WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil producing countries

  1. The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

  2. Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

  3. 1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, A.J.

    1979-03-01

    This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

  4. Optimal gasoline tax in developing, oil-producing countries: The case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the methodology of Parry and Small (2005) to estimate the optimal gasoline tax for a less-developed oil-producing country. The relevance of the estimation relies on the differences between less-developed countries (LDCs) and industrial countries. We argue that lawless roads, general subsidies on gasoline, poor mass transportation systems, older vehicle fleets and unregulated city growth make the tax rates in LDCs differ substantially from the rates in the developed world. We find that the optimal gasoline tax is $1.90 per gallon at 2011 prices and show that the estimate differences are in line with the factors hypothesized. In contrast to the existing literature on industrial countries, we show that the relative gasoline tax incidence may be progressive in Mexico and, more generally, in LDCs. - Highlights: • We estimate the optimal gasoline tax for a typical less-developed, oil-producing country like Mexico. • The relevance of the estimation relies on the differences between less-developed and industrial countries. • The optimal gasoline tax is $1.90 per gallon at 2011 prices. • Distance-related pollution damages, accident costs and gas subsidies account for the major differences. • Gasoline tax incidence may be progressive in less developed countries

  5. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2ergy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

  6. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Rajkovi?

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  7. Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

  8. Nuclear power prospects in an oil and coal-producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face the crucial problem of having to decide which kinds of energy resources would reasonably feasibly replace the oil currently being used in the country as the main source of energy. A description is given of the present known energy reserves and their potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil from the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints on both coal and nuclear power are discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economic, financial and political aspects. A comparative study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy. (author)

  9. Oil and gas industry in the 1990s in the producer country of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for the development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are outlined. Oil dominates the economy, well over 80% of export earnings being derived from petroleum. The ideal would be for Nigeria to become a net exporter of processed gas and refined petroleum products and derivatives but not of crude oil thus reaping the maximum benefit of value added earnings. This goal is being pursued wherever possible. By 1996, Nigeria should possess all the major constituents of a modern oil industry state. The three modern refineries which have a total capacity of 445,000 barrels per day will have the necessary pipelines, depots and export terminals. Four petrochemical plants will produce a range of products. A gas condensate field will be in production for export and a number of plants will be producing liquefied natural gas, natural gas liquids, methanol and MTBE. To achieve these objectives for its petroleum industry, Nigeria has set up a structure for the management framework and has developed a national petroleum policy. The salient points of the policy are given. (UK)

  10. An environmentally viable waste disposal method for oil-producing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ud din, S; Reza Oskui, G P; Al-Dousari, A; Al Ghadban, A N; Al Murad, M

    2010-02-01

    The increasing amount of oil field waste is a matter of concern. This study proposes the Slurry Fracture Injection (SFI) technique as an alternative waste disposal method. The proposed waste disposal method is complete and leaves few future liabilities. The entire waste can be injected into an isolated deep geologic zone with no contamination of water-bearing formations or formations outside the targeted zone. The method can lead to the reclamation of oil industry landfills and the oil pits and dumps. We propose a two-tiered screening method for evaluating the feasibility of this technology and identification of a suitable target zone. A stringent environmental monitoring program should complement the SFI process to ensure environmental compatibility. PMID:19748946

  11. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

    2009-07-15

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

  12. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

    2009-07-15

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

  13. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

  14. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

  15. A proficiency test for some laboratories in Arab Countries for determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials contaminated soil reference sample with produced water in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, results of first proficiency test exercise for radiochemical laboratories of some Arab counties using contaminated reference soil sample prepared by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The soil sample was collected from one of the highly radioactively contaminated lagoons with production water in the Syrian oil fields. Laboratories from six countries naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation have been participated in this test, viz. Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Jordan and Syria. The results have evaluated using statistical criteria to evaluate the performance of each laboratory in addition to the overall evaluation for each isotope. This evaluation has indicated that 57% and 86% of the results passed the criteria set for precision and accuracy applied for this test in relation to Radium-226 and Radium-228, respectively. These two isotopes are the most important isotopes in the oil industry. (author)

  16. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  17. On the economic determinants of oil production: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence for small exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, decisions regarding production in oil exporting countries are studied by means of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Under the assumptions of exogenous oil prices and world oil demand, we are able to describe the relationship between oil production levels and changes in the conditions in world oil markets. Intertemporal production decisions by a representative oil producer are modelled by means of a partial equilibrium model. In this theoretical model, oil produc...

  18. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  19. The economic growth of oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  20. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  1. Reconsidering the resource curse in oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While there is much evidence to support the resource curse hypothesis for resource-abundant countries, some studies have found that oil booms raise the economic growth of oil-exporting countries. This paper examines the issue of the existence of the threshold effects in the relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying panel regressions. The empirical results strongly suggest the existence of a threshold beyond which oil revenues growth exerts a negative effect on output. The results indicate that the threshold of growth rate of oil revenues above which oil revenues significantly slows growth is around 18-19% for oil-exporting countries. In contrast, linear estimation without any allowance for threshold effects would misleadingly imply that an increase in the oil revenues increase the economic growth rate. Failure to account for nonlinearities conceal the resource curse in these countries particularly during extreme oil booms as suggested in previous studies

  2. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  3. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume.

  4. Yemen - the next big player? [as an oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993 should be the year in which United Yemen finally starts to fulfil its potential as a significant oil producer. In recession for three years, the country desperately needs the revenues and has spared no effort in its attempt to provide the right financial climate within which international oil companies can operate. But the last three years, in terms of revenues from actual oil production, have been disastrous, with production from the much-touted Shabwa fields persistently deferred and with the overall climate for the oil industry clouded by a border dispute with Saudi Arabia that prompted at least one western major, BP, to suspend operations for a while. (author)

  5. Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

  6. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ? We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ? The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ? The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ? The OPCE Middle n this century. ? The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ? These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  7. Heavy Oils Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a survey of more than 50 diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, 21 strains were observed to produce extracellular heavy oils. These strains represented at least 6 phylogenetic clades, although more than half fell into clades 9 and 11. Oil colors ranged from bright yellow to malachite. M...

  8. Crude Oil Prices and Stock Markets in Major Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence on Decoupling Feature

    OpenAIRE

    onour, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates common cyclical features between crude oil market and stock markets in major oil exporting countries including Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait. The results of the paper indicate, at low oil prices (below $40 per oil barrel) Saudi and Abu-Dhabi markets share common cyclical feature with oil market, but they digress from the oil market as oil prices rose above $40 per barrel. The decoupling feature indicate the capital markets and oil market respond in different pattern ...

  9. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  10. Oil Price Shocks and Stock Market Returns in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Case of GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Hédi AROURI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using linear and nonlinear models, this paper investigates the responses of stock markets in GCC countries to oil price shocks. Our findings show that stock market returns significantly react to oil price changes in Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia and UAE. In addition, we establish that the relationships between oil prices and stock markets in these countries are nonlinear and switching according to the oil price values. However, for Bahrain and Kuwait we found that oil price changes do not affect stock market returns.

  11. Oil Prices and Real Exchange Rates in Oil-Exporting Countries: A Bounds Testing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.; Mohammadi, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    We test the validity of the Dutch disease hypothesis by examining the relationship between real oil prices and real exchange rates in a sample of fourteen oil exporting countries. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds tests of cointegration support the existence of a stable relationship between real exchange rates and real oil prices in all countries, suggesting a strong support for the Dutch disease hypothesis.

  12. Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)

  13. The role of country risk in crude oil trading

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ine?s; Fragnie?re, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil is one of the foundations of the global economy. It is extracted in different parts of the world such as North and South America, Asia, Africa and Persian Gulf. It is a very important source of income for developing countries thus, disruptions of production due to geopolitical factors can be devastating for a country’s economy. This research is an attempt to understand the implications of country risk when crude oil is traded and find out what could be the solutions to mitigate th...

  14. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  15. Effect of oil loading on microspheres produced by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L H; Chan, L W; Heng, P W S

    2005-05-01

    Oil-loaded microspheres were produced by spray drying emulsions consisting of fish oil and modified starch suspensions with different oil loadings. The emulsion stability was assessed by oil droplet size analysis. Microspheres were characterized in terms of size, morphology, yield and microencapsulation efficiency. It was found that an increase in oil loading resulted in emulsions containing larger oil droplets. This corresponded with larger mean microsphere diameters and rounder microspheres. However, high oil loadings produced lower yields and affected microencapsulation efficiencies. PMID:16019911

  16. Environmental Conservation And Sustainable Development In Oil Producing Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the impact of oil and gas exploration, development and production on the environment and local environmental standards and guidelines are highlighted and compared to prevailing environmental conditions in some of the oil producing communities. The effect of environmental pollution on the sustainable development of oil producing communities is analyzed. The responses of the inhabitants of oil producing communities to environmental degradation in detail. So also are the reactions of the oil producing companies and the Federal government. Special emphasis is placed on the activities of relevant governmental institutions in oil producing areas. Finally, a strategy for ensuring environmental conservation and sustainable development in oil producing communities is proposed

  17. Athabasca oil sands produce quality gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre; Ng, S.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Upgrading Program

    2010-07-01

    The technologies used to produce Syncrude's sweet blend (SSB) synthetic crude oil are always being optimized. Studies have demonstrated that bitumens can be upgraded to produce high quality gasoline. This power point presentation discussed a pilot study conducted to determine the performance of 10 vacuum gas oils (VGOs) and their performance with a typical commercial equilibrium catalyst under varying temperature regimes. VGOs were compared in relation to their density, sulphur content, and hydrocarbon precursor types. Gasoline precursors included mono-aromatics and saturates. Gasoline quality was determined by measuring sulphur content and determine octane numbers. The study demonstrated that sulphur and nitrogen content is feed dependent. Gasoline yields were increased by reducing total nitrogen (TN) as well as by increasing gasoline precursors. Hydrocracker bottoms produced the highest gasoline yields. The octane numbers of oil sands-derived gasoline are the same as numbers derived from typical Alberta light crude blends. The hydrocracking and hydrotreating processes increase gasoline yields with low sulphur and high octane numbers. Hydrotreated virgin and LC-finer VGOs produce gasoline yields that are similar to conventional crude VGOs. tabs., figs.

  18. The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

  19. Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

  20. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  1. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  2. Oil Price and Economic Growth in Small Pacific Island Countries

    OpenAIRE

    T. K. Jayaraman; Evan Lau

    2011-01-01

    Among the 14 Pacific Island countries (PICs), only Papua New Guinea has fossil fuel resources. None of the remaining 13 PICs has any energy sources. Consequently, all the 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Recent surges and volatility in oil prices have had serious economic re-percussions on economic growth. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, hi...

  3. Nuclear power for the oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is the economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil-exporting countries, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. Headings are: status of nuclear power in Iran and Egypt; rationale for using nuclear power (gas value; gas balance; financial and fiscal parameters; opportunity cost of capital; taxation burdens; rate making formulae; conservation ethos); applications (nuclear - oil competition; process heat and desalination; nuclear reactors and development assistance); conclusion. (U.K.)

  4. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes

  5. The long-run macroeconomic impacts of fuel subsidies in an oil-importing developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Plante, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and numerical results show how the presence of a subsidy on household and firm purchases of oil products distorts long-run macroeconomic aggregates in an oil-importing developing country. Beyond leading to over-consumption of oil products these subsidies also lead to increased labor supply, a distorted emphasis on producing traded goods, and higher real wages. The subsidy also impacts the relative price of non-traded goods, causing it to fall when the non-traded sector is more o...

  6. Recent developments in the oil spill response, arrangements in four Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the existing national arrangement for intervention in case of oil spills in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain, Libya, Egypt) are analyzed. These plans were considered by AGIP for incorporation in the Contingency Plans for offshore operations conducted by its subsidiaries in these four countries. More recent development for improvement of these arrangements (example Oil sector Plans in Egypt) are taken into account together with the oil spill cases more likely susceptible to produce a further increase of the existing capabilities. In addition to the cases which have been extensively dealt with in the specialized Newsletters and Bulletins (Khark 5, Aragon spills), this paper also deals with the less known spill of December 1989 in the Egyptian waters of Gulf of Suez. The accident involved a Philippine ship and the GUPCO's platform Sidki, representing an emblematic case of the problems of the heavy use of the Gulf of Suez as a water way and oil production area

  7. Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

  8. Long-term oil strategy - creating an appropriate fiscal regime in OPEC countries to keep the upstream sector competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is to examine the factors that governed the upstream activities in OPEC countries during three distinct periods, namely: 1950 to 1973, 1974 to 1985 and 1986 to the present. Particular emphasis will be placed on the fiscal and legal instruments adopted by a number of OPEC countries in attracting oil companies to their respective countries, so as to maintain the momentum of oil exploration and production which is commensurate with their huge hydrocarbon reserves and also be in consonance with their pace of economic development while continuing to exercise their sovereign rights. The first part of the paper reviews the concepts governing the strategic behaviour of oil companies and oil-producing countries. Part two is devoted to the evolution of fiscal regimes in OPEC countries showing how the behaviour of OPEC Member Countries and oil companies illustrates the concepts in part one. How the dynamics of the oil market influence the upstream planning in OPEC Member Countries is examined in part three of the paper. Part four looks at the new cooperation and strategic alliances that are evolving between some OPEC countries and a number of oil companies to ensure that OPEC retains a leadership position which is commensurate with its Members' hydrocarbon resources. Conclusions are drawn in part five. (author)

  9. A survey of oil product demand elasticities for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more and more developing countries join the ranks of the rich they will consume both more oil and higher percentage of the lighter products. To satisfy this growing demand oil production and refinery capacity that can provide the right quantity and mix of products must be developed. In a companion piece, Dahl (1993) found the total demand for oil to be price inelastic (-0.34) and income elastic (1.32) These elasticities can give information on the total quantity of oil that might be demanded, the total amount of distillation capacity that might be needed and the overall increases in product prices that might be necessary to choke off demand growth. However, with this overall growth in product demand, the more the shift towards the lighter portion of the barrel, the more complex the refinery and the greater the demand for downstream capital. To provide information on this mix in developing countries in the coming years, this paper surveys the available work on econometric demand elasticities by oil product. (author)

  10. Oil And The Macroeconomy : Empirical evidence from 10 OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ameri, Leyth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact ofoil price on Industrial production, real effective exchange rate, long term interest rate and inflation rate for a sample of ten OECD countries using quarterly data for the period 1970q1-2011q1.The impact of oil price shock on industrial production is negative and occurs with a lag of one year. However, the impact has weakened considerably compared to the 1970s. The impact on real effective exchang...

  11. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  12. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...certain oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation...include loans, grants, income tax incentives, and the provision of goods and services for less than adequate...

  13. Oil Price and Economic Growth in Small Pacific Island Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Jayaraman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the 14 Pacific Island countries (PICs, only Papua New Guinea has fossil fuel resources. None of the remaining 13 PICs has any energy sources. Consequently, all the 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Recent surges and volatility in oil prices have had serious economic re-percussions on economic growth. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the recently developed panel analysis procedures to five major PICs, namely Fiji, Samoa, Solomon islands, Tonga and Vanuatu with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, economic growth and international reserve are cointegrated. The study findings are that although in the long run there is no long run causality relationship between these variables, in the short run the causality linkage runs from oil prices and interna-tional reserve to economic growth. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on policy options.

  14. Oil prices and stock markets: What drives what in the gulf corporation council countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Kónya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values to study the sensitivity of stock markets to oil prices in GCC (Gulf Corporation Council) countries. Using two ...

  15. Institutional Quality, Economic Growth and Fluctuations of Oil Prices in Oil Dependent Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mehrara; Ahmadali Keikha; Alireza Keikha

    2012-01-01

    The principle aim of this investigation is the study of fluctuations of oil prices impacts on economic growth of oil-dependent countries with respect to institutional quality. For this purpose we use panel cointegration methodology and error-correction model for 32 oil abundant countries covering the period 1975-2010. The result implies that fluctua- tions of oil prices impact on economic growth of countries depend on institutional quality index so that the impact of fluctuation is avoided by...

  16. Crude Oil Prices and Liquidity, the BRIC and G3 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ratti, Ronald A.; Vespignani, Joaquin L.

    2012-01-01

    Unanticipated increases in the BRIC countries’ liquidity lead to significant and persistent increases in real oil prices, global oil production and global real aggregate demand. Unanticipated shocks to the liquidity of developed countries over 1997:01-2011:12 do not. The relative contribution to real oil price of liquidity in BRIC countries to liquidity in developed countries is much greater since 2005 than before 2005. China and India drive the results for the effect of BRIC countries’ liqui...

  17. The Global Financial Crisis and Equity Markets in Middle East Oil Exporting Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Onour, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs extreme downside risk measures to estimate the impact of the global financial crisis in 2008/2009 on equity markets in major oil producing Middle East countries. The results in the paper indicate the spillover effect of the global crisis varied from a country to another, but most hardly affected market among the group of six markets was Dubai financial market in which portfolio loss reached about 42 per cent. This indicates that Dubai debt crisis, which emerged on surface i...

  18. Oil supply and demand shocks and stock price: Empirical evidence for some OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaoui, Abderrazak; Saidi, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and stock market in 11 OECD countries using Vector Error Correction Models (VECM). Considering both world oil production and world oil prices to supervise for oil supply and oil demand shocks, strong evidence of sensitivity of stock market returns to the oil price shocks specifications is found. As for impulse response functions, it is found that the impact of oil price shocks substantially differs along the different ...

  19. Oil supply and demand shocks and stock price: Evidence for some OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaoui, Abderrazak; Saidi, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and stock market in 11 OECD countries using Vector Error Correction Models (VECM). Considering both world oil production and world oil prices to supervise for oil supply and oil demand shocks, strong evidence of sensitivity of stock market returns to the oil price shocks specifications is found. As for impulse response functions, it is found that the impact of oil price shocks substantially differs along the different ...

