global economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil deposits found in the North Yemen and especially the export pipeline to the Red Sea are important not only for the Yemen's economy, but for the world economy, too. They mitigate the dependence on war-threatened gulf oil. Pressure on the bottle-neck of world oil supply, the Straight of Hormuz, is relieved. Together with the new pipelines from the oil province of the Persian-Arabic Gulf to the Mediterranean and Red Sea, they have begun to form a new important factor in the endangered region of the Middle East - development largely unnoticed by the world. The Straight of Hormuz is losing in importance; the western world is becoming much less susceptible to blackmail. Of course, the oil deposits carry great weight for North Yemen. In autumn 1987, a new chapter began in the long history of this ancient civilized country.

Gabriel, E.F.

1988-09-01

329

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Antonia Tamborrino

2011-02-01

330

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Antonia Tamborrino

2009-04-01

331

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Mediterranean countries: a hypothesis related to olive oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mediterranean countries people would previously have consumed a diet with a high proportion of MUFA. Physical activity would have been intense with a low level of stress. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) system selected over thousands of years of this type of behavior must have adapted to a particular capacity of self regulation. Now, this pattern, called the "Mediterranean diet", has been broken and many people living by the Mediterranean consume a high quantity of calories, mainly from saturated or n-6-rich fats and the relative intake of MUFA has decreased. Simultaneously, physical activity has decreased and the pattern of stress has changed towards what is called a western lifestyle. In this new context, if people have a favorable, genetically conditioned SCD1 activity that will let them confront the new situation or else have some other compensatory mechanism, such as being keen on sport, etc, then they can prevent the appearance of some of the complications associated with the metabolic syndrome. If, on the other hand, the SCD1 pattern is genetically unfavorable for this new situation and they have a new cultural context, then they do not have the alternative compensatory mechanisms and the probability of developing the metabolic syndrome is high. PMID:17912723

Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; García-Escobar, Eva; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Olveira, Gabriel

2007-10-01

332

User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship Between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control it [...] s production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

Giovanna, Guimarães Gielfi; Newton, Müller Pereira; Rogério, Gomes; Vinícius, Cardoso de Barros Fornari.

2013-02-01

333

Removal of Radium Isotopes from Oil Co-produced Water using Bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters-pH over other comparable parameters.(author)

334

Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

335

Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta state (Nigeria))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg-1. The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe. (authors)

336

Method and fluid for placing resin coated gravel or sand in a producing oil well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an improvement in a method for forming a consolidated gravel pack in a washed out cavity adjacent to a producing well penetrating a subterranean oil formation. It comprises: the steps of suspending resin coated gravel in a viscous aqueous carrier fluid and pumping the gravel into the portion of the formation where it is desired to form the consolidated gravel pack, the gravel particles being suspended in an viscous aqueous fluid containing hydroxyethylcellulose and a fluorescent dye and having an initial pH in the range of from 6 to 8. The improvement comprises incorporating in the viscous aqueous carrier fluid an acid anhydride which reacts with the water component of the aqueous carrier fluid to form an acid, reducing the pH of the fluid to a value less than about 6 in from 2 to 6 hours which causes the viscosity of the aqueous carrier fluid to be reduced, thereby permitting the resin coated sand particles to come into close contact in order to form a dense permeable gravel pack.

Friedman, R.H.; Suries, B.W.

1990-01-23

337

SAGD report card : Alberta believes it can rival Saudi Arabia as an oil producer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviewed 9 oil sands companies that currently own commercial-scale steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects producing more than 5000 bbls a day in northern Alberta. The article reviewed production costs and outputs, and examined schedule and cost over-runs during project construction phases and how they are impacting on overall business trends for the companies. Technologies adopted by the project operators were outlined, and details of demonstration programs currently being conducted to test new technologies were presented. Issues concerning regulatory approvals for individual projects were discussed. Production statistics and forecasts were provided, and planned expansions were outlined. Projects reviewed in the article included Suncor's Firebag project; Husky's Tucker project; Nexen/OPTI's Long Lake project; EnCana's Foster Creek/Christina Lake project; ConocoPhillips' Surmont project Petro-Canada's Mackay River project; Devon's Jackfish project; JACOS' Hangingstone project; and Connacher's Great Divide project. Results of the review demonstrated that SAGD production is occurring at a slower rate than any of the companies originally predicted. However, output is continuing to rise. It was concluded that since SAGD is a relatively new technology, methods of improving the technology and reducing its environmental impacts are still being explored. 12 figs.

Roche, P.