  20. Method of producing an oil absorbing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to an method of collecting liquid chemicals such as oil spills on onshore or offshore sites. The collection of liquid is done by using a porous and elastic type of material which, in advance of use, is to be wetted, compressed and frozen. During the process of thawing, the material is made sorbent throughout the process of expansion

  1. Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Cost effectiveness of palm oil in comparison to other oils and fats in the country with special emphasis on lower income group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils in the form of vegetable oils are integral part of diet and comprise of an important source of calorie density and micronutrients in human diet. The per capita edible oil consumption in India (14.5 kg in 2012-2013 has been steadily rising over the decades but is still short of the average worldwide consumption in the developed countries. Especially the below poverty line population lags far behind in terms of per capita edible oil consumption and therefore is a major reason for widespread malnutrition. Inadequate consumption of edible oils, which acts as vehicle (mainly promotes absorption in intestine for important micronutrients like vitamin A, D, E and K, is the root cause behind this.  Palm oil is an important source of carotenoids (pro-vitamin A, tocols (Vitamin E, sterols, essential fatty acid and is cost effective in comparison to other edible oils. Crude palm oil which is orange red in color is refined, bleached and deodorized to produce the universally known bright golden oil. Palm oil is a natural semi-solid oil and on fraction it yields soft fraction and hard fraction. Olein (liquid fraction is mostly used as a cooking and frying oil. Stearin finds many applications in solid fat formulations and is extensively used in food processing.

  3. Challenges to producing LGB-specific Country of Origin information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pangilinan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluations of whether LGB asylum claimants have a well-foundedfear of persecution frequently require Country of Origin Informationbut information on LGB populations in countries where being LGB iscriminalised is often difficult to obtain.

  4. Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ? Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ? Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ? There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

  5. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  6. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  7. Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mehrara; Maysam Musai

    2011-01-01

    This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-r...

  8. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  9. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  10. Real Exchanges Rates in Commodity Producing Countries: A Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Bodart, Vincent; Candelon, Bertrand; Carpantier, Jean-franc?ois

    2011-01-01

    Commodity currency literature recently stressed the importance of commodity prices as a determinant of real exchange rates in developing countries (Cashin, Cespedes and Sahay 2004). We provide new empirical evidence on this issue by focusing on countries which are specialized in the export of one leading commodity. For those countries, we investigate to which extent their real exchange rate is sensitive to price uctuations of their dominant commodity. By using non-stationary panel techniques ...

  11. Institutional Quality, Economic Growth and Fluctuations of Oil Prices in Oil Dependent Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle aim of this investigation is the study of fluctuations of oil prices impacts on economic growth of oil-dependent countries with respect to institutional quality. For this purpose we use panel cointegration methodology and error-correction model for 32 oil abundant countries covering the period 1975-2010. The result implies that fluctua- tions of oil prices impact on economic growth of countries depend on institutional quality index so that the impact of fluctuation is avoided by countries with sufficiently good institutions. More ever, the long-run ratio of investment to products effect is negative and small that shows the quality of investment projects is more importance than the quantity of them in the economic growth of these countries. The effect of trade openness on economic growth in the long-run is positive, statistically significant, and economically sizable.

  12. Oil producing communities demand royalties from E and P companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing levels of the activities of oil exploration and producing (E and P) companies especially in the Niger delta region of Nigeria has led to a significant loss of habitat sometimes with disastrous environmental consequences. Compensations are seldom paid to victims of this process. Some communities now see the need to be paid royalties for oil drilled from their communities by E and P companies

  13. The impact of oil price shocks. Evidence from the industries of six OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, Rebeca [Department of Economics, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, E-37007, Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Most of the studies about the macroeconomic consequences of oil price shocks have been focused on US aggregate data. In contrast to these studies, this paper empirically assesses the dynamic effect of oil price shocks on the output of the main manufacturing industries in six OECD countries. The pattern of responses to an oil price shock by industrial output is diverse across the four European Monetary Union (EMU) countries under consideration (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), but broadly similar in the UK and the US. Moreover, evidence on cross-industry heterogeneity of oil shock effects within the EMU countries is also reported. (author)

  14. The impact of oil price shocks. Evidence from the industries of six OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the studies about the macroeconomic consequences of oil price shocks have been focused on US aggregate data. In contrast to these studies, this paper empirically assesses the dynamic effect of oil price shocks on the output of the main manufacturing industries in six OECD countries. The pattern of responses to an oil price shock by industrial output is diverse across the four European Monetary Union (EMU) countries under consideration (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), but broadly similar in the UK and the US. Moreover, evidence on cross-industry heterogeneity of oil shock effects within the EMU countries is also reported. (author)

  15. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  16. Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

  17. Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude poteat there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

  18. A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  19. Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. The findings imply high vulnerability of oildependent countries to oil revenues volatility. To insulate the economy from oil revenue volatility requires institutional mechanisms de-linking health expenditures decisions from current revenue.

  20. Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jungwook [Energy Efficiency Division, Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Gwacheon (Korea); Ratti, Ronald A. [Department of Economics, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

  1. Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

  2. Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

  3. Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in Europe: a survey among national experts from 39 countries, february 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Glasner, C.; Albiger, B.; Buist, G.; Tambic? Andras?evic?, A.; Canton, R.; Carmeli, Y.; Friedrich, A. W.; Giske, C. G.; Glupczynski, Y.; Gniadkowski, M.; Livermore, D. M.; Nordmann, Patrice; Poirel, Laurent; Rossolini, G. M.; Seifert, H.

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a threat to healthcare delivery, although its extent differs substantially from country to country. In February 2013, national experts from 39 European countries were invited to self-assess the current epidemiological situation of CPE in their country. Information about national management of CPE was also reported. The results highlight the urgent need for a coordinated European effort on early diagnosis, active surveillance, a...

  4. Estimation of oil content in producing rock-reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed is the method for estimate the oil content in producing rock-reservoirs according to well logging complex. Noted is the role of the above complex (neutron logging and gamma-gamma logging) in porosity estimation. It is also noted that the complexing of gamma-gamma logging and compensated neutron logging permits to determine the clayiness of reservoir with high accuracy and to estimate its general porosity with regard to clayiness

  5. The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizardi, Carlos Guerrero de; Padilla-Perez, Ramon [Focal (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

  6. The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

  7. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  8. Oil consumption and output: What causes what? Bootstrap panel causality for 49 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the growth, conservation, neutrality and feedback hypotheses for 49 countries during the period from 1970 to 2010 using panel causality analysis: this technique accounts for both dependence and heterogeneity across the countries. The results provide evidence as to the direction of causality between oil consumption and output and are consistent with the neutrality hypothesis for 24 countries, the growth hypothesis for 5 countries, the conservation hypothesis for 13 countries, and the feedback hypothesis for 7 countries. The findings provide important policy implications for the 49 countries under study. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel causality for 49 countries. ? Examines the “growth, conservation, neutrality and feedback” hypotheses for 49 countries during the period from 1970 to 2010.

  9. Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

    2013-01-01

    Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced. PMID:24002524

  10. The story of Fairbank Oil : four generations of the family producing oil longer than anyone in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, P.

    2004-07-01

    This book provides a historical account of the accomplishments of the four generations of Fairbank men who were instrumental in developing the petroleum industry in Ontario. The oil industry in Canada actually began in Oil Springs, Ontario where, in 1861, John Henry Fairbank surveyed 100 acres of land for oil drillings. In 1861 he founded Charles Fairbanks Oil Properties Ltd., an oil business which expanded to 600 acres with 350 working oil wells. By 1890, he had grown to be Canada's single largest oil producer, producing approximately 24,000 barrels of oil per year, and selling it to Imperial Oil. Today, the fourth generation of the Fairbank family still produces about 24,000 barrels of oil each year, but is now one of the smallest oil producers in Canada. For more than 150 years, the Fairbank family has pumped oil in the same place using the same technology. They are the oldest petroleum producing family in the world and have been supplying crude oil to Imperial Oil longer than anyone. refs., figs.

  11. A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metin Artukoglu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

  12. A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Metin Artukoglu

    2002-01-01

    General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

  13. More countries in recession: Oil supply looking for demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation

  14. More countries in recession: Oil supply looking for demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-18

    Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation.

  15. Toxicity assessment of oil field produced water treated by evaporative processes to produce water to irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V T; Andrade, B G; Costa, B R S; Pereira, O A; Dezotti, M

    2010-01-01

    During the productive life of an oil well, a high quantity of produced water is extracted together with the oil, and it may achieve up to 99% in the end of the well's economical life. Desalination is one of mankind's earliest forms of saline water treatment, and nowadays, it is still a common process used throughout the world. A single-effect mechanical vapor compression (MVC) process was tested. This paper aims to assess the potential toxicity of produced water to be re-used in irrigation. Samples of both produced and distilled water were evaluated by 84 chemical parameters. The distilled produced water presented a reduction up to 97% for the majority of the analyzed parameters, including PAHs. Toxicity bioassays were performed with distilled produced water to evaluate the growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae, the acute toxicity to Danio rerio fish, the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable and the severity of toxicity, as well as behavior test with Lumbricid Earthworm Eisenia fetida. The ecotoxicological assays results showed no toxicity, indicating that the referred evaporative process can produce water to be reused in irrigation. PMID:20706017

  16. Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder tessure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not

  17. Texas, oil estate: How a pre-OPEC producer has changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil producer, powerful political voice at home, international influence: Texas was and is all of those things. But its role in these arenas has changed dramatically, as this issue of Energy Detente reveals. Herein, ED views Texas' emerging oil and economic profile as something new that could herald some similar changes in other petroleum estates. It is pointed out that, in most recent years, the importance of West Texas Intermediate grade on the New York Mercantile Exchange as an international benchmark is unsurpassed by any other. This issue of ED also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Jan. 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, Jan. 1992 edition

  18. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  19. Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

    The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

  20. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-onsistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

  1. Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

  2. Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel B. Amponsah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Issues of Taxation in the Oil and Gas Sector in Selected Countries: Lessons for Ghana undertakes a review of petroleum taxation in selected countries around the world and seeks to fashion a way for Ghana’s infantile petroleum industry. In other words, the study seeks to facilitate a smooth tax regime and policy for Ghana. The study is based on literature arising from desk research as well as through telephone interviews. Petroleum taxation regimes of the countries under study portend to mitigate the current inconsistencies and resulting contentions from tax payers in Ghana.

    Key words: Oil and gas; Petroleum; Crude oil; Hydrocarbon; Upstream petroleum operations; Taxation; Tax legislation; Royalty; Income tax

  3. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  4. Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

  5. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

  6. Reconsidering the Relationship between Oil Prices and Industrial Production: Testing for Cointegration in some of the OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eksi, Ibrahim Halil; Izgi, Berna Balci; Senturk, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of crude oil prices on the industrial production for some of the OECD countries. According to it, the empirical results sign that there is statistical meaningful short term causality from crude oil price to industrial production in all countries except France. In France however, causality is from industrial production to oil price in short run. The error correction mechanism is run for US. The causality is from oil price to industrial production in long run...

  7. Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ? Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ? Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

  8. Macroeconometric Modelling in an Oil-Exporting Country: The case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    The critical review undertaken in this paper pinpoints some of the major deficiencies and the strength of the earlier macroeconometric models (MEMs) constructed for Iran as a major oil exporting country. In constructing a new MEM, the flaws of past MEMs should be rectified and their strengths need to be retained. Most of the equations in these models are directly and indirectly affected by oil and gas exports and/or value added in the oil sector. Two dualities are observed in most models, viz...

  9. The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbod, G

    2007-02-15

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  10. Reconsidering the Relationship between Oil Prices and Industrial Production: Testing for Cointegration in some of the OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Halil EKSI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of crude oil prices on the industrial production for some of the OECD countries. According to it, the empirical results sign that there is statistical meaningful short term causality from crude oil price to industrial production in all countries except France. In France however, causality is from industrial production to oil price in short run. The error correction mechanism is run for US. The causality is from oil price to industrial production in long run for US. These results show us that oil prices do affect industrial production index. Another interesting finding that, similar results were observed for oil exporting and importing countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran as well. This situation is important that firm sensitivity towards oil price shows a similarity among the countries.

  11. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  12. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  13. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  18. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Ireland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Ireland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  20. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal A.N Gohar; Mohamed S.E. Gayar; Abd I.H. El-Moneim; Marwan; Ahmed Aly

    2006-01-01

    Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were...

  8. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

  9. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  10. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program...under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program...EPA's analysis of palm oil-based biofuels...

  11. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program...under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program...EPA's analysis of palm oil-based biofuels...

  12. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

  13. Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang

    2014-01-01

    In generally, there is a phenomenon of “free rider” in the establishment of national oil reserves for different countries, which means that they have the tendency of underestimating the strategic oil reserves. This paper attempts to explain this phenomenon from the perspective of non-cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice.

  14. Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets. The case of GCC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed [EDHEC Business School, 12 bis, rue de la Victoire, 75009 Paris (France); Huong Dinh, Thanh [IRG, University of Paris-Est Creteil Val-de-Marne, Route de Choisy, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Khuong Nguyen, Duc [ISC Paris School of Management, 22, Boulevard du Fort de Vaux, 75017 Paris (France)

    2010-08-15

    This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes. (author)

  15. Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets: the case of GCC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.arouri@univ-orleans.f [EDHEC Business School, 12 bis, rue de la Victoire, 75009 Paris (France); Thanh Huong Dinh, E-mail: thanhhuongfi@yahoo.co [IRG, University of Paris-Est Creteil Val-de-Marne, Route de Choisy, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Duc Khuong Nguyen, E-mail: dnguyen@groupeisc.co [ISC Paris School of Management, 22, Boulevard du Fort de Vaux, 75017 Paris (France)

    2010-08-15

    This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes.

  16. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  17. The impact of oil prices on GDP in European countries: An empirical investigation based on asymmetric cointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the existence of a long-term relationship between oil prices and GDP in 12 European countries. To account for the fact that economic activity responds asymmetrically to oil price shocks, we propose an approach based on asymmetric cointegration. Our results show that, while standard cointegration is rejected, there is evidence for asymmetric cointegration between oil prices and GDP in the majority of the considered European countries

  18. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  19. New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs

  20. From Oil Crisis to Climate Change. Understanding CO2 Emission Trends in IEA Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD CO2 emissions from fuel combustion increased 13% between 1990 and 2001. This signals an important shift since, over the 1973 to 1990 period, emissions only increased by 3.4%. As a result, CO2 emissions from energy use (fuel combustion) contributed 81.1% of total OECD greenhouse gas emissions in 2001 compared to 77.7% in 1990. As these figures make clear, reducing CO2 emissions from fuel combustion constitutes a key challenge to combat climate change. Developing and successfully implementing the most efficient policies for reducing CO2 emissions requires a good understanding of how factors such as income, prices, demography, economic structure, lifestyle, climate, energy efficiency and fuel mix affect energy use and resulting CO2 emissions. This paper presents selected results from the analysis of CO2 developments included in the IEA publication 'From Oil Crisis to Climate Challenge: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries'. The paper gives a brief overview of aggregate CO2 emission trends and of how recent developments in selected IEA countries compare to emissions levels implied by the Kyoto targets. A deeper understanding of the aggregate trends is provided by showing results from a decomposition analysis and by discussing developments in key end-use sectors. The full publication presents a more detailed analysis of how various factors have shaped energy use patterns and CO2 emissions since 1973. The analysis draws on a newly developed database with detailed in newly developed database with detailed information on energy use in the manufacturing, household, service and transport sectors. The database represents the most disaggregated information available on a consistent basis across countries and sectors. The study uses quantitative measures to illustrate the forces that drive or restrain energy use. These measures - or indicators - include: activities such as manufacturing output or heated-floor-area of homes; structural developments such as changes in manufacturing output mix or changes in the mix of transport modes; and energy intensities for sub-sectors and end-uses. Energy intensity is defined as energy per unit activity, representing the energy used to produce some output or provide a service. At a disaggregated level, changes in this indicator are closely related to changes in energy efficiency. The decomposition approach used in the IEA study disentangles the impacts that changes in activity, structure, and energy intensities have on total energy use in each sector. For example, the analysis reveals that in some countries changes in manufacturing structure (the mix of goods produced) have been as important as changes in energy intensities in determining manufacturing energy use developments. The decomposition approach is also used to explain trends in CO2 emissions. In this case, the energy decomposition is expanded with factors representing changes in fuel mix. To analyse trends at an economy-wide level, the results of the sector decomposition are re-aggregated into measures that represent the impact each component has had on changes in a country's total energy use and CO2 emissions

  1. Producing electricity from Israel oil shale with PFBC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of Israeli oil shale combustion at atmospheric pressure in the AFBC commercial boiler manufactured by Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Finland) and in the pressurized test facility of ABB Carbon AB (Finspong, Sweden) confirm suitability of fluidized-bed technologies in case of oil shale. The results approve possibility to use the PFBC technology in case of oil shale after solving of some problems connected with great amounts of fine fly ash. (author)

  2. Preliminary Characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils produced in eastern area of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, F; Ben Moumen, A.; Lopez, G; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sindic, Marianne; Serghini-Caid, H.; Elamrani, A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional olive oil production is limited by its high cost, mainly due to labour expenses for harvesting and pruning. New olive cultivars (e.g. Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki) with greater adaptability to modern irrigated high-density orchards and producing good quality olive oils are highly demanded by an olive oil industry in continuous change The aim of this study is the characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils from three cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki) recentl...

  3. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  4. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  5. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  6. Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Zahrim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent. Integrated treatment system is vital for treating palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent.

  7. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains. Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity and costs associated with the certification. Small honey producers associations were not able to fulfil some of the FLOCERT criteria. The criterion relating to the preservation of the environment is only partially met by the associations studied.

  8. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dinu, Ca?ta?lina Georgeta

    2014-01-01

    Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point ch...

  9. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  10. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  11. World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

  12. The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlinedlined

  14. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in sweet wines produced in Spain and other countries

    OpenAIRE

    BURDASPAL, PEDRO; Legarda, Teresa Mª

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A survey for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) was undertaken from 2001 to 2005 in 188 samples of sweet wines produced in Spain and 102 originated from other countries : France (49), Austria (9), Chile (9), Portugal (9), Greece (6), Italy (5), Germany (3), Hungary (2), Slovenia (2), Switzerland (2), Canada (1), Japan (1), New Zealand (1), Ukraine (1), South Africa (1) and USA (1). The analytical method was based on immunoaffinity chromatography clean-up and HPLC with flu...

  15. Climate Policies in a Fossil Fuel Producing Country - Demand Versus Supply Side Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Fæhn, Taran; Hagem, Cathrine; Lindholt, Lars; Mæland, Ståle; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2014-01-01

    In absence of joint global climate action, several jurisdictions unilaterally restrict their domestic demand for fossil fuels. Another policy option for fossil fuel producing countries, not much explored, is to reduce own supply of fossil fuels. We explore analytically and numerically how domestic demand and supply side policies affect global emissions, contingent on market behaviour. Next, in the case of Norway, we find the cost-effective combination of the two types of policies. Our results...

  16. Liberalization of Trade in Producer Services - the Impact on Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, James; Norda?s, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of liberalization of trade in producer services, focusing on financial services, telecommunications and transport. The likely effects on developing countries is that they will become net importers of the liberalized services, but they will also become more industrialized and increase their exports of labor-intensive goods and services, if given market access under the most appropriate modes of trade. Potential gains from this pattern of trade are large, since im...

  17. Genotypes and phenotypes of beta lactamase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from African countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, E. S.; Bygdeman, S. M.; Birkeland, N. K.; Bjorvatn, B.; Kallings, I.; Sandstro?m, E. G.

    1988-01-01

    The phenotypes and genotypes of 26 beta lactamase (penicillinase) producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) from African countries were investigated. Using the restriction enzyme technique nine different restriction enzyme patterns were found, two of them in 15 strains. Of the 26 strains, 16 belonged to serogroup WI (containing protein type IA) and 10 to serogroup WII/III (containing protein IB). Among the IA strains four different serovars were represented, whereas six serovars were ...

  18. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  19. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  20. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  1. Energy efficiency developments in IEA countries 30 years after the oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents findings from a study that examines how energy efficiency and factors such as economic structure, income, lifestyle, climate, prices and fuel mix have shaped developments in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries since the first oil price shock in 1973. The results show that IEA countries have made significantly progress in energy efficiency since 1973. However an alarming finding is that energy savings rates across all sectors and in almost all countries have slowed since the late 1980s. This indicates that the oil price shocks in the 1970s and the resulting energy policies did considerably more to control growth in energy demand and CO2 emissions than energy efficiency and climate policies implemented in the 1990s. Energy price developments offer some explanation of these long-term trends. The lower prices that followed the high price period of 1973-1986, combined with the fact that energy intensities were already significantly reduced resulted in considerably lower energy expenditures for both industry and private consumers from the mid 1980s. The energy share of total production cost in some industries fell by as much as 50% from the early 1980s until the late 1990s. Similarly, the share of energy costs for stationary uses in IEA household budgets fell by 20-50% over the same period, while the fuel cost per kilometre driven by private cars fell between 20% and 60%, depending on the country. The slowing rate of energ on the country. The slowing rate of energy efficiency improvements is the primary reason for the weaker decoupling of CO2 emissions from GDP growth since 1990. Failing to accelerate improvement of energy efficiency would thus have serious implications for many countries prospects of controlling growth in future emissions

  2. A versatile approach to produce superhydrophobic materials used for oil-water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xue, Qunji

    2014-10-15

    Designing functional materials that can be used for oil-water separation in an efficient and cost-effective process is highly desired yet still challenging. Herein, three functional materials used for oil-water separation are readily produced by a dip coating process. Three typical porous materials including copper mesh, fabric, and sponge were dipped into the solution of polyfluorowax-hydrophobic SiO2 to alter their surface texture and chemistry, allowing them to exhibit superhydrophobic property. It was found that the resulting superhydrophobic copper mesh and fabric can be used as a membrane to separate oil-water mixture efficiency; while the obtained superhydrophobic sponge was demonstrated as an oil sorbent scaffold to absorb oil from the oil-water mixture selectively. More importantly, these superhydrophobic materials can retain their oil-water separation efficiency even after 10 cycles of oil-water separation. PMID:25086383

  3. Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Gandhi Bojan; Senthil Kumaran; Sam Chelladurai

    2011-01-01

    The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other pu...

  4. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

  6. Oil Price Effects on Economic Growth : A Comparison between the BRIC countries and the Western World  (G7)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Andreas; Sundqvist, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether economic growth in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) can be explained by changes in the oil price, with a focus on selected macroeconomic variables. We will also investigate if there are any differences in oil price effects on economic growth between the BRIC countries and the western world (G7). The model used is a Koyck transformation model developed by Leendert Marinus Koyck in 1954, which converts a distributed lag mo...

  7. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. PMID:25903403

  8. Obesity in Gulf countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2012-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% and in adult males 1%–30% in countries of gulf region.

  9. The role of diversification strategies in the economic development for oil-depended countries: - The case of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zain Elabdin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversification strategies adopted by oil-depended economies' played an important role in the economic development in these countries, which rely heavily on oil exports. UAE as an oil-dependency economy has the type of strategy to diversify the sources of its national income and reduce its dependence on oil to counter the instability in global oil prices. This paper seek to investigate whether the diversification strategies adopted by (UAE is adequate to manage its economic development. The methodology employed in this study is to examine the contribution of diversified sectors based on the country's GDP especially during and after the global financial crisis (2008-2012 using statistical analysis procedure. The results confirm that investment in different sectors rather than oil would have substantially improved the performance UAE economy.

  10. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Brian K; Seligman Benjamin; Farquhar John W; Goldhaber-Fiebert Jeremy D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture inter...

  11. Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gandhi Bojan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other purposes. The properties like kinematic viscosity, acid number, specific gravity, Cetane number, etc of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standard but the yield quantity was comparatively low (80.50% because of the high free fatty acid content in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The overall efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke diesel engine coupled with a electric generator was high (24.38% at maximum load conditions compare to raw Jatropha Curcas oil and petro diesel as fuels which gives only 19.6% and 20.11%, respectively shows the possibilities of using biodiesel produced as a fuel in diesel engine.

  12. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

  13. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

  14. Extraction of trace elements by ultrasound-assisted emulsification from edible oils producing detergentless microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements from edible oils via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) producing detergentless microemulsions. These were then analyzed using ICP-MS against matrix matched standards. Optimum experimental conditions were determined and the applicability of the proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction method was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (?gkg(-1)) were 2.47, 2.81, 0.013, 0.037, 1.37, 0.050, 0.049, 0.47, 0.032 and 0.087 for Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3Sb/m). The accuracy of the developed method was checked by analyzing certified reference material. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower seed oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and cod liver oil. PMID:26041176

  15. Long-term relationship between oil revenue and government expenditure in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the Engle-Granger method of co-integration and the Johansen-Juselius maximum-likelihood technique of co-integration to test the long-term relationship between government expenditure (for both consumption and investment purposes) and oil exports in the oil-producing members of the GCC. The regression results suggest that, using the Engle-Granger method, the null hypothesis of no co-integration could only be rejected in the case of Oman. However, the Johansen technique suggests the existence of a unique co-integrating vector, and hence long-term relationship between the two variables in Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There is no evidence of a long-term relationship between government expenditure and oil exports in the case of Kuwait. (Author)

  16. Oil prices, inflation and interest rates in a structural cointegrated VAR model for the G-7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices, and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) a stationary money demand, as suggested by the classic theory of money, can be identified for most countries; ii) according to the estimated coefficients of the structural part of the model, for all countries except Japan and U.K. the null hypothesis of an influence of oil prices on the inflation rate cannot be rejected. Inflation rate shocks are transmitted to the real economy by increasing interest rates; iii) impulse response analysis suggests, for most countries, the existence of an instantaneous, temporary effect of oil price innovations on prices; iv) impulse response functions indicate different monetary policy reactions to inflationary and growth shocks; v) the simulation exercises directed to estimate the total impact of the 1990 oil price shock indicate that for some countries (U.S.) a significant part of the effects of the oil price shock is due to the monetary policy reaction function. For other countries (Caneaction function. For other countries (Canada, France and Italy), however, the total impact is offset, at least in part, by an easing of monetary conditions. (author)

  17. New technologies in Islamic countries. Power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The published proceedings contain brief presentations concerning new technologies in power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies presented to the International scientific and technical conference: New technologies in Islamic countries, which was organized within frame work of 6 General Assembly of Federation of engineering Institutes of Islamic countries (FEIIC). (author)

  18. New technologies in Islamic countries. Power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains papers, which reflect the most important achievements of new technologies in power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies presented to the International Scientific and Technical Conference: New technologies in Islamic countries, which was organized within frame work of 6 General Assembly of Federation of Engineering Institutes of Islamic Countries (FEIIC). (author)

  19. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative - even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl. PMID:25789442

  20. WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?

    OpenAIRE

    Etleva Muca(Dashi); Fatmir Guri; Elena Kokhti; Natasha Hodaj

    2012-01-01

    Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muço, 1984; Osmani, 1993), considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in u...

  1. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry

  2. Cost effectiveness of palm oil in comparison to other oils and fats in the country with special emphasis on lower income group

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Fats and oils in the form of vegetable oils are integral part of diet and comprise of an important source of calorie density and micronutrients in human diet. The per capita edible oil consumption in India (14.5 kg in 2012-2013) has been steadily rising over the decades but is still short of the average worldwide consumption in the developed countries. Especially the below poverty line population lags far behind in terms of per capita edible oil consumption and therefore is a major reason for...

  3. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also lint only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

  4. Potential use of produced oil sample analysis to monitor SAGD performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Nexen Petroleum International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wollen, C. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[OPTI-Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yang, P.; Fustic, M. [Nexen Petroleum International, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Oil viscosity and compositional gradients can affect the performance of steam injection recovery processes. In this study, reservoir simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of viscosity variation with depth on steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes and produced oil characteristics. The 2-D reservoir model consisted of a reservoir with a 40 m clean sand matrix, overtopped with interbedded shales and sand. The oil phase was comprised of 2 pseudo-components representing top and bottom bitumens. Viscosities and concentrations of the pseudo-components were calculated using linear mixing rules. Four different viscosity distribution scenarios were examined. Conceptual 3-D models were then constructed to examine the characteristics of produced oil samples in scenarios with shale barriers extending down the well directions and blocking parts of the reservoir. Results from the simulations showed that produced oil characteristics are related to the in situ profiles of reservoir flow barriers. Produced oil characteristics can be used in conjunction with oil rates, surface heave and other data to predict steam chamber development and detect the presence of baffles and barriers. The relationship between the SAGD steam chamber and variations in produced fluid characteristics were accurately characterized by the simulations. It was concluded that the approach can be used to monitor SAGD steam chamber growth. 10 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

  5. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  6. Use of Rapeseed Straight Vegetable Oil as Fuel Produced in Small-Scale Exploitations

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero Armans, Grau; Esteban Dalmau, Bernat; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-roger; Puig Vidal, Rita; Rius Carrasco, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry ...

  7. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

  8. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C?t?lina Georgeta DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point characterizes natural resources, especially of oil and mining of precious metals. Therefore, we can say that the power exerted on natural resources determines the ranking of countries of the world economic power and living standards of the population. Use of natural resources as an effective weapon in the economic consolidation became state policy and the expansion of exploration and exploitation in foreign lands required the development of complex regulations. Therefore, this study aims at presenting an analytic perspective of foreign law - specific states with relevant impact on the exploitation of natural resources - and the presentation of some features of international law.

  9. Producing clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Csaba; Baladincz, Peter; Kovacs, Sandor; Hancsok, Jeno [University of Pannonia, Department of MOL Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    The goal of our investigation was the production of partially bio-derived fuels in the gas oil boiling point range. Our aim was the production of diesel fuel blending components by co-hydrogenation of mixtures of high-sulphur gas oil (about 1.0%) and vegetable oil raw materials with different vegetable oil contents (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100%). The experiments were carried out on a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with a targeted composition (T = 300-380 C, P = 60-80 bar, LHSV = 1.0/h and H{sub 2}/HC = 600 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}). We obtained that both the vegetable oil conversion reactions and the gas oil quality improvement reactions took place. Under the favourable operational conditions (360-380 C, P = 80 bar, LHSV = 1.0/h and H{sub 2}/HC = 600 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and up to 15% vegetable oil content of the feed), the main properties of the high-yield (>90%) products except for the Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP) value satisfied the requirements of the standard of diesel fuels (EN 590:2009). The amount of vegetable oil higher than 15% reduced the desulphurization efficiency, because of the intake of large quantities of oxygen with the triglyceride molecules of the vegetable oil. The products - depending on the vegetable oil content of the feedstocks - have an increased n- and i-paraffin content, so their combustion properties are very favourable, and the emission of particles is lower. (orig.)

  10. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg?1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg?1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de saponificación ligeramente inferiores y altos valores de índice de yodo en comparación con VCNO. La composición en ácido láurico (55,8%, ácidos grasos de cadena media (69,65% y triglicéridos de cadena media (59.27% fueron significativamente mayores en VCNO. Los fitoesteroles, compuestos fenólicos y tocoferoles + tocoferoles fueron 83,7; 54,9 y 81,4 mg; 9,4; 1,8 y 2,1 mg; 4,9; 2,8 y 4,0 mg, para UCNOs, VCNO y RBDCNO, respectivamente, siendo para los aceites UCNOs significativamente mayores que para VCNO y RBDCNO. Estos resultados mostraron que UCNOs tienen más fitonutrientes en comparación con VCNO y RBDCNO.

  11. Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author)

  12. An estimate of field size distributions for selected sites in the major grain producing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The field size distributions for the major grain producing countries of the World were estimated. LANDSAT-1 and 2 images were evaluated for two areas each in the United States, People's Republic of China, and the USSR. One scene each was evaluated for France, Canada, and India. Grid sampling was done for representative sub-samples of each image, measuring the long and short axes of each field; area was then calculated. Each of the resulting data sets was computer analyzed for their frequency distributions. Nearly all frequency distributions were highly peaked and skewed (shifted) towards small values, approaching that of either a Poisson or log-normal distribution. The data were normalized by a log transformation, creating a Gaussian distribution which has moments readily interpretable and useful for estimating the total population of fields. Resultant predictors of the field size estimates are discussed.

  13. Challenge - oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short survey on recent developments of energy supply the risks of future energy supply and its effects are discussed. The parameters of dependence on oil-producing countries are studied and an evaluation is given on the measures which have to be taken by the Western industrialized countries in response to the dependence on oil. Further subjects are: mechanism of oil distribution in case of crisis, long-term cooperation of producer countries, measures on international level in the USA and Japan, and the energy-importing countries in the conflict area between OPEC- and industrialized countries. (UA)

  14. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina da Silva, Grem; Bianca Natividade Barreto, Lima; Wiliam Ferreira, Carneiro; Yure Gomes de Carvalho, Queirós; Claudia Regina Elias, Mansur.

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers [...] for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP) and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  15. Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities

    OpenAIRE

    Oluduro, Olubayo

    2012-01-01

    This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolo...

  16. Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A.N Gohar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were studied separately at different values that including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The optimum operating conditions to be adopted for producing high quality automatic transmission fluid base oil were reactor temperature 290 oC, pressure 130kg cm?2, liquid hourly space velocity 0.4 h?1 and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio 800 Nm3 M?3. The effect of changing hydrofinishing temperature and liquid hourly space velocity on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN reactions as well as their thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Calculations of activation energy (Ea and free energy of activation (?G indicated that HDS was easier to occur than HDN and these reactions are more faster at higher temperatures. The effect of commercial and formulated additives on the quality of the hydrofinished oil was also studied. Automatic transmission fluid possessing the Dexron IID specification was produced by adding 7 wt% from Infenium T442 additive or by adding 9 wt% from Lubrizol ® 6701 D additive to the hydrofinished light dewaxed oil. Oils with the same efficiency were also produced using a formulated additive containing 4% viscosity index improver, 1.5% anti-oxidant and 1% anti-wear. The effect of increasing Infenium T442, Lubrizol R 6701 D and formulated additive percents on the protection efficiency of the automatic transmission fluid was studied through AC impedance technique. According to this technique, the effect of these additives on the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons can be negligible.

  17. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  18. Characteristics of heavy-oil-in-water emulsions containing produced sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin, A.K.M.; Bowen, C.T. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, PQ (Canada)); Gillies, R.; Small, M. (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)); Nazarko, T.W. (Norcen Energy Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-04-01

    Heavy-oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing produced sand were prepared using commercially available emulsifiers. The emulsions were tested in beakers for emulsion type, quality, and sand-retention characteristics. The apparent viscosities of the o/w emulsions were measured. The effects of polymer addition on the apparent viscosity and sand-carrying capability of the emulsions were also studied. The results of the beaker tests indicate that most emulsifier solutions water-wet the beaker wall and temporarily improve heavy-oil flow characteristics. However, most of the chemicals also water-wet the sand particles and cause sand dropout. Oil-in-water dispersions drop sand more readily than slug type emulsions. The Flothin F2 chemical alone showed stable oil dispersion and, in combination with the Flocon 4800C polymer, showed very good sand-retention, viscosity-reduction, and stable oil-dispersion characteristics. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Prediction of the antioxidant activity of extra virgin olive oils produced in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condelli, Nicola; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Galgano, Fernanda; Russo, Daniela; Milella, Luigi; Favati, Fabio

    2015-06-15

    A chemical characterisation was conducted on 75 commercial extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) produced in the years 2011-2012 in Southern Italy from five different olive monovarieties (Coratina, Leccino, Maiatica, Ogliarola del Vulture and Ogliarola del Bradano). The possibility of estimating the antioxidant activity of EVOO by using a chemical index as predictor of this property was considered. In order to build up and validate an antioxidant activity predictive model, the relationship between the antioxidant activity and the chosen chemical parameters was systematically investigated. The results indicated that oil antioxidant activity, measured as IC50, could be satisfactorily predicted, for olive oils from the considered region, by using a simple index, such as the K225 value of oil samples, which represents a spectrophotometric index of the compounds responsible for oil bitterness measured at 225 nm. PMID:25660881

  20. Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO2 per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower thaase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

  2. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    2001-06-15

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

  3. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

  4. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such actions would contribute to decelerating further escalation of "epidemics" of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and T2DM in developing countries. PMID:20823489

  5. Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    A.Y. Zahrim

    2014-01-01

    Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm o...

  6. Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Guowen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

  7. Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty o price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  8. THE EFFECT OF HEDGING ON THE VALUE OF U.S. OIL AND GAS PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Marami, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of hedging on the values of 42 U.S. oil and gas producing firms from 2002 to 2006. We use a unique hand-collected data set on all linear and nonlinear hedging positions of these firms. In contrast to recent studies, we find that hedging oil price risk using nonlinear instruments, such as options, increases the value of the firm. Linear hedging contracts have little (oil contracts) or negative (gas contracts) effect on firm valuation. In addition, we find that e...