2008-10-15

338

Biodegradable Nanocapsules produced via Layer-by-Layer Technique on Oil based Templates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we focused the attention on the development of nanocapsules like carriers for their capability to embed high payloads of active substances. Moreover we just used natural materials like vegetal oils and natural polysaccharides to avoid side effects from the use of such nanocarriers. In particular, we chose to start from an oil core template for the preparation of nanocarriers to be used in bio-nano-technology fields. Indeed, oil in water emulsions can easily reach sizes down to 10...

Vecchione, Raffaele

2013-01-01

339

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45...

Juliana Guerra de Oliveira; Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

2013-01-01

340

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes. PMID:25342693

Tan, BoonFei; de Araujo e Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesb?, Camilla

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and gas converted to a common unit of measure on the basis of their approximate relative...profits disbursements) from production in relation to future gross revenues, based on...contractual services performed on behalf of investors in oil and gas producing...

2010-04-01

342

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal securities laws and the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975. 210.4-10 Section 210.4-10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2010-04-01

343

Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods. PMID:20492235

Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

2010-03-01

344

Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

345

Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

1995-07-01

346

An oil barrel against a hundred lies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this book, the author shades light on the OPEC's strategy of exhausting the other oil producing countries' reserves in order to be in a monopoly situation. It reveals the content of oil contracts, the sordid reality of the relations between oil companies and producing countries. Thanks to a cross-comparison between declarations and inquiries, it points out the errors made by experts and their, sometimes disastrous, consequences for indebted countries. Finally it proposes a scenario of the World's situation by the year 2050 and demonstrates that a break up of our oil dependence and a change of our behaviours have become urgent priorities. (J.S.)

347

Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

2013-02-01

348

Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Properties of Medium-Density Fibreboard Produced from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are readily available residues from palm oil industry and have tremendous potential to be used as fibre raw material for Medium-density Fibreboard (MDF) manufacture. However, some of the properties of the MDF produced from EFB have been reported to be relatively inferior to those made from rubberwood, presumably due to presence of residual oil in the fibres. In this study, the effects of EFB fibre treatment (soaking in 2% NaOH, boiling in water, both soaking and boil...

Anwar, U. M. K.; Mohd Nor, M. Y.; Astimar, A. A.; Paridah, M. T.; Norul Izani, M. A.

2012-01-01

349

Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water) was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( [...] FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005) consists of a lipopeptide similar to surfactin. The influences of temperature and the composition of oil + biosurfactant + water were determined by using phase diagrams. Three types of oil were used, namely: motor oil, hydrogenated naphthenic oil (NH140) and castor bean oil. The emulsified systems were analyzed using optical micrography. The results presented here indicated that the biosurfactant produced in this work presents a potential use as stabilizing agent for oil-in-water emulsions.

M., Sousa; I. T., Dantas; F. X., Feitosa; A. E. V., Alencar; S. A., Soares; V. M. M., Melo; L. R. B., Gonçalves; H. B., Sant' ana.

2014-09-01

350

Oil exports under GATT and the WTO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

Abdallah, H. [Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum, Cairo (Egypt)

2005-12-15

351

Oil exports under GATT and the WTO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

352

Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large amount of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra), is discharged to the sea in connection with oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. In addition, chemicals are used to avoid production problems due to corrosion, scaling (precipitation of sulphates or carbonates in the production system), foaming, phase separation, etc. Some of these chemicals are designed to interact with alkaline earth elements and will influence the speciation of radium. The presence of barium in the produced water (0.1 - 1 mM) makes it a carrier for radium. The main questions addressed are how the presence of added chemicals will affect the speciation and mobility of Ra, and if it will increase the biological uptake in biota? To answer these questions we have performed tests of mobility and uptake in biota in controlled environments, simulating real conditions. To enable measurement of low uptake of 226Ra, the concentration used was higher than that in seawater, i.e. 2 - 10 Bq/L activity concentrations were chosen. Liquid scintillation counting was used for measuring 226Ra and daughters. Using Quantulus with peak shape analysis gave a good separation of alpha- and beta radiation. Although the quenching in some samples was considerable, the loss of alphas seems to be low. The results from force-feeding of cod indicate a much higher increase in Ra-uptake from food when scale inhibitor iRa-uptake from food when scale inhibitor is present, i.e. ca 18% vs. ca 4%. To analyse precipitated BaSO4 with and without scale inhibitor, SEM and particle analysis have been used. The presence of scale inhibitor makes the crystals smaller and thus more mobile. The average crystal sizes were reduced from 8 to 3 ?m. To measure the amount of biological accessible Ra we used MnO2-based disks of DTG (Diffusion through Thin Gradient). The DTG showed a linear uptake as a function of time with an efficiency of 60% of theoretical uptake. (author)

353

The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

2009-01-01

354

The effects of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) essential oil components against ochratoxin-producing Aspergilli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the essential oil of Thymus serpyllum L. and of its components thymol and total phenols (total phenolic content, TPC) extracted from the plant on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, and A. niger. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for the essential oil and thymol, and selected concentration of the TPC extract inhibited fungal growth and ochratoxin A biosynthesis by more than 60 %, depending on the conditions and duration of incubation with the fungi. Essential oil showed the strongest inhibitory effect which may have been related to the synergistic or cumulative effects of its components. PMID:23334040

Sokoli?-Mihalak, Darja; Frece, Jadranka; Slavica, Anita; Delaš, Frane; Pavlovi?, Hrvoje; Markov, Ksenija

2012-12-01

355

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countri...