  9. Influence of NORMs on the natural background radiation level in petroleum-producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) which are found in the Earth's crust, in the form of 226Ra and 228Ra and their associated radionuclides, are brought to the surface of the ground as a result of oil production processes, and are known under the name of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR). These represent a potential hazard of significant scale. 226Ra, an ? emitter, represents a potential internal radiation exposure hazard to both workers and members of the public, arising from the inhalation and ingestion of the dust produced during cleaning operations for the descaling of pipes and separator tanks. In addition to this, a higher than normal background ? exposure rate is to be observed both around and directly at the areas where the mud from the separator tanks and pipe cleaning operations was routinely dumped. Therefore, the aim of this work was to present the data on radiation levels measured in contaminated areas located near to a number of oilfields in Egypt and in Syria. The decontamination processes undertaken and the precautions necessary to ensure elimination of the possible transport mechanisms for contaminated dust into public areas by wind are presented. (orig.)

  10. The strategic interaction between the government and international oil companies in the UK: An example of a country with dwindling hydrocarbon reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 UK tax rise on hydrocarbon exploitation activities obviously increases short term tax revenues however the longer term effects are less clear. The strategic interaction between the UK government, a producer and a shipper has been analyzed in a game theoretical model. A complex interaction between players is expected given (1) dwindling resources and large decommissioning liabilities and (2) the fact that much of the hydrocarbons produced in the North Sea are exported through an infrastructure with shared ownership. The 2011 UK tax adjustment will most likely result in value destruction for the government, producers and shippers. Our analysis suggests that governments are unlikely to ultimately benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities at the expense of International Oil Companies. In countries with unstable tax regimes, such as the UK, International Oil Companies will adopt their strategies in anticipation of future tax changes. Their adopted strategy is a function of decommissioning liabilities and remaining reserves as well as whether they are producers, shippers or producers and shippers. The ultimate payoff of a government is a function of the remaining reserves and total decommissioning liabilities, but also depends on the distribution of these value metrics between producers and shippers. - Highlights: ? The 2011 UK hydrocarbon tax increase is likely to cause overall value destruction. ? Governments are unlikely to benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities. ? Differences in payoff functions of producers and shippers control the game. ? The distribution of reserves and decommissioning cost is a key factor in the game

  11. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de Chromobacterium mientras que los más polares se obtienen usando las preparaciones de lipasa de hongo «Lilipase A-10». La polaridad del producto está también influenciada por la temperatura del proceso aunque la forma de su efecto es distinta para las diferentes lipasas.

  12. POTENTIAL OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR PROTECTION OF GRAINS CONTAMINATED BY AFLATOXIN PRODUCED BY Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdlayneGonçalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A?atoxin B1 (AFB1 is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano on the mycelial growth and a?atoxin B1 production by Aspergillus ?avus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. ?avus containing 1.3×105 spores/ mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  13. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  14. Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos florais como recompensa a polinizadores estão presentes em onze famílias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na história evolutiva das plantas floríferas. Estes são produzidos em glândulas tricomáticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de óleo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas espé [...] cies produtoras de óleo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espécies nos gêneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que não produz óleo floral. Nós apresentamos uma revisão de todas as espécies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuição geográfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de óleo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de óleo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinização bem-sucedida, sendo a interação entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptação abelha/planta na Região Neotropical. Algumas espécies dependem somente do óleo coletado em espécies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras também podem coletar em várias fontes de óleos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glândulas de óleo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que são em sua maioria espécies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaçados biomas de vegetação aberta da América do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

  15. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a majorigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

  16. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. ...

  18. Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluduro, Olubayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

  19. Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-21

    Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

  20. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from vegetable oil based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-08-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane produced from a canola oil based polyol with primary terminal functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were studied and compared to the IPNs made from commercial castor oil using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as tensile measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical diversity of the starting materials allowed the evaluation of the effects of dangling chains and graftings on the properties of the IPNs. The polymerization process of canola oil based IPNs was accelerated because of the utilization of polyol with primary functional groups, which efficiently lessened the effect of dangling chains and yielded a higher degree of phase mixing. The mechanical properties of canola oil based IPNs containing more than 75 wt % PMMA were comparable to the corresponding castor oil based IPNs; both were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. However, when PMMA content was less than 65 wt %, canola oil based IPNs exhibited a typical mechanical behavior of rigid plastics, whereas castor oil based IPNs showed a typical mechanical behavior of soft rubber. It is proposed that these new IPN materials with high performance prepared from alternative renewable resources can prove to be valuable substitutes for existing materials in various applications. PMID:18624453

  1. New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

  2. The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By using a standard econometric approach, we find that the effects of different deregulation policies are substantial. We also analyse the impact of a policy based on autonomous energy-efficiency improvement. Finally, a combination of both policies is elaborated and quantified. Our results show that a policy geared at more rational use of energy would permit these countries to save enough oil to meet future increases in demand while maintaining stable production capacity. Furthermore, such an energy policy could result in additional oil revenues which would enhance their economic development. (author)

  3. Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale

  4. Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadin, Malik S.Y.; Abou Arqoub, Ansam A.; Abu Reesh, Ibrahim [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Jordan University, Queen Rania Street, Amman, 11942 (Jordan); Haddadin, Jamal [Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P.O. Box 59, Mutah 61710 (Jordan)

    2009-04-15

    This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} to KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre-treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale. (author)

  5. The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

  6. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs.

  7. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  8. Impact on world oil prices when larger and fewer producers emerge from a political restructuring of the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate how a redistribution of oil reserves among a (probably reduced) set of producers affects OPEC's oil extraction policies and thus international crude oil-prices. The empirical investigation shows that this impact is fairly small, as long as OPEC members do not cooperate. Only cooperation will have a substantial impact. (author)

  9. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology'l to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  10. Feasibility of Producing Acceptable Carotene and Energy Rich Taro Crisps with Deep Palm-Oil Frying in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ukpabi, U. J.; Chijioke, U.; Mbanaso, E. N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Corms of a high yielding taro genotype (NCe006) were used to assess the feasibility of producing acceptable pro vitamin A and energy rich taro crisps after deep oil frying with crude red palm oil. Frying with refined palm oil was used as control. Results showed that the taro crisps produced with the crude palm oil had 44 ?g/g carotene content while the crisps fried with refined palm oil had only 0.77 ?g/g carotene content. Sensory evaluation scores by semi ...

  11. Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Iikka [Bank of Finland Institute for Economies in Transition (BOFIT), P.O. Box 160, 00101, Helsinki (Finland); Ledyaeva, Svetlana [Centre for Markets in Transition (CEMAT), Helsinki School of Economics (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

  12. Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

  13. Characterization of Oil Yield and Quality in Shatter-Resistant Dwarf Sesame Produced in Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbans L. Bhardwaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sesame has potential as an alternative crop for former tobacco farmers in eastern USA to increase agricultural diversification and enhance farm incomes. Oil yield and quality of five shatter-resistant and dwarf sesame cultivars when grown using rows 37.5 cm or 75 cm apart were evaluated. Sesame was planted on 23 May and 8 Jun. (PT1 during 2011 and on 17 and 9 Jul. (PT2 during 2012. Early planting (Late May to early June resulted in 716.6 kg oil/ha as compared to 479.6 kg oil/ha from late planting (early June to mid-July. The closer row spacing of 37.5 cm out-yielded the wider row spacing of 75 cm by about 34% for oil yield. Early planting increased the contents of C16:0, C20:0, C18:1, and C20:1 fatty acids whereas late planting increased the contents of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids. Contents of total saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated fatty acids were also greater after early planting as compared to those after late plantings. Closer row spacing of 37.5 cm resulted in significantly higher contents of C20:1 and saturated fatty acids in the oil as compared to the wider row spacing of 75 cm. Sesame seed produced in Virginia contained 6.8% more oil than that produced in Texas (45. 5 vs. 42.6%, respectively. The results indicated that sesame could be produced in the mid-Atlantic region of USA.

  14. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  15. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

  16. Arab petroleum stakes: Big lucks and big risks for producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually, four among ten exported petroleum barrels come from Arab countries, in ten years it will be six among ten barrels which will come from Arab countries. But to be beneficial these export increase must be accompanied by a prices increase. It is not actually the case because of the Usa position which prefer a cheap petroleum, but it would be necessary to put right prices until $28/barrel from here until 2000

  17. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  18. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  19. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charles Ogugua, Nwuche; James Chukwuma, Ogbonna.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered [...] (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

  20. Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

  1. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties. Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise

  2. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress. PMID:25976784

  3. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  5. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. ? Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. ? The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. ? Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. ? The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow impr, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  6. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of???1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

  8. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

  9. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

  10. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wei Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

  11. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    EdlayneGonçalez; MarciaOrtiz MayoMarques; RobertoCarlosFelicio

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

  12. Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Pillay, Avin E.; Salih, Fadhil M.; Maleek, Muthana I.

    2010-01-01

    Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 2...

  13. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid to SFO was investigated. FO contained the largest amount of PUFA and RFO the lowest. However, SFO had a higher PV initially and during storage at 2degreesC, whereas the PV of FO was highest during storage at 20degreesC. The level of volatile oxidation products was highest in SFO during the entire storage period, and off-flavors were more pronounced in SFO. The lower oxidative stability of SFO was probably related to theinitially lower quality (regarding oxidation products), which is apparently a result of the long production procedure required. Addition of metal chelators did not reduce the oxidation of the SFO

  14. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was een fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs

  15. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Wei Lin; Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the s...

  16. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered

  17. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

    2004-04-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered. PMID:15041429

  18. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment wil...

  19. Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produce...

  20. Energy security. The external legal relations of the European Union with energy producing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighi, Sanam Salem

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyzes in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy. T...

  1. Spillover effects of oil price shocks across stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhan Jian; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-12-01

    Oil price shock can impose detrimental effects to an economy. In this study, we empirically study the spillover effects of oil price shock on determining volatilities of stock markets across the main oil importing and oil producing countries. In particular, we are interested to compare the relative impact of oil price shock on the volatilities of stock markets and how each stock market reacts to oil price shock for oil importing and oil producing countries. We focus the study in four main oil importer and four oil producers respectively using the daily data starting from January 2009 to December 2013. The multivariate GARCH(1,1) model is applied for the purpose of this study. The results of the study suggest that there exist spillover effect between crude oil price and stock returns for all the countries. The short run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is lower than oil-importing countries but the long run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is higher than oil-importing countries. In general the short run persistency is smaller and the long run persistency is very high. The results hold for volatility of oil price and stock returns and also spillover volatility in all countries.

  2. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

  4. Producer Organisations and Market Chains: Facilitating Trajectories of Change in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, G.; Bijman, J.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The role of producer organizations in market chains has received increasing attention in recent years, both from governments and donors. In order to lower transaction costs, markets demand that smallholder farmers operate in an organized manner. However, though the policy openings for support seem promising, smallholder market access through farmer-led economic organisations is not easy. This book presents various approaches to support producer organisations in terms of providing economic ser...

  5. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding. PMID:19897349

  6. Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and ce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

  7. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

  8. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  9. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage

  10. Catalytic hydrothermal upgrading of crude bio-oils produced from different thermo-chemical conversion routes of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peigao; Wang, Bing; Xu, Yuping

    2015-06-01

    This study presents experimental results that compare the use of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), alcoholysis (Al), pyrolysis (Py) and hydropyrolysis (HPy) for the production of bio-oil from a microalga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and the catalytic hydrothermal upgrading of crude bio-oils produced by these four conversion routes. The yields and compositions of bio-oil, solid residue, and gases were evaluated and compared. HTL resulted in a bio-oil that has a higher energy density and superior fuel properties, such as thermal and storage stabilities, compared with the other three conversion routes. The N in crude bio-oils produced from Py and HPy is more easily removed than that in the bio-oils produced from HTL and Al. The upgraded bio-oils contain reduced amounts of certain O-containing and N-containing compounds and significantly increased saturated hydrocarbon contents. All of the upgraded bio-oils have a larger fraction boiling below 350°C than their corresponding crude bio-oils. PMID:25802049

  11. Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns the organising of a company and another concerns relationships between companies. These frameworks are used for the analysis of producers and retailers, and for the relationships between them. Very interesting results have been found, and these have supported a new way of looking at management of organisations and management of relationships.

  12. Natural radioactivity in produced water from the Norwegian oil and gas industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of a survey of natural radioactivity (226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb) in produced water from all 41 Norwegian platforms in the North Sea discharging produced water. The sampling campaign took place from September 2003 to January 2004. Based on the data presented the average activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in produced water from the Norwegian oil and gas industry have been estimated to 3.3 Bq l-1 and 2.8 Bq l-1, respectively. With one exception, all results obtained for 210Pb were below the detection limit of about 1 Bq l-1. The estimated total activities of 226Ra and 228Ra discharged in 2003 arc 440 GBq (range 310-590 GBq) and 380 GBq (range 270-490 GBq), respectively. (author)

  13. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  14. Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

  15. Study on the hydrodeoxygenative upgrading of crude bio-oil produced from woody biomass by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of yellow poplar wood was subjected to HDO (hydrodeoxygenation) for the purpose of reducing water content as well as increasing heating value. HDO was performed in an autoclave reactor at three different reaction factors: temperature (250–370 °C), reaction time (40–120 min), and Pd/C catalyst loading (0–6 wt%) under hydrogen atmosphere. After completion of HDO, gas, char, and two immiscible liquid products (light oil and heavy oil) were obtained. Liquid products were less acidic and contained less water than crude bio-oil. Water content of heavy oil was ranged between 0.4 wt% and 1.9 wt%. Heating values of heavy oil were estimated between 28.7 and 37.4 MJ/kg, which was about twice higher than that of crude bio-oil. Elemental analysis revealed that heavy oil had a lower O/C ratio (0.17–0.36) than crude bio-oil (0.71). H/C ratio of heavy oil decreased from 1.50 to 1.32 with an increase of temperature from 250 °C to 350 °C, respectively. - Highlights: • Bio-oil was subjected to hydrodeoxygenation with Pd/C catalyst in supercritical ethanol. • Gas, char and two immiscible liquids (light/heavy oil) were obtained as final products. • Ethanol addition reduced the char formation during hydrodeoxygenation. • The heavy oil was characteristic to less acidic and less water content than bio-oil. • Higher heating value of the heavy oil was measured to 28.7–37.4 MJ/kg

  16. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

  17. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  19. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  20. Fungi isolated from produced water and water-soluble fraction of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was sought to determine the fungi present in the produced water (PW) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil as a preliminary approach to determining that fungi can survive in crude oil polluted water and their possible use in bioremediation. Different concentrations of PW and WSF of crude oil samples from Ughelli East Flow Station in Delta State of Nigeria were exposed to onion (Allium cepa) primordial cells at different concentrations for twelve days. Thereafter; samples of the PW and WSF were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar. Isolates of Thamnidium sp, Gelasinospora sp, Zygorhynchu. sp and Colletotrichum sp were found. Zygorhynchus and Colletotrichum were associated with PW while thaminidium and Gelasinospora associated with the WSF. There were changes in the pH and turbidity of the PW and WSF before and after exposure to Allium cepa cells. At 25% level of treatments there were significant differences in pH and turbidity values of the PW and WSF at P 0.01 before and after exposure to the plant. (author)

  1. Combination of algae and yeast fermentation for an integrated process to produce single cell oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillschneider, R; Schulze, I; Neumann, A; Posten, C; Syldatk, C

    2014-09-01

    Economic and ecological reasons cause the industry to develop new innovative bio-based processes for the production of oil as renewable feedstock. Petroleum resources are expected to be depleted in the near future. Plant oils as sole substituent are highly criticized because of the competitive utilization of the agricultural area for food and energy feedstock production. Microbial lipids of oleaginous microorganisms are therefore a suitable alternative. To decrease production costs of microbial lipids and gain spatial independence from industrial sites of CO2 emission, a combination of heterotrophic and phototrophic cultivation with integrated CO2 recycling was investigated in this study. A feasibility study on a semi-pilot scale was conducted and showed that the cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus on a 1.2-L scale was sufficient to supply a culture of the oleaginous microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a 21-L bubble column reactor with CO2 while single cell oils were produced in both processes due to a nutrient limitation. PMID:24943047

  2. User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi; Newton Müller Pereira; Rogério Gomes; Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil ...

  3. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde más intenso eran también de baja calidad, describiéndolos como con sabor extraño, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y defectuosos. Este estudio demuestra que en los países con olivicultura emergente pero con poca tradición de consumo de aceite de oliva, los consumidores aún no tienen preferencias comerciales claras sobre el color de este producto, aunque coinciden en rechazar y considerar como de baja calidad a los aceites de oliva amarillos posiblemente por asociarlos con los aceites de semillas que habitualmente se encuentran en el mercado.

  4. EU and US safeguards against Chinese textile exports: What consequences for West African cotton-producing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Delpeuch, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, following the phase-out of the Agreement on Textile and Clothing, the EU and the US have implemented new restrictions on textile and clothing imports from China. Available data suggests that the shortfall thus imposed on China, in terms of textile exports to the EU and to the US, is significant. West African cotton-producing countries are very dependant on cotton earnings for their GDP and over the last years, most of the growth of their cotton exports’ revenues has resulted from inc...

  5. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  6. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity. PMID:19290520

  7. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

  8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  9. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-31

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  10. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL.

  11. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  12. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author) ones. (author)

  13. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization efficiently has an impact on business economics as the focus remains on proven applicable technologies, which target cost reduction and efficiency gains.

  14. Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 60ere accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological contamination of soil environment of an industrial zone, which one can render parasitic influencing to health working, and also being diffused in nearest territory of a residential zone to create a health danger of the population. Therefore, the hygienic control in firms of a petroleum industry is necessary

  15. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  16. Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Jack-Osimiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s, which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs on land. This unfortunate incident makes the oil bearing and host community to demand compensation, which in most times breeds in conflict such that the two parties engage in tirade of accusations and counteraccusations. The conflict is such that it has defiled all known antidotes, real or imaginary. Until arbitration was resurrected, studied and applied, before it became the messiah or saviour of the two warring groups. Hitherto, the conflict had led to the destruction of equipment/tools, loss of income, loss of company/man hours, peace, and abduction/kidnapping of expatriates/indigenous staffers. In the light of the grave consequences, the author recommended both direct and indirect approaches to deal with the incessant conflicts between the oil and gas firms and oil bearing and host community. Having known that conflict is an ill-wind that blows nobody any good.

  17. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  18. Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Soares, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m de...

  19. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  20. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  1. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality. PMID:25577329

  2. Microbial response to reinjection of produced water in an oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnes, Kristine; Bødtker, Gunhild; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva O; Sunde, Egil

    2009-07-01

    The microbial response to produced water reinjection (PWRI) in a North Sea oil field was investigated by a combination of cultivation and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic techniques. Special emphasise was put on the relationship between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), and results were used to evaluate the possibility of nitrate treatment as a souring management tool during PWRI. Samples were collected by reversing the flow of the injection water, which provided samples from around the injection area. The backflowed samples were compared to produced water from the same platform and to backflowed samples from a biocide-treated seawater injector, which was the previous injection water treatment of the PWRI well. Results showed that reinjection of produced water promoted growth of thermophilic SRB. Thermophilic fatty acid oxidising NRB and potential nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidising bacteria were also found. The finding of thermophilic NRB makes nitrate treatment during PWRI possible, although higher nitrate concentration will be necessary to compensate for the increased SRB activity. PMID:19430774

  3. Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In this study, solid oil palm shell (OPS) waste biomass was subjected to microwave pyrolysis conditions with uniformly distributed coconut activated carbon (CAC) microwave absorber. The effects of CAC loading (wt%), microwave power (W) and N2 flow rate (LPM) were investigated on heating profile, bio-oil yield and its composition. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to study the significance of process parameters on bio-oil yield. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the bio-oil yield is 0.89017 indicating 89.017% of data variability is accounted to the model. The largest effect on bio-oil yield is from linear and quadratic terms of N2 flow rate. The phenol content in bio-oil is 32.24-58.09% GC-MS area. The bio-oil also contain 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine of 10.54-21.20% GC-MS area. The presence of phenol and 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine implies that the microwave pyrolysis of OPS with carbon absorber has the potential to produce valuable fuel products. PMID:25794811

  4. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) ay BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

  5. Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sahaid Kalil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

  6. Characterization of rhamnolipids produced by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strain grown on waste oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Zulfiqar A; Khalid, Zafar M; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2009-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa EBN-8 mutant rhamnolipids produced on waste oils were investigated using normal-phase thin layer chromatography and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Negative ion mode mass spectra yielded [M - H](-) ions and their fragment ions, which gave some indications on the sequence of rhamnolipid biosynthesis. Five rhamnolipid homologs [viz. RC(10)C(10) (m/z 503), RC(12)C(10) or RC(10)C(12) (531), RRC(10)C(8) or RRC(8)C(10) (621), RRC(10)C(10) (649) and RRC(12)C(10) or RRC(10)C(12) (677)] were detected in four rhamnolipid combinations under the different carbon sources. The prevalence of rhamnolipids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and one-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. We also observed some correlations between the tensioactive characteristics and structural chemistry of the rhamnolipid surfactants. PMID:20183494

  7. Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2009-04-13

    A new linear saturated terminal diisocyanate was synthesized from oleic acid via Curtius rearrangement, and its chemical structure was identified by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and MS. The feasibility of utilizing this new diisocyanate for the production of polyurethanes (PUs) was demonstrated by reacting it with commercial petroleum-derived polyols and canola oil-derived polyols, respectively. The physical properties of the PUs prepared from fatty acid-derived diisocyanate were compared to those prepared from the same polyols with a similar but petroleum-derived commercially available diisocyanate: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. It was found that the fatty acid-derived diisocyanate was capable of producing PUs with comparable properties within acceptable tolerances. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear saturated terminal diisocyanate derived from fatty acids and corresponding PUs mostly from lipid feedstock. PMID:19281152

  8. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N.; Conkur, E.S.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M. [Pamukkale University (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Ozturk, E.; Can, O. [Pamukkale University (Turkey). Automotive Dept.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H. [Pamakulle University (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.

    2005-03-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two-stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (author)

  9. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  10. Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

  11. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and temperature.

  12. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  13. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, H. [Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-12-15

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  14. FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994 (Figure 1. This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994(Figura 1. Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto.

  15. FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edwin, Rodríguez; Jaime, Orjuela.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD) presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados [...] cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación) y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994)(Figura 1). Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR) y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico) aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located ne [...] ar the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994) (Figure 1). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.

  16. Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin E. Pillay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

  17. State companies dominate OGJ100 list of non-U.S. oil producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State owned oil and gas companies dominate the OGJ100 list of non-U.S. producers. Because many of them report only operating information, companies on the worldwide list cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. The list, therefore, is organized regionally, based on location of companies' corporate headquarters. The leading nongovernment company in both reserves and production is Royal Dutch/Shell. It ranks sixth in the world in liquids production and 11th in liquids reserves, as it has for the past 2 years. British Petroleum is the next largest nongovernment company. BP ranks 11th in liquids production and 16th in liquids reserves. Elf Aquitaine, 55.8% government-controlled, ranked 17th in liquids production. AGIP was 20th in liquids production. Kuwait Petroleum returned to the list of top 20 producers, ranking 12th, as it restored production shut in by facilities damage sustained during the Persian Gulf crisis. New to the top 20 reserves list is Petroleo Brasileiro, which moved to 20th position. The top 20 companies in the OGJ100 held reserves estimated at 869.3 billion bbl in 1992 vs. 869.5 billion bbl in 1991 and 854.2 billion bbl in 1990

  18. Water produced in the Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields of heavy metals and radionuclide distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:Oil and gas production in the process of formation waters are the deep layers of the earth, together with the oil and gas condensate from the water surface. Later, water oil and gas produced on the platform with different separation processes allocated, in order to increase oil production wells or re-determination of the surface of the Earth's lakes and hole in the shed. Been taken into account that every year, millions of cubic meters of produced waters discharged from oil platforms, it is clear that the environmental impact of their mischief. Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea oil fields in the waters of the reservoir and the natural radionuclide distribution of heavy metals have been investigated presented in this work. Nitrate acid solution was washed with pure polyethylene samples after pickling banks after completion, keeping a temperature of 4-S was included in the laboratory. Concentrations of elements from the stock standard solutions appreciating commercial preparations included in the presentation of the working standard solutions which are determined by using curve degree

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars. PMID:25895270

  20. Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N2O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (?3.0 to 5.3 kg CO2eq kg?1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

  1. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.; Emuh, F. N.; Ezeonu, O.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%), noise pollution (98.3%), bush burning (93.3%), land degradation/pollution (87.5%), water pollution (80.3%), air pollution (62.5%), massive deforestation (62.5%) and acid rain (52.5%) were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the stu...

  2. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

  3. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  4. Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

  5. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ? The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ? The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ? Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ? Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and compared different technologies in a unique “Clean Energy Economy” improved document (Paris, November 16–17, 2011), by the contribution of this vision too (see reference). In concert with “energy efficiency” improvement both for plants and buildings, in the frame of the “smart cities” scenarios, and the upstanding use of “energy savings”, the energetic planning on regional scale where these cities are located, are strategic for the year 2050: this planning is strongly depending by the underground availability and typology. Therefore, if both literature and European Policy are going fast to improve the concept of “smart cities” this paper stresses the concept of “smart regions”, more strategic than “smart cities”, passing throughout a discussion on the synergic and conflicting use of underground to produce energy for the “smart regions” as a whole. The paper highlights the research lines which are urgent to plan the soundest energy mix for each region by considering the underground performances case by case: a worldwide mapping, by GIS tools of this kind of information could be strategic for all the “world energy management” authorities, up to ONU, with its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the G20, the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Platforms such as the “Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants” (EU-ZEP Platform), the Steel Platform, the Biomass Platform too. All of these organizations agree on the need for synergistic and coexistent uses of underground for geological storage of CO2, CH4, nuclear waste and geothermic exploitation. The paper is therefore a discussion of the tools, methods and approaches to these underground affecting technologies, after a gross view of the different uses of underground to produce energy for each use, with their main critical issues (i.e. public acceptance in different cases). The paper gives some gross evaluation for the Lazio Region and some hints from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calcu

  6. User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Guimarães Gielfi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT, the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

  7. User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship Between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanna, Guimarães Gielfi; Newton, Müller Pereira; Rogério, Gomes; Vinícius, Cardoso de Barros Fornari.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control it [...] s production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems.

  8. Obesity in gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  9. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

  10. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

  11. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira; Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45...

  12. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the ethanol to acetic acid ratio of 3. Crude pyrolytic oil obtained from the RTI International had distillation temperatures from 164.8°C to 365.5°C and 50% volumetric fraction of the crude bio-oil was distillable. Esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased distillability up to 55% volumetric fraction. The esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased pH of 6.12. Diesel range pyrolytic bio-oil distilled from esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had quite comparable properties with commercial diesel, with an energy content of 41.41 MJ/kg, water content of 0.58 wt%, and viscosity of 7.45 cP.

  13. Removal of Radium Isotopes from Oil Co-produced Water using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters-pH over other comparable parameters.(author)

  14. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  15. Removal of Radium isotopes from oil co-produced water using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters pH over other comparable parameters. (author)

  16. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

    2011-04-01

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

  17. Production and characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from brazilian oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Costa, A. R.; Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Coutinho, J. A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that comprise both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, allowing the reduction the surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the formation of oil in water or water in oil emulsions. These surface-active compounds are extensively used by petroleum industries in order to reduce the capillary forces that entrapped the oil inside the reservoir. The compounds synthetized chemically, chemical surfactants, have some applicability limitations according some e...

  18. Evaluation and characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J. F.; Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Costa, Rita; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Coutinho, Joa?o A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-active agents or surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that comprise both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, allowing the reduction of the surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the formation of oil in water or water in oil emulsions. Due to their interesting properties, surfactants are widely used by petroleum industries to reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir. However, since chemical surfactants present some limitations related to environment...

  19. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  20. Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Sousa; I. T., Dantas; F. X., Feitosa; A. E. V., Alencar; S. A., Soares; V. M. M., Melo; L. R. B., Gonçalves; H. B., Sant' ana.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water) was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( [...] FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005) consists of a lipopeptide similar to surfactin. The influences of temperature and the composition of oil + biosurfactant + water were determined by using phase diagrams. Three types of oil were used, namely: motor oil, hydrogenated naphthenic oil (NH140) and castor bean oil. The emulsified systems were analyzed using optical micrography. The results presented here indicated that the biosurfactant produced in this work presents a potential use as stabilizing agent for oil-in-water emulsions.

  1. Management of soybean oil refinery wastes through recycling them for producing biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi, Maryam; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Roostaazad, Reza; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Tayyebi, Shokoufe

    2013-06-01

    Biosurfactant production through a fermentation process involving the biodegradation of soybean oil refining wastes was studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01 was able to produce extracellular biosurfactant when it was cultured in three soybean oil refinement wastes; acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soapstock, at different carbon to nitrogen ratios. Subsequent fermentation kinetics in the three types of waste culture were also investigated and compared with kinetic behavior in soybean oil medium. Biodegradation of wastes, biosurfactant production, biomass growth, nitrate consumption and the number of colony forming units were detected in four proposed media, at specified time intervals. Unexpectedly, wastes could stimulate the biodegradation activity of MR01 bacterial cells and thus biosurfactant synthesis beyond that of the refined soybean oil. This is evident from higher yields of biodegradation and production, as revealed in the waste cultures (Ydeg|(Soybean oil) = 53.9 % YP/S|(Soybean oil) = 0.31 g g(-1), respectively). Although production yields were approximately the same in the three waste cultures (YP/S|(wastes) =/~ 0.5 g g(-1)), microbial activity resulted in higher yields of biodegradation (96.5 ± 1.13 %), maximum specific growth rate (? max = 0.26 ± 0.02 h(-1)), and biosurfactant purity (89.6 %) with a productivity of 14.55 ± 1.10 g l(-1), during the bioconversion of soapstock into biosurfactant. Consequently, applying soybean oil soapstock as a substrate for the production of biosurfactant with commercial value has the potential to provide a combination of economical production with environmental protection through the biosynthesis of an environmentally friendly (green) compound and reduction of waste load entering the environment. Moreover, this work inferred spectrophotometry as an easy method to detect rhamnolipids in the biosurfactant products. PMID:23361970

  2. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Guerra de, Oliveira; Crispin Humberto, Garcia-Cruz.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinas [...] se and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  3. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  4. Investigation by ICP-MS of trace element levels in vegetable edible oils produced in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Fernández-de Córdova, M L; Domínguez-Vidal, A; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2011-08-01

    The content of trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, Tl and V) in edible oils (virgin olive, olive, pomace-olive, sunflower, soybean and corn) from Spain was determined, using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion, employing only nitric acid in this step. The method has been validated by using both an oil reference material and recovery experiments over different oil samples, obtaining satisfactory results in all cases. Inter-day repeatabilities lower than 10% were observed for all of the analysed elements in the different kinds of oil samples. Studying the content of trace elements, in order to detect tendencies in the samples of the same type of oil, principal components analysis was used. Promising groupings were observed using a model with two principal components and retaining 75.3% of the variance. PMID:25214123

  5. Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae -A Case-Control Study in a Low Prevalence Country

    OpenAIRE

    Søraas, Arne Vasli Lund; Sundsfjord, arnfinn; Sandven, Irene; Brunborg, Cathrine; Jenum, Pål

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prevalence of i...

  6. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Tamborrino; Alessandro Leone; Maria Lisa Clodoveo; Paolo Amirante

    2011-01-01

    The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countri...

  7. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Amirante; Maria Lisa Clodoveo; Alessandro Leone; Antonia Tamborrino

    2009-01-01

    The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countri...

  8. Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers

    OpenAIRE

    HELMAR SCHUBERT; SABINE BROSEL; Vladisavljevic, Goran T.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90) in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the drople...

  9. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil against extended spectrum ? lactamase produced by urinary isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Nejad Ebrahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%, thymol (13.38% and p-cymene (8.27%. All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.

  11. Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

  12. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Soewono

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  13. Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that contribute to elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface f...

  14. Evaluation of produced water toxicity from an oil maritime terminal through Skeletonema costatum toxicity tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Aidar; Teresa C. S., Sigaud-Kutner; Márcia C., Bicega; Katya P., Schinke; Sania M. F., Gianesella; Elisabete S., Braga.

    Full Text Available A toxicidade do efluente líquido do "Dutos e Terminais Centro-Oeste São Paulo" (DTCS) terminal marítimo de petróleo da PETROBRAS, em São Sebastião (SP, Brasil), cujo principal componente é a água de produção, foi avaliada através de testes de toxicidade com a diatomácea Skeletonema costatum. Amostra [...] s de dois efluentes (A e B), previamente tratados pela PETROBRAS, foram utilizadas nos experimentos. As duas amostras apresentaram alta salinidade (A=67‰; B=62‰) e baixo valor de pH (6,2), enquanto que as suas concentrações de sulfetos, fenóis e hidrocarbonetos de petróleo dissolvidos/dispersos, bem como os seus valores de DBO e DQO, foram bastante distintos. Nos experimentos de toxicidade, os frascos experimentais, em triplicata, para cada tratamento foram expostos à radiação luminosa fluorescente de 266 µm² S-1 e mantidas em um ciclo luz/escuro de 10 h/14 h, a uma temperatura de 24 :t 2ºC. Os valores de CE50 não puderam ser determinados com precisão para o efluente A: após 60 h e 132 h do início dos experimentos esses valores estavam abaixo de 3% e entre 3-6% da concentração de efluente, respectivamente. Foi observado sinergismo entre a toxicidade e a salinidade do efluente sobre o crescimento de S. costatum. O efluente B apresentou uma toxicidade mais elevada: os valores de CEso foram 0,17% e 0,40% da concentração do efluente, após 48 h e 96 h, respectivamente. Estes resultados evidenciaram claramente os efeitos deletérios dos compostos orgânicos residuais contidos no efluente líquido do DTCS, sobre S. costatum. Pode-se concluir que a disposição do efluente nas águas do canal de São Sebastião poderá ser prejudicial à biota local. Abstract in english The liquid effluent from an oil maritime terminal, with produced water as the main component, had its toxicity evaluated through toxicity tests with the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Two previously treated effluent samples (effluents A and B), were provided by PETROBRAS for the experiments. Both samp [...] les presented high salinity (67‰ for effluent A and 62‰ for effluent B) and low pH values (6.2), whereas total sulphide, phenol and nutrient content, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon concentration, BOD and COD values were quite different from each other. During the toxicity experiment, three replicate flasks with samples for each treatment were exposed to a light radiation of 266µE m² S-1 and maintained under a 10 h/14 h lightldark cycle, at a temperature of 24 :t 2ºC. The EC50 values could not be accurately estimated for effluent A: 60 h and 132 h after starting the experiment they were below 3% and between 3-6% effluent concentration, respectively. Synergistic effects between effluent toxicity and salinity on the growth of S. costatum were detected. The effluent B showed higher toxicity: the EC5O values were 0.17% and 0.40% of effluent concentrations, after 48 h and 96 h, respectively. These results evidenced the deleterious effects of residual organic compounds contained in the aqueous effluents from the oil terminal under the present pretreatment on S. costatum. In the light of the present data, the direct disposal ofthese effluents into São Sebastião Channel waters might be very hazardous to its indigenous biota.