Paolo Amirante; Maria Lisa Clodoveo; Alessandro Leone; Antonia Tamborrino

2011-01-01

356

Producer Service and the Added Value of Manufacturing Industries, An Empirical Research Based on Various Industries of Different Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article makes an analysis in the mechanism that how producer service promotes the added value of manufacturing industries. Producer service is regarded as an important source of scare factors for value creation in manufacturing. Therefore, the rapid development of producer service leads to cost cut and ...

Xiaojing Zhang

2009-01-01

357

An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

2010-05-15

358

An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

Edy Soewono

2007-04-01

359

Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil against extended spectrum ? lactamase produced by urinary isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%, thymol (13.38% and p-cymene (8.27%. All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.

Samad Nejad Ebrahimi

2011-04-01

360

Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region  

Science.gov (United States)

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June-July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January-February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be -7 and 0-6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (?20% in total). In total, 50-57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48-53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

2014-09-01

362

Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

2004-01-01

363

A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

2013-12-01

364

The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE) was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE) locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP) or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were...

Zair, Zyad Rafa Apos A.; Dr. Malek Mostafa Mohammed

2005-01-01

365

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the co...

Baharuddin, Azhari S.; Razak, Mohamad N. A.; Hock, Lim S.; Ahmad, Mohd N.; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Rahman, Nor A. A.; Shah, Umi K. M.; Hassan, Mohd A.; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai,

2010-01-01

366

Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NO{sub x} concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SO{sub x} emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (<30 ppm). The O{sub 2} concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines. (author)

Ji-Lu Zheng; Yong-Ping Kong [Zheng Zhou HengXing Science and Technology Co. Ltd., 20 East Street of Bai Zhuang of HuaGong, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450007 (China)

2010-01-15

367

Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NO{sub x} concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SO{sub x} emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (<30 ppm). The O{sub 2} concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

Zheng Jilu, E-mail: triace@163.co [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, 75, DaXue Street, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China) and Zheng Zhou HengXing Science and Technology Co. Ltd., 20, East Street of Bai Zhuang of HuaGong, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450007 (China); Kong Yongping [Zheng Zhou HengXing Science and Technology Co. Ltd., 20, East Street of Bai Zhuang of HuaGong, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450007 (China)

2010-01-15

368

Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NOx concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SOx emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (2 concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

369

Producer Service and the Added Value of Manufacturing Industries, An Empirical Research Based on Various Industries of Different Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article makes an analysis in the mechanism that how producer service promotes the added value of manufacturing industries. Producer service is regarded as an important source of scare factors for value creation in manufacturing. Therefore, the rapid development of producer service leads to cost cut and efficiency promotion in manufacturing industries. Added value rate is then chosen as the measurement to the influence of producer service on manufacturing. An empirical research is made based on data from China, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, South Korea, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States. It shows that more producer service is used as an input, higher rate of added value can a manufacturing industry gain from it.

Xiaojing Zhang

2009-07-01

370

Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

Fisher, R.

1995-08-01

371

Budget deficit remedies and their impact on the non-oil sectors of an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for the non-oil production side of the Kuwaiti economy was developed and estimated. The model, then, was simulated according to various scenarios designed to eliminate the budget deficit by the year 2000, in order to examine the effect on the non-oil sector of the economy. The results indicate that, in terms of its impact on non-oil GDP, the extreme case scenario is harsh, bringing down the level of non-oil GDP by more than 20% by the year 2000 from its level in 1993. The impact on the budget deficit may be very positive, but non-oil production and consumption will decline very rapidly, creating widespread hardship across all economic sectors. The results suggest a better option lies in adopting either of two intermediate case scenarios. While each of these will also cause a decline in non-oil GDP, it will not be to the extent caused by the extreme case scenario.

Eltony, M.N. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait). Economic Studies Department

1998-03-01

372

Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

James Redfern

2014-05-01

373

The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products.

374

Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under eight different hormonal supplementations and proliferated by subculture of nodal shoot segments. The respective essential oils, obtained by hy