  15. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  16. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  17. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect

  18. Assessment of the discharge of NORM to the North Sea from produced water by the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The discharge of naturally occurring radioactivity from non nuclear industries, such as the oil and gas industry, has recently become a subject of much discussion. In connection with oil and gas exploitation in the North Sea, large volumes of produced water are co-produced with the oil and gas of which most is discharged into the marine environment. Due to the solubility of the radium isotopes, of which 226Ra and 228Ra are the most long-lived, the produced water normally contains enhanced levels of these naturally occurring radionuclides. Previously observed levels in produced waters from Norwegian production platforms, shows activity levels of about three orders of magnitude larger than normally encountered in sea water. A study recently published by the EU (MARINA II) have concluded that liquid discharges to the marine environment from NORM industries (mainly phosphoric acid production and oil and gas exploitation) gives a larger contribution to the collective dose to the EU population than liquid discharges from the nuclear industry. Due to lack of published data on the radionuclide concentration in the produced water, it has however been large uncertainties on the discharge of 226Ra and 228Ra from the Norwegian oil and gas industry into the North Sea. In order to improve the estimated discharge of NORM, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority have asked the oil and gas producers on the Norwegian continentd gas producers on the Norwegian continental shelf to sample and analyse produced water from each production platform with respect to 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb monthly, for a period of six months during 2003 and early 2004. The purpose of this investigation has been to obtain more precise and reliable estimates of the NORM discharge in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The study is also considered important for work in the OSPAR radioactivity group, where relevant NORM industries will be identified, and discharge data collected the next few years. The paper includes a review of previously reported data on the activity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas production platforms. The results from the analyses of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in produced water from 40 production platforms in the North Sea, sampled in 2003 and 2004, will be presented and discussed together with platform specific discharge data. The activity concentration in the analysed samples ranged from below detection limit to up to 13 Bq/L for 226Ra and up to 21 Bq/L for 228Ra. All results for 210Pb were below the detection limit (0.4 to 1.1 Bq/L). From these results the total discharged activity of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb from Norwegian production platforms in the North Sea in 2003 have been estimated to 440 GBq, 375 GBq and < 90 GBq, respectively. The study also reveals that large short term variations in the activity concentration can occur, which must be taken in consideration when designing a monitoring program for this type of industrial activity. (author)

  19. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

  20. Advancing the Frontier of Extended Producer Responsibility: The management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in non-OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Manomaivibool, Panate

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been a growing environmental problem among countries outside the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since the turn of the century. Backyard recycling in these countries has released hazardous substances such as lead and mercury in TV panels, PVC in wire coating, or brominated flame retardants in plastics into the environment and, eventually, into human bodies. While it was believed that most of the hazardous waste...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin, Azhari S.; Razak, Mohamad N. A.; Hock, Lim S.; Ahmad, Mohd N.; , Suraini Abd-Aziz,; Rahman, Nor A. A.; Shah, Umi K. M.; Hassan, Mohd A.; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai

    2010-01-01

    Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile ...

  2. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

  3. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (~ 20% in total). In total, 53-59 in UBWOS 2013 and 50-55% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

  4. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formic acid (HCOOH is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June–July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January–February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%. A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2 underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10. Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be ?7 and 0–6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (?20% in total. In total, 50–57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48–53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

  5. Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NOx concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SOx emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (2 concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

  6. Budget deficit remedies and their impact on the non-oil sectors of an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the non-oil production side of the Kuwaiti economy was developed and estimated. The model, then, was simulated according to various scenarios designed to eliminate the budget deficit by the year 2000, in order to examine the effect on the non-oil sector of the economy. The results indicate that, in terms of its impact on non-oil GDP, the extreme case scenario is harsh, bringing down the level of non-oil GDP by more than 20% by the year 2000 from its level in 1993. The impact on the budget deficit may be very positive, but non-oil production and consumption will decline very rapidly, creating widespread hardship across all economic sectors. The results suggest a better option lies in adopting either of two intermediate case scenarios. While each of these will also cause a decline in non-oil GDP, it will not be to the extent caused by the extreme case scenario

  7. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include ?-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and ?-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatografía líquida HPLC en conjunción con la cromatografía gaseosa GLC. Los aceites de las semillas de lechuga se caracterizan por un alto contenido en ácidos linoleico y oleico. De los triglicéridos determinados, los acilados con linoleico y oleico son los mayoritarios. Los perfiles de esteroles totales incluyen ?-sitosterol (como componente principal, seguido por 7-estigmasterol, campesterol y 5-estigmasterol en todas las muestras de aceite de semillas de lechuga, pero con ligeras diferencias. Además, se determinaron los esteroles libres y acilados, y esterilglicosidos acilados y libres. Se encontró que los aceites de LS30 tiene el más alto contenido de tocoferoles, siendo el ?-tocoferol el único constituyente en todas las muestras de aceites de semillas de lechuga. Por otra parte, la posición 2 en las tres muestras de aceites de semillas de lechuga se acilan principalmente con los ácidos grasos insaturados (98,6%, oleico y linoleico. De acuerdo con estos resultados, se puede concluir que las condiciones de riego no afectan a los componentes lipídicos del aceite y el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste el proyecto de riego y sus perfiles de lípidos están en acuerdo con los de los aceites vegetales convencionales.

  8. Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

  9. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability

  10. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  11. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  12. Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

  13. Optimal conditions for the hydrodewaxing of gas oil to produce premium diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of straight -run gas oil were treated at different operating conditions of pressure , temprature and liquid hour space velocity in an hydrodewaxing experimental unit in order to determine the optimal conditions for the the production of premium diesel fuel.The properties of diesel fuel considered were those related its cold temprature performance including its cloud point,pour point and cold filter plugging point.It was found that treatment of gas oil at appropriate conditions of temprature, pressure, and space velocity can lead to a significant improvement in the cold behaviour of the fuel. (author)

  14. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  15. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  16. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  17. 77 FR 34013 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...country because: (1) Indonesia is at a level of economic development comparable...country because: (1) Indonesia is at a level of economic development comparable...publication ``Doing Business 2011: Indonesia.'' We valued...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER PRODUCED BY COMBUSTION OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732-kW boiler. PM emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than (PM2.5) and greater (PM2.5+) that 2.5 micrometers in diameter. However, ex...

  19. Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

  20. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils) for Their Antimicrobial Properties†

    OpenAIRE

    James Redfern; Malcolm Kinninmonth; Dariel Burdass; Joanna Verran

    2014-01-01

    As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  1. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  2. [Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

  3. Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations, bioavailability and doses to marine biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R.; Eriksen, D. Oe.; Straalberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Rye, H.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.

    2006-03-15

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Preliminary results indicate that presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in the produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bio-availability of radium (and barium) may be larger than anticipated. Also, the bio-availability of radium may be increased due to presence of such chemicals, and this is presently being studied. (author) (tk)

  4. Development of a high throughput SNP assay for marker-assisted breeding of Theobroma cacao in cacao producing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two commercially important diseases of Theobroma cacao are witches' broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa) and frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri). Dr. Raymond Schnell is coordinating a major international breeding program for disease resistance in cacao in countries such as Ecuador and Ghana where labora...

  5. Promising Rabies Vaccine for Postexposure Prophylaxis in Developing Countries, a Purified Vero Cell Vaccine Produced in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chuanlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Song, Qingkun; Tang, Kun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence of a Vero cell rabies vaccine manufactured in China, compared with those of Verorab. Adequate titers of antibody were observed for the two vaccines. ChengDa rabies vaccine could be a promising alternative vaccine for many developing countries which cannot afford expensive rabies vaccines.

  6. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E. [and others

    1996-09-01

    Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

  7. Volatile Compounds, Profiles of Virgin Olive Oils Produced In the Eastern Morocco: Oxidative Stability and Sensory Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Tanouti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on flavor profiles of virgin olive oil (VOO are becoming more and more numerous. The VOO aromas are determined by a mixture of chemicals in olive oil, which influence its quality. Various studies around the world have shown that the volatile compounds in VOO depend on the climate, cultivation and process. The present work is a first approach to compare volatile profiles of VOO largely produced in eastern of Morocco after 6 months of storage at ambient temperature in darkness. Oxidative stability measured by Rancimat method at 101C was also determined. VOO volatile profiles were examined using the solid-phase micro extraction fibre method (SPME in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS. 84 volatile compounds were identified; they belong to various chemical classes, such as aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons. The main volatile compounds present in olive oil samples were compounds with 6 carbon atoms (C6 such as Hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, Z-3-Hexen-1-ol and 1-Hexanol. Ethanol and Z-3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were also found. In general, these compounds have been identified in all VOO analyzed samples. The chemical compositions of the analyzed virgin olive oil headspaces evidenced that the most representative compounds In Isly and Kenine were carboxylic acids accounted for 59.24%-49.7% respectively, whereas the volatile fraction of the oil from Achajara almoubaraka showed significantly higher amounts of the alcohols (46%. Concerning oxidative stability, Isly and Kenine OO, have lower stability values compared to Achajara almoubaraka. Their potential oxidative susceptibility is therefore much higher than Achajara almoubaraka.

  8. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. PMID:23856587

  9. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  10. Applications of Crude Bio surfactant Produced by Egyptian Local Bacteria in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio surfactant production capacities of Stenotorphomonas maltophilia and Suez Gulf consortium were detected in sea water containing irradiated 5 % rice straw or cane baggase as carbon sources. On adding irradiated rice straw (10 KGy), the optimum time for bio surfactant production were 60 hrs and 72 hrs for S. maltophilia and the consortium, respectively, where the optimum time by adding irradiated cane baggase (10 KGy) was 72 hrs in both cases. In general the production of bio surfactant using rice straw as supplement was higher than cane bagasse. The percentage of both emulsification activity and oil recovery capacity of S. maltophilia and the consortium gradually increased by increasing irradiation dose for the supplement wastes .The consortium oil recovery capacity percentage was higher than S. maltophilia

  11. Producer Service and the Added Value of Manufacturing Industries, An Empirical Research Based on Various Industries of Different Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an analysis in the mechanism that how producer service promotes the added value of manufacturing industries. Producer service is regarded as an important source of scare factors for value creation in manufacturing. Therefore, the rapid development of producer service leads to cost cut and efficiency promotion in manufacturing industries. Added value rate is then chosen as the measurement to the influence of producer service on manufacturing. An empirical research is made based on data from China, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, South Korea, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States. It shows that more producer service is used as an input, higher rate of added value can a manufacturing industry gain from it.

  12. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000L/day (850L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers. PMID:25660089

  13. Risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae--a case-control study in a low prevalence country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søraas, Arne; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Sandven, Irene; Brunborg, Cathrine; Jenum, Pål A

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prevalence of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The study population comprised 100 cases and 190 controls with CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae, respectively. The following independent risk factors of ESBL-positive UTIs were identified: Travel to Asia, The Middle East or Africa either during the past six weeks (Odds ratio (OR)?=?21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-97) or during the past 6 weeks to 24 months (OR?=?2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4), recent use of fluoroquinolones (OR?=?16; 95% CI: 3.2-80) and ?-lactams (except mecillinam) (OR?=?5.0; 95% CI: 2.1-12), diabetes mellitus (OR?=?3.2; 95% CI: 1.0-11) and recreational freshwater swimming the past year (OR?=?2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0). Factors associated with decreased risk were increasing number of fish meals per week (OR?=?0.68 per fish meal; 95% CI: 0.51-0.90) and age (OR?=?0.89 per 5 year increase; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97). In conclusion, we have identified risk factors that elucidate mechanisms and routes for dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a low prevalence country, which can be used to guide appropriate treatment of CA-UTI and targeted infection control measures. PMID:23936052

  14. Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae –A Case–Control Study in a Low Prevalence Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søraas, Arne; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Sandven, Irene; Brunborg, Cathrine; Jenum, Pål A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prevalence of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The study population comprised 100 cases and 190 controls with CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae, respectively. The following independent risk factors of ESBL-positive UTIs were identified: Travel to Asia, The Middle East or Africa either during the past six weeks (Odds ratio (OR)?=?21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5–97) or during the past 6 weeks to 24 months (OR?=?2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–4.4), recent use of fluoroquinolones (OR?=?16; 95% CI: 3.2–80) and ?-lactams (except mecillinam) (OR?=?5.0; 95% CI: 2.1–12), diabetes mellitus (OR?=?3.2; 95% CI: 1.0–11) and recreational freshwater swimming the past year (OR?=?2.1; 95% CI: 1.0–4.0). Factors associated with decreased risk were increasing number of fish meals per week (OR?=?0.68 per fish meal; 95% CI: 0.51–0.90) and age (OR?=?0.89 per 5 year increase; 95% CI: 0.82–0.97). In conclusion, we have identified risk factors that elucidate mechanisms and routes for dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a low prevalence country, which can be used to guide appropriate treatment of CA-UTI and targeted infection control measures. PMID:23936052

  15. Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

  16. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  17. Produce More Oil and Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner; Ben Grunewald

    2005-07-22

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  18. After the Gulf crisis: The third oil shock is yet to come

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gulf crisis had a major impact on world oil markets: for several months the flow of oil and the capacity to produce oil in the future in several key oil-producing countries were directly or indirectly threatened. A genuine oil shock was avoided because those who are involved in oil markets and in related international organizations maintained their composure. However, an examination of market fundamentals suggests that a return to strong dependence on supplies from the Gulf is probable during this decade if the price of oil does not rise sufficiently to bring about a growth trend in oil production by non-OPEC countries consistent with growth in world oil consumption. An analysis is presented of the oil price trends prior to, during and subsequent to the Gulf crisis, and two alternative scenarios are detailed for the year 2000: sustainable vs a third oil shock. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. 77 FR 74644 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ...Ltd. 16. Wuxi Zhenda Special Steel Tube Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 17. Xigang Seamless Steel Tube Co., Ltd. and 18. Yangzhou...Chuangzin Oil Pipe 19. Jiangyin City Seamless Steel Tube Factory 20. Jinan Meide...

  20. 78 FR 9368 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminarily determine that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel Tube Share Co., Ltd. (``Jiangsu Chengde'') received countervailable...

  1. 75 FR 3203 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...rate for Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co...Jiangsu Changbao Steel Tube Co., Ltd...46 Precision Steel Tube Co., Ltd...Wuxi Seamless Pipe Co, Ltd., Jiangsu Fanli Steel 14.95 Pipe...Steel Steel Tube Co.,...

  2. 78 FR 49475 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...period of review is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We find that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel Tube Share Co., Ltd. (``Jiangsu Chengde'') received countervailable...

  3. Characterization of extra virgin olive oils produced with typical Italian varieties by their phenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monaco, Giovanni; Officioso, Arbace; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Cara, Francesco; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Squillaci, Giuseppe; Maurelli, Luisa; Morana, Alessandra

    2015-10-01

    Evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant power, and protective capacity against oxidation of red blood cells (RBCs) of olive oil phenolic extracts (OOPEs) from several Italian varieties were studied. Phenolic profiles, and quantification of seven selected bioactive compounds were performed by RP-HPLC. OOPEs exhibited high antioxidant activity, and this capacity was positively related to their phenolic amount. In particular, OOPE5 (cv Gentile di Larino, Molise region) displayed the highest phenolic and ortho-diphenolic content as well as the strongest scavenging activity determined using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (87% DPPH inhibition). Protective capacity against stressed RBCs was investigated through the evaluation of methemoglobin (MetHb) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. OOPE5 was the most active against methemoglobin production (53.7% reduction), whereas OOPE1 (cv Lavagnina, Liguria region) showed the highest protection toward malondialdehyde (83.3% reduction). Overall the selected oils showed qualitative and quantitative differences in phenol composition, and this variability influenced their protective effect against oxidative damages. PMID:25872448

  4. Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We obtained biodiesel from açai, cupuaçu, passion fruit and linseed oil. • Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. • Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. • The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the açaí biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuaçu fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), açaí (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the açaí, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

  5. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  6. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author).

  7. Fuel Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Groundnut Oil (Arachis hypogea and its Blend with Petroleum Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Ezeugwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to produce biodiesel from methyl esters of groundnut (Arachis hypogea oil and blend with Petrol diesel. The fuel quality of the biodiesel and its blend (B10 was assessed and compared with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standards. The groundnut oil was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, moisture content, ash content, acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value, refractive index and flash point. The biodiesel produced was analyzed for the same parameters including calorific value. The results obtained for the biodiesel showed that while the moisture and ash content were satisfactorily found in trace quantities, the other parameters also had satisfactory results within the specification of 0.88 (specific gravity, 5.16 mm2 sec-1 (kinematic viscosity, 4.96 mg KOH g-1 (acid value, 2.49% (free fatty acid, 244.74 mg KOH g-1 (saponification value, 52.45 mg KOH g-1 (iodine value, 3.23 mEq kg-1 (peroxide value, 1.463 (refractive index, 202C (flash point and 39,114.29 J g-1 (calorific value. However, the acid value was found to be higher than the maximum permissible level of 0.8 mg KOH g-1. There was obviously very little change in the parameters of the biodiesel when it was blended except for the flash point which was only slightly below the recommended minimum ASTM value of 130C. This indicates that the biodiesel produced could be blended with petrodiesel (B10 to give satisfactory fuel with properties not too different from the biodiesel produced.

  8. Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Properties of Medium-Density Fibreboard Produced from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.M.K. Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB are readily available residues from palm oil industry and have tremendous potential to be used as fibre raw material for Medium-density Fibreboard (MDF manufacture. However, some of the properties of the MDF produced from EFB have been reported to be relatively inferior to those made from rubberwood, presumably due to presence of residual oil in the fibres. In this study, the effects of EFB fibre treatment (soaking in 2% NaOH, boiling in water, both soaking and boiling on the properties of MDF were investigated. The MDF was manufactured using urea formaldehyde (UF as a binder and bonded at three resin levels: 8, 10 and 12%. The boards were tested according to MS Standards 1787: 2005. The results revealed that the refined EFB fibres were short and relatively hard. It was also observed that these fibres tend to conglomerate and formed a small loosely wrapped fibre lumps. Among the treatments used, boiling in water was able to significantly improve the dimensional stability of the board. Apparently high resin content (at least 12% was required to bond EFB fibres and produce boards of high mechanical properties and great dimensional stability.

  9. Seasonal and spatial trends in production and stable isotope signatures of primary producers in Alberta oil sands reclamation wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutsivongsakd, M; Chen, H.; Legg, A.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands processing produces large amounts of waste water that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs). This study investigated the effects of exposure to PAHs and NA in aquatic organisms. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in primary producers using stable isotopes in process-affected and reference wetlands were studied. Plankton and periphytic samples from artificial wetland substrates were collected and analyzed. Periphyton was collected in 14 to 20 day intervals for 5 different time periods in 2007 and 2008 in order to analyze seasonal trends in isotopic composition. Results of the study showed d15N enriched values for some consolidated tailings (CT) at sites in 2008. Other sites with mature fine tailings (MFT) as well as non-MFT sites did not have enriched d15N values. The study suggested that there are variations in ammonia levels in the CTs of different oil sands operators. Differences in the quality of the CT resulted in differences in d15N values of the periphyton-dominated by algae as well as in the periphyton dominated by microbes.

  10. Generalized Representation of the Oil and Gas Producing Areas from the Miocene in Southern Louisiana

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — For each of the four Miocene sequences, polygons representing producing areas within fields were created by constructing a grid of ¼ sq. mi. cells and proximal...

  11. Development of brandname style of food enterprise – producer of sunflower-seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Zvyaginceva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The considered mechanism of the motivation of the development branded stiletto food enterprise - a producer of the sunflower butter a result of the marketing studies on example leader Ukrainian market of the butter.

  12. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop an optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. For instance, by decarbonizing half of its generation mix, Saudi Arabia can release around 0.5 Mb/d barrels of oil equivalent per day from 2020. Moreover, total power generation cost reduction can reach up to around 28% per year from 2030 if Saudi Arabia manages to attain the most optimal generation mix structure introduced in the model (50% of power from renewables and nuclear power plants and 50% from the fossil power plants). - Highlights: • We model the current and future power generation situation of Saudi Arabia. • We take into account the integration of the other alternative resources. • We consider different scenarios of power generation structure for the country. • Optimal generation mix can release considerable amount of oil for export

  13. Release of single cells from the colonial oil-producing alga Botryococcus braunii by chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Park, Hyunsun; Okada, Shigeru; Ohama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    We tested for chemical reagents that would be useful in preparing a large number of vital single cells from colonial Botryococcus braunii B-race, variety Showa. Among the 18 reagents assayed, glycerol and erythritol showed the highest potency for releasing single cells. Incubation in medium containing these reagents released 40-50 % single cells in 15 min. Fluorescent staining with Nile red revealed that except for the cap-like structures the released single cells were free of hydrocarbon oils that accumulated in the extracellular matrix where the single cells were embedded. However, to maintain the prepared single cells in vital condition, they must be maintained at a high concentration (>2?×?10(7) cells/ml); at low concentrations, they rapidly lost chlorophyll and get disrupted. In contrast to the above results obtained using B-race, Showa, single cells prepared from A-race varieties survived even at low cell concentrations. PMID:23943006

  14. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010 : a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ? 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (? 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (? 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (? 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

  15. Oil production responses to price changes. An empirical application of the competitive model to OPEC and non-OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falling oil prices over the last decade, accompanied by over-production by some OPEC members and the growth of non-OPEC supply, warrant further empirical investigation of the competitive model to ascertain production behavior. A supply function, based on a modification of Griffin's model, is estimated using data from 1973-1997. The sample period, unlike Griffin's, however, includes phases of price increase (1970s) and price decrease (1980s-1990s), thus providing a better framework for examining production behavior using the competitive model. The OPEC results do not support the competitive hypothesis; instead, a negative and significant price elasticity of supply is obtained. This result offers partial support for the target revenue theory. For most of the non-OPEC members, the estimates support the competitive model. OPEC's loss of market share and the drop in the share of oil-based energy should signal adjustments in price and quantity based on a competitive world market for crude oil

  16. Selection and Characterization of Biofuel-Producing Environmental Bacteria Isolated from Vegetable Oil-Rich Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T.; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

  17. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW. PMID:17537573

  18. Online monitoring of P(3HB) produced from used cooking oil with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Freitas, Filomena; Lopes, João Almeida; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-01-20

    Online monitoring process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), using cooking oil (UCO) as the sole carbon source and Cupriavidus necator, was developed. A batch reactor was operated and hydroxybutyrate homopolymer was obtained. The biomass reached a maximum concentration of 11.6±1.7gL(-1) with a polymer content of 63±10.7% (w/w). The yield of product on substrate was 0.77±0.04gg(-1). Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used for online monitoring of the fermentation, using a transflectance probe. Partial least squares regression was applied to relate NIR spectra with biomass, UCO and PHA concentrations in the broth. The NIR predictions were compared with values obtained by offline reference methods. Prediction errors to these parameters were 1.18, 2.37 and 1.58gL(-1) for biomass, UCO and PHA, respectively, which indicate the suitability of the NIR spectroscopy method for online monitoring and as a method to assist bioreactor control. PMID:25455015

  19. The composition of corn oil produced after fermentation via centrifugation in a commercial dry grind ethanol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical composition of corn oil obtained via centrifugation after fermentation of corn to make fuel ethanol, and compare its composition to that of corn germ oil (commercial corn oil) and experimental corn oils. The levels of free fatty acids in the post fermen...

  20. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the docrisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  1. Water column monitoring of the biological effects of produced water from the Ekofisk offshore oil installation from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven J; Harman, Christopher; Grung, Merete; Farmen, Eivind; Ruus, Anders; Vingen, Sjur; Godal, Brit F; Barsiene, Janina; Andreikenaite, Laura; Skarpheðinsdottir, Halldóra; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Sundt, Rolf C

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian water column monitoring program investigates the biological effects of offshore oil and gas activities in Norwegian waters. In three separate surveys in 2006, 2008, and 2009, bioaccumulation and biomarker responses were measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) held in cages at known distances from the produced water (PW) discharge at the Ekofisk oil field. Identical monitoring studies performed in all three years have allowed the biological effects and bioaccumulation data to be compared, and in addition, enabled the potential environmental benefits of a PW treatment system (CTour), implemented in 2008, to be evaluated. The results of the 2009 survey showed that caged animals were exposed to low levels of PW components, with highest tissue concentrations in mussels located closest to the PW discharge. Mussels located approximately 1-2 km away demonstrated only background concentrations of target compounds. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkyl phenol (AP) metabolites in the bile of caged cod were elevated at stations 200-250 m from the discharge. There was also a signal of exposure relative to discharge for the biomarkers CYP1A in fish and micronuclei in mussels. All other fish and mussel biomarkers showed no significant exposure effects in 2009. The mussel bioaccumulation data in 2009 indicated a lower exposure to the PW effluent than seen previously in 2008 and 2006, resulting in an associated general improvement in the health of the caged mussels. This was due to the reduction in overall discharge of PW components (measured as oil in water) into the area in 2009 compared to previous years as a result of the improved PW treatment system. PMID:21391100

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari S. Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

  3. Studies on Hydrotreating Process of Microcrystalline Wax Produced from Marine Belayim Crude Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Microcrystalline wax was produced from solvent dewaxing process of vacuum residue raffinate produced from Marine Belayim origin. The untreated microcrystalline wax contains trace amounts of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and organometallic compounds as well as heavy aromatics which affect the properties of wax applications in pharmaceutical and technical fields . Microcrystalline wax hydrotreating process was studied using digital controlled unit and Ni O-MoO3 / Al2O3 catalyst, where operating parameters that controlled the efficiency of the hydrotreated wax were studied separately at different values including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio . Hydrotreated microcrystalline wax at operating conditions (temperature 300 degree C, pressure 73 kg/cm2, LHS V 0.52 h-l and H2/HC ratio 266.6 Nm3/m3) has the best quality to be used as food grade wax

  4. Characterization, physicochemical stability, and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of solid lipid microparticles produced with palm kernel oil and tristearin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaina Costa da, Silva; Thais Ribeiro, Borrin; Pâmela, Ruy; Thais Carvalho, Brito; Ana Cristina, Pinheiro; António Augusto, Vicente; Samantha Cristina de, Pinho.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles have been investigated by food researchers due to their ability to enhance the incorporation and bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives in aqueous formulations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical stability and digestibility of lipid microparticl [...] es produced with tristearin and palm kernel oil. The motivation for conducting this study was the fact that mixing lipids can prevent the expulsion of the bioactive from the lipid core and enhance the digestibility of lipid structures. The lipid microparticles containing different palm kernel oil contents were stable after 60 days of storage according to the particle size and zeta potential data. Their calorimetric behavior indicated that they were composed of a very heterogeneous lipid matrix. Lipid microparticles were stable under various conditions of ionic strength, sugar concentration, temperature, and pH. Digestibility assays indicated no differences in the release of free fatty acids, which was approximately 30% in all analises. The in vitro digestibility tests showed that the amount of palm kernel in the particles did not affect the percentage of lipolysis, probably due to the high amount of surfactants used and/or the solid state of the microparticles.

  5. Producing non-ionic surfactant type of ethoxylated lauryl alcohol (LAT) based on lauryl alcohol product from palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-ionic surfactant type of ethoxylated lauryl alcohol (LAT) based on lauryl alcohol product from palm oil was produced successfully. Ethoxylation reaction was carried out between EO with lauryl alcohol (C12). Different moles ratio of EO, reaction temperature and pressure were among various parameters investigated. The reaction was performed with KOH as a homogenous catalyst. LAT products were analyzed using FTIR, HPLC, foaming test, value of Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) and detergency. The formation of LAT molecule was indicated by the C-O stretching peak (ether group) at 900 to 1350 cm-1 of the FTIR spectrum. Characterization using HPLC showed the retention time of 6.201 minutes for LAT-3 EO, 6.261 minutes for LAT-5 EO and 6.260 minutes for LAT-7 EO. Generally, the ethoxylated product has a good potential to be used as detergent and for industrial application. (author)

  6. Fuel Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Groundnut Oil (Arachis hypogea) and its Blend with Petroleum Diesel

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Ezeugwu; A.U. Ofoefule; C.N. Ibeto

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to produce biodiesel from methyl esters of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) oil and blend with Petrol diesel. The fuel quality of the biodiesel and its blend (B10) was assessed and compared with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standards. The groundnut oil was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, moisture content, ash content, acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value, refractive index and ...

  7. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES PRODUCED BY EUPENICILLIUM JAVANICUM AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL 337 ON PALM OIL FACTORY WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of palm kernel cake (PKC and palm oil mill effluent (POME, substances from palm oil factory wastes, for monogastric is limited by their high cellulose and mannan contents. Hydrolytic enzymes have been supplemented to increase the nutrient digestibility. The maximal digestibility was obtained in the synergistic action of all enzyme components including B-D-endoglucanase (CMCase, B-D-glucosidase, B-D-mannanase, p-D-mannosidase, and oc-D-galactosidase. Two kinds of enzymes produced by Eupenicillium javanicum and Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 on the submerged culture containing 3% coconut meal were selected to hydrolyze PKC or dry POME. Enzyme from E. javanicum contained higher CMCase, B-D-mannanase, and a-D- galactosidase activities, while that from A. niger NRRL 337 contained more p-D-glucosidase and p-D-mannosidase activities. Saccharification (hydrolytic activities of enzyme mixtures on PKC and POME were determined at pH 5.0, the optimal pH for p-D-mannanase from E. javanicum, and at 5.4 the optimal pH for a-D-galactosidase from E. javanicum and P-D-glucosidase from A. niger NRRL 337. The enzyme proportions of E. javanicum and A. niger NRRL 337 were 100 : 0, 80 : 20, 60 : 40, 40 : 60, and 0 : 100%. The highest Saccharification activity on both substrates was observed on the mixture of 80% A. niger NRRL 337. The pH levels did not significantly affect Saccharification activity. Fiber components in PKC were more digestable than in POME. Further analysis on the reducing sugar components using thin layer chromatography showed that more monomers were produced in the 60 or 80% of A. niger NRRL 337. The glycosidases of A. niger NRRL 337 played more important role in the Saccharification activity.

  8. Europe and oil: beware of the glass ceiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because current oil exporting countries consume an increasing share of their production and will shortly be producing less and less, available amounts of oil for the international market will decrease faster than world production, in spite of the emergence of new exporting countries such as Brazil or Kazakhstan. Owing to expanding consumption of major emerging countries, the share le for developed countries will drop rapidly, by approximately one third in the coming fifteen years. Europe, whose oil reserves will soon be exhausted, will almost entirely depend on outside sources. If it does not adjust through massive and swift consumption reduction, its material growth will be durably jeopardized due to substantial oil price increases. The adjustment requires strong and urgent measures to reduce the consumption of oil-based fuel in transportation, as well as of fuel oil by the residential and tertiary sectors. A selection of measures is set out. (author)

  9. Avian species diversity in oil palm plantations of Agusan Del Sur and Compostela Valley, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Cagod, Beverly M.; Nun?eza, Olga M.

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm trees have become the most expanding equatorial crops in the world and theirproduct, palm oil, is produced, traded and used more than any other vegetable oil worldwide. Theexpansion of oil palm cultivation, however, is frequently cited as a major factor causing deforestationthat may result in biodiversity losses in tropical countries. In this study, an assessment of the avifaunain oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur and Compostela Valley, Mindanao, Philippines was done fromApril 2...

  10. Biodiesel from Mustard oil: a Sustainable Engine Fuel Substitute for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M.M.; Rahman, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Various attractive features of mustard oil based biodiesel as a potential substitute for engine fuel are investigated in this paper for use in Bangladesh. Although the use of mustard oil as edible oil has been reduced, Bangladesh still produces 0.22 million metric tons of mustard oil per year. This surplus mustard oil would satisfactorily be used as an alternative to diesel fuel, and thus could contribute in reducing the expenses for importing fuel from foreign countries. Moreover, the rural ...

  11. Profitability and taxation in the UKCS oil and gas industry: analysing the distribution of rewards between company and country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of record levels of UK hydrocarbon production and a government review of the UKCS tax regime, this paper provides evidence that the government's share of UKCS profits is very low by historical and international standards and demonstrates that the current tax regime is extremely weak. The justification for the latter is the challenged by assessing the relative profitability of UKCS companies, using data from UK national accounts and from Form 10-K and Form 20-F company reports and analysing both accounting profits and forecast discounted cash flow. This shows that companies operating on the UKCS enjoy substantially higher profitability relative to both other UK companies and other oil and gas provinces elsewhere in the world. Further evidence of the weakness of the UK regime is provided by a comparison with the Norwegian oil and gas tax regime. The paper therefore makes a strong case for the reform of the UKCS tax regime. (Author)

  12. Dividing the oils: An application of the theory of dynamic bargaining to three cases involving resource-rich developing countries and multinational oil corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, Laura

    This dissertation takes as a point of departure Theodore Moran's dynamic bargaining model, which posits that resource-rich developing countries ascend a bargaining learning curve in their negotiations with multinational corporations and do better for themselves over time. Moran's theory is applied to three new case studies---Kazakhstan, Nigeria, and Indonesia---to test whether it holds across relevant, yet diverse scenarios. The dissertation utilizes game theory to systematize both the application of the theory and the analysis of the bargaining, combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies. It investigates the possibility that developing countries may systematically utilize game theory to better understand how to be efficient negotiators and, in this way, ascend the bargaining learning curve at an accelerated rate.

  13. Revisiting the resource-conflict link: A systematic comparative test of causal mechanisms in four major oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Basedau, Matthias; Ma?hler, Annegret; Shabafrouz, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Causal mechanisms and related contextual variables are crucial to the study of the resource-conflict link, but little systematic research has been done on their exact functioning. This paper contributes to the filling of this gap by comparing four major oil exporters (Algeria, Iran, Nigeria, and Venezuela) with differing levels of internal violence. To capture the causal complexity of the resource-conflict link we created a questionnaire with some 150 variables that distinguish between resour...

  14. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potenent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  15. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 ?g/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 ?g/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:? The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient. PMID:22417594

  16. Alliances and partnering: A new relationship between oil/gas producing companies and service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the energy industry finds both operating and service companies squeezed by lower prices and higher costs. Investment in exploration, equipment, and technology has been severely restricted. Many operators are responding to these harsh market conditions by re-engineering their work processes and focusing on core business activities. Re-engineered work processes encourage operators and service companies to work closely together. This motivates both to eliminate duplication, simplify processes, increase efficiency and capitalize on combined expertise to enhance production and optimize total system cost. Alliances and partnering are based on mutual trust and the commitment to add value to both organizations. Aligning interests is fundamental in establishing a lasting and mutually beneficial relationship. This paper presents an overview of these new relationships. The benefits and concerns of changing from traditional bidding agreements to new business arrangements between producing companies and service companies is discussed. Evaluation criteria for potential candidates, how to structure an alliance or partnering agreement, and a discussion of the key issues in the application of incentive contracts is presented

  17. An extractive distillation technique for producing CO2 enriched injection gas in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp Separation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) from CO2-rich gases issuing from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields is investigated by different processing alternatives. A new extractive distillation technique without using an external solvent is introduced for debottlenecking of CO2 separation problem encountered in cryogenic distillation units. The technique involves the addition of a portion of produced C4+ (NGL) stream (natural gas liquid stream comprising iso-butane and heavier components) to the top section of a CO2 stripper followed by C2/C3 (ethane and propane) stripping of recovered C2+ (ethane and heavier components) stream. Detail description of the proposed technique for producing greater than 96% CO2-rich injection gas without external solvent is presented. According to the proposed approach, high quality C2/C3 and C4+ products with the corresponding purities of 89.6% and 99.6% suitable as feedstocks for gas and petrochemical processing units are also obtained. Sharp separation of CO2 from recovered hydrocarbon mixtures by the proposed technique and recycling it to petroleum reservoirs is an important issue regarding the optimization of EOR processes and greenhouse gas emission control.

  18. Country profile: Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situated at the East-West crossroads, Austria's energy sector is wide open to import, transit and export of supplies. This has become increasingly important as energy resources have dwindled, to the point where primary production accounts for around one-third of consumption, which is still heavily dependent on oil. Oil exploration and production has dropped significantly, as OMV - state-controlled but mid-privatisation - has sought to diversify its crude sources to maintain supply security. OMV's interests in the trans-Alpine crude pipeline network help to offset product transport costs from the Schwechat refinery. Domestic gas production, meanwhile, meets a quarter of demand. OMV again dominates as producer and importer, having recently moved to tie up supply from Norway and Algeria as questionmarks remain over the future of gas from the former Soviet Union. Coal continues to play a significant role in the energy matrix, but indigenous production has slipped with only the lignite reserves remaining. Responsible for the coordination of production and imports, the VbG electricity authority has struggled to find ways to increase capacity to meet growing demand. Massive hydro projects have run into the kind of opposition from the public that put paid to the country's never started up and now mothballed nuclear facility. The trend towards reliance on imports is likely to persist: at least the country is ideally situated, with connections to the grids of both East and Westections to the grids of both East and West Europe. (author)

  19. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original

  20. Price and Income Elasticities of Demand for Oil Products in African Member Countries of OPEC: A Cointegration Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Sa’ad; Muhammad, Shahbaz

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the demand for petroleum products in African member countries of OPEC namely Algeria, Angola, Libya and Nigeria over the period of 1980-2007. For this purpose, econometric models based on time series data are generated for individual products so as to capture product specific factors affecting demand. In doing so, the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration is applied to examine the long run relationship among the variables. Four specifications such as total petroleu...

  1. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna; Mohamad Saleh Hammoud; Judith A. Russo-Converso

    2014-01-01

    Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available...

  2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post-conflict countries. The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made.

  3. Energy security. The external legal relations of the European Union with major oil- and gas-supplying countries

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighi, Sanam Salem

    2007-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyzes in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy.The book d...

  4. Composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the seawater-soluble fraction of diesel and fuel oils produced in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed composition of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of diesel and fuel oil is described. WSFs were prepared by stirring the oil in seawater for 24 hours at three different temperatures. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the WSF were determined by purge and trap/GC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the concentrated extract were determined by single-ion monitoring GC/MS. WSFs of low- and high-sulfur diesel oil produced comparable composition of the volatiles (about 1000 micro g/l). However, there were considerable differences in the PAHs present in the WSF of these oils (1202 and 1360 micro g/l respectively). The VOCs in WSF produced by fuel oil were in lower concentration (657 micro g/l) compared to those in the WSFs of diesels. PAHs were also lower in the case of WSF of fuel oil (511 micro g/l). Increasing the temperature, resulted in relatively small increase in the concentration of VOCs but significant increase in the PAH concentration in the WSF. (author)

  5. The US's group of seven: US oil import dependence grows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest available import data from the US Department of Energy show greater US dependence on imported crude oil, a two percentage point increase in 1992 above 1991. In fact, the share of imported crude oil of the sum of the US crude production and imports has grown from less than one-third in 1986 to nearly 46% in 1992. A closer look at the data reveals that US crude oil dependence is become increasingly centered on a small number of countries. In 1992, more than 85% of crude oil imports originated in seven countries: Saudia Arabia, Nigeria, Venezuela, Canada, Mexico, Angola, and the United Kingdom. Many people worry that US import dependence is at dangerous levels. However, the recent trend of joint ventures between US companies and oil producers should allay those fears by providing oil producers an incentive for stable oil supply in the US

  6. Sharing oil revenues. Current status and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author analyzes and comments the evolution of the sharing of oil revenues at a time when producing countries can obtain better conditions from oil companies to exploit their resources. The author first describes the operation of the oil exploration-production industry and its three types of oil revenue. He introduces the issue of reserves with its technical, economic and political aspects. He describes the two main modalities of relationship between an oil State and an international company, discusses the organization options for an oil producing country to take the best out of its oil potential, comments the developments of contracting modalities. He proposes recommendations for States about benefits and drawbacks of the various contract options

  7. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  8. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  9. First bio-diesel plant from oil-producing in Brazil; Premiere usine de biodiesel a partir d'oleagineux au Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    In march 2005, Brazil implemented its first bio-diesel production plant from vegetal oils. This unit, situated in the Minas Gerais state will produce 12 millions of liter of bio-diesel per year. Cars using bio-diesel fuels generate 16% less of gases and fumes than petrol fuel cars, for the same fuel consumption. (A.L.B.)

  10. Reliable in the long run? Petroleum policy and long-term oil supplier reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerating oil import dependence in energy consuming nations highlights the importance of having energy supplies at sufficient levels and at stable and reasonable prices. Consequently, it is crucial that oil exporters realize their full production potential. Current debates on energy security are often focused on short-term risks e.g. sudden disruptions due to wars, domestic instability, etc. However, when it comes to assessing oil supplier reliability it is equally important to assess their longer term ability and willingness to deliver oil to the global market. This study analyzes the effects of petroleum investment policies on crude oil production trends in 14 major oil producing countries (2000-2010) by focusing on the political-institutional frameworks that shape the investment conditions for the upstream oil sector. Our findings indicate that countries with less favorable oil sector frameworks systematically performed worse than countries with investor friendly and privatized sectors. The findings indicate that assessments based on remaining reserves and planned production capacities alone could inflate expectations about future oil supplies in a world where remaining crude reserves are located in countries with unfavorable investment frameworks. - Highlights: ? We explore if policies favoring state-ownership in upstream oil undermine output expectations. ? We compare petroleum policies of 14 major oil producers vis-a-vis production trends 2000-2010. ? Wvis production trends 2000-2010. ? We find major differences between countries favorable to state-owned or private investors. ? Substantial private investment seems needed for oil production to meet long-term demand growth.

  11. studies on the characteristics of the TE-NORM Wastes produced from different oil and natural Gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    industrial as well as technical activities disturb environmental radioactivities, especially naturally occurring radioactive materials (Norm) with subsequent concentration in their radiation hazardous . in oil and natural gas industry in egypt, the sediments, scale and / or sludge as well as waste water produced from drilling activity in many sites, were found to contain increased amounts of uranium, thorium and radium, that represent radiation hazardous to surroundings. these materials are known as: technically enhanced-naturally occurring radioactive materials (Te-Norm). in this study, the Te-Norm wastes were characterized in terms of mineralogical, chemical and radiological analysis. this study indicated that, sediments of Te-Norm wastes are commonly mixtures of sulphate, carbonate and/or silicate of the primordial nuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K and some other elements . the activity levels of 226 Ra,228Ra,224Ra and 40K were found in the ranges 11600-33200, 4200-10400, 3900-11200 and 960-11300 Bq/Kg (dry weight). respectively, for the Te-Norm waste samples produced from gabal el zeit region onshore of suez gulf (eastern desert). in waste water samples, the activity levels were found 1222,770,770 and 520 Bq/I for 226 Ra,228Ra,224Ra and 40 K, respectively. while, in case of the Te-Norm waste samples taken from badr el din region (western desert), them badr el din region (western desert), the activity levels were found in the ranges 28400-119400, 39000-193000, 28300-166600 and 2800-15600 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra and 40K, respectively. the parent/daughter ratio were also estimated and discussed in the different Te-Norm waste samples

  12. Characterization and shelf life of ?-carotene loaded solid lipid microparticles produced with stearic acid and sunflower oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graziela Veiga de Lara, Gomes; Thais Ribeiro, Borrin; Lisandro Pavie, Cardoso; Eliana, Souto; Samantha Cristina de, Pinho.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid microparticles were tested as microencapsulation systems for protecting ?-carotene from degradation. Blends of long-chain (C18) solid lipids (70% stearic acid) and sunflower oil (30%) were used to produce lipid microparticles encapsulating the carotenoid. Polysorbate 80 (4%) was employed [...] to stabilize the stearic acid microparticles. The concentration of ?-carotene was monitored using spectrophotometry, the particle size distribution was measured by laser diffraction, the crystal structure was determined by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and the thermal behaviour was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) over a period of seven months. All of the systems had an average particle size smaller than 5 µm. To avoid ?-carotene oxidation, ?-tocopherol was added to the formulations and its action as an oxygen trap was crucial for the antioxidant effect. For stearic-acid microparticles with a-tocopherol, more than 90% of the initial amount of ?-carotene was preserved after seven months under refrigerated storage (7-10°C) in the dark. Significant microstructural alterations were detected using WAXD and DSC only in the stearic acid microparticles without alpha-tocopherol. These results seemed promising and suggested that the blends of long-chain solid lipids and liquid lipids were suitable for the production of stable solid lipid microparticles.

  13. Scale-up fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce ruminant feed by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-up fermentation and irradiation conditions of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were examined to produce a large amount of fermented products for animal feeds. The EFB substrates pasteurized by irradiation were inoculated with Coprinus cinereus. After 1 month incubation, the crude fiber contents decreased to 20 - 38% and crude protein contents increased to 9 - 13% in small scale fermentation using conical flask (6 - 20 g EFB). In the case of fermentation using polypropylene bags with 400 g EFB, crude fiber and protein contents were 32 - 34% and 11 - 14%, respectively. A larger plastic container packed with 1.5 kg EFB fiber of 10cm thickness was used for mushroom cultivation. After harvest of mushroom (yields were about 250 g per container), the quality of residual substrates improved further as reflected by its crude fiber content of only 16 - 20%, crude protein content of 6 - 8%. These results show that a large volume of products are available under the good aeration by increasing the number of plastic bags or containers. For the irradiation of a lot of fermentation substrates, the advantage of 60Co gamma-ray and electron beam irradiator was also discussed. (author)

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  15. Physico-chemical properties of oil produced from Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Carthamus tinctorius L seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Goja, Arafat M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed oil obtained from the farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bakht Alruda and Forestry garden in Ed Dueim city, Sudan. The hexane-extracted oil yield of Moringa, Jatropha and Safflower was 34.5, 63 and 42% respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follows: Peroxide number, 14.5,...

  16. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration in Remediation of Oil-contaminated Soils with Use of Fenton Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Yousefi; A. Bostani

    2013-01-01

    Refining oil-contaminated soils has a great importance especially in oil producer countries such as Iran. Different methods have been provided to eliminate oil contaminations from soil. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hydrogen peroxide concentration in refining oil-contaminated soils with Fenton chemical method. To do this, a calcareous soil complex sample was collected around the Tehran oil refinery and treated with 10 and 20 percent petroleum in three replications. Af...

  17. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF AGRO-PROCESSING SMALL SCALEINDUSTRY IN SOLAPUR CITY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OIL MILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatipamul, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Oil is a very essential commodity of daily life. The Consumption of oil in Indian diet is very high as compare to other countries. There are many Geographical, Social and Economical factors are affecting on the location of oil industry in Solapur city. The area surrounding the Solapur city is rural which produce raw material for oil industry. i.e. Groundnut, sunflower, safflower. The availability of cheap labour, Railway Junction in Solapur city and demand of oil these are responsible for dev...

  18. Control of Origin of Sesame Oil from Various Countries by Stable Isotope Analysis and DNA Based Markers—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Micha; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Burg, Kornel; Soja, Gerhard; Okello-Anyanga, Walter; Fluch, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis. PMID:25831054

  19. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 {mu}g/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 {mu}g/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  20. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendil, Durali; Uluözlü, Ozgür Dogan; Tüzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 microg/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 microg/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively. PMID:19036503

  1. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 ?g/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 ?g/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  2. Co-precipitation/Adsorption of Boron for Treatment of Produced Water at the Arroyo Grande Oil Field, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wörlén, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this Master’s thesis project is to develop a method for boron precipitation inproduced waters from the Arroyo Grande oil field outside San Luis Obispo in centralCalifornia. The current oil recovery is a closed system that pumps up to 1,500 barrelsoil/day. A new system is proposed to increase oil production three times andsimultaneously dewater half of the water in the oil formation during the time span of tenyears, which amounts to 55,000 barrels/day. The water will be treated a...

  3. Pyrolysis Oil from the Fruit and Cake of Jatropha curcas Produced Using a Low Temperature Conversion (LTC) Process: Analysis of a Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blend

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Kort-Kamp Figueiredo; Gilberto Alves Romeiro; Raquel Vieira Santana Silva; Priscila Alvares Pinto; Raimundo Nonato Damasceno; Luiz Antonio d`Avila; Amanda P. Franco

    2011-01-01

    Background: The LTC process is a technique that consists of heating solid residues at a temperature of 380oC - 420oC in an inert atmosphere and their products are evaluated individually: these products include pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic char, gas and water. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the use of oils obtained by pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas as an additive for diesel in different proportions. Results: A Low Temperature C...

  4. Problems Associated with Declining National Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of peak oil production have focussed on the global impacts of declining production. Meanwhile, national oil production has declined in 20 countries, leading to local problems that receive little comment outside of the effected regions. Two problems deserve wider recognition: declining state revenues and fuel substitution. Most oil producing countries with large reserves adopted licensing practices that provide significant revenues to the host governments such that oil revenues generate from 40 to 80 percent of total government funds. Typically these governments allocate a fraction of this revenue to their state oil companies, utilizing the remainder for other activities. As oil revenues decline with falling production, host governments face a dilemma: either to increase state oil company budgets in order to stem the decline, or to starve the state oil company while maintaining other government programs. The declining oil revenues in these states can significantly reduce the government's ability to address important national issues. Mexico, Indonesia, and Yemen illustrate this situation in its early phases. Fuel substitution occurs whenever one fuel proves less expensive than another. The substitution of coal for wood in the eighteenth century and oil for coal in the twentieth century are classic examples. China and India appear to be at peak oil production, while their economies generate increasing demand for energy. Both countries are substituting coal and natural gas for oil with attendant environmental impacts. Coal-to-liquids projects are proposed in in both China, which will require significant water resources if they are executed. These examples suggest that forecasting the impact of peak oil at a regional level requires more than an assessment of proven-probable-possible reserves and a forecast of supply-demand scenarios. A range of government responses to declining oil income scenarios must also be considered, together with scenarios describing the range of environmental impacts. Forecasting the impact of national oil production declines is a multi-disciplinary activity requiring the skills of geologists, geophysicists, engineers, economists, and political scientists.

  5. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  6. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  7. Concentration measurements of uranium, thorium and their daughter products in water produced from and near oil fields in north of Iraq using SSNTRD's passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and their daughter products in water samples collected from different oil fields and sources in north of Iraq, were determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 SSNTRDs. It was found that the concentrations of 238U and 232Th vary between 0.20 and 3.50 ppm and from 0.03 to 1.83 ppm, respectively. According to the recommended values and the calculated annual effective dose, most of the produced water from the studied oil fields is not useful for any direct purpose. (author)

  8. 77 FR 5385 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...corporations involved in the international trading of essential...in the production and marketing of spearmint oil. Under...As with all Federal marketing order programs, reports...their views on this issue. Comments on the interim...Subjects in 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing agreements, Oils...

  9. 78 FR 23673 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ...corporations involved in the international trading of essential...in the production and marketing of spearmint oil. Under...As with all Federal marketing order programs, reports...their views on this issue. Comments on the interim...Subjects in 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing agreements, Oils...

  10. Directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapor produced by prairie cordgrass pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 using a two stage reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking is one of the most promising processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass to advanced biofuels in recent years. However, current effectiveness of catalysts and conversion efficiency still remain challenges. An investigation of directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapors produced in prairie cordgrass (PCG pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5 in a two stage packed-bed reactor was carried out. The Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was synthesized using an impregnation method. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by BET and XRD. The effects of catalysts on pyrolysis products yields and quality were examined. Both catalysts improved bio-oil product distribution compared to non-catalytic treatment. When PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with absence of catalyst, the produced bio-oils contained higher alcohols (10.97% and furans (10.14%. In contrast, the bio-oils contained the second highest hydrocarbons (34.97%?and the highest phenols (46.97% when PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with Ni/HZSM-5. Bio-oils containing less ketones and aldehydes were produced by both Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5, but no ketones were found in Ni/HZSM-5 treatment compared to HZSM-5 (2.94%. The pyrolysis gas compositions were also affected by the presenting of HZSM-5 or Ni/HZSM-5 during the catalytic upgrading process. However, higher heating values and elemental compositions (C, H and N of bio-chars produced in all treatments had no significant difference.

  11. Crude oil: worldwide inquiry on a destructive wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More and more scarce, petroleum appears as much as an advantage as a malediction for the countries who owns some. Petroleum is very often synonymous of war, poverty, fundamentalism, pollution, or anarchy. Thanks to a large range of testimonies gathered in many oil producing countries, the author gives an overview of the worldwide fight in which oil industry actors are engaged and presents its deleterious influence on economies and populations. (J.S.)

  12. Synthetic gasoline and diesel oil produced by Fischer-Tropsch Technology. A possibility for the future? IEA/AMF annex XXXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B., (Atrax Energy AB, Goeteborg (SE)); Blinge, M., (The Swedish Transport Research Institute, TFK (SE)); Schramm, J.; Larsen, Ulrik, (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-03-15

    This report is the result of an annex (annex XXXI, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels) initiated by the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels. The annex has been managed by Atrax Energi AB, Bjorn Rehnlund, acting as the operating agent of the annex. The work in the annex has been carried out in co-operation with the Swedish Transportation Research Institute - TFK, Magnus Blinge and the Technical University of Denmark - DTU, Jesper Schramm and Ulrik Larsen. In this report the possibilities to produce synthetic gasoline and synthetic diesel oil from biomass, and also from natural gas, by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Technology are analysed and discussed. After an introduction of the technology as such, environmental aspects and the life cycle perspective of synthetic gasoline and diesel oil are discussed, and some possible national/regional scenarios are analysed and presented. Vehicle emission tests with synthetic gasoline carried out at DTU are described and discussed in this report as well. Based on the result of the analysis and the vehicle emission tests presented in the report, a first SWOT analysis of Fischer-Tropsch technology is then presented, and finally some main conclusions are drawn. During the execution of the annex Sasol in South Africa, Nykomb Synergetics in Sweden, Chemrec in Sweden, the Technical University of Denmark, VTT in Finland, the Varnamo gasification research project in Sweden, and the Black liquor gasification project in Pitea, Sweden have been visited. Some of the most important conclusions are that: 1) FT-Fuels such as FT-Diesel (FTD) and FT-Gasoline (FTG) produced through CoalTo-Liquid, (CTL), Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) and Biomass-To-Liquid (BTL) technologies can contribute to reducing the dependency on crude oil. 2) FTD and FTG are attractive for use in neat form and also as components in blends with low quality diesel and gasoline, to upgrade fuels to meet the ever more stringent regulations. 3) Production and use of GTL has the potential of contributing about the same or slightly less greenhouse gas to the atmosphere than production and use of conventional diesel. Production and use of CTL emits more than twice as much greenhouse gases than traditional fuels. Production and use of BTL reduces the emissions of greenhouse gases by 60-90 % compared to fossil diesel and gasoline. 4) The technology to gasify biomass is not yet ready for market introduction. Further research and development are needed in this area. 5) The FT process is still a relatively expensive technology and requires large-scale production plants or further development, in order to be economically viable. The option of making FTD and/or FTG from remotely located and/or low quality (flare gas) resources of natural gas is today less capital intensive than other production methods. 6) According to information from Sasol it is possible to produce FT-fuels with coal as feedstock to a market competitive price as soon as the crude oil price is higher than 30 to 40 USD per barrel. 7) The production and use of FT-fuels reduces smog-inducing matter with about 90 and the emissions affecting acidification and eutrofication are about 5-40 % reduced. 8) Compared to conventional diesel, various kinds of pollutant emissions are reduced with the vehicle use of FT-fuels: HC, CO, NOx, PM, SOF, VOF and PAHs. 9) A biomass based FT production scenario will have a large impact on the feedstock transport and logistic systems and many obstacles must be considered. It will not only be investment costs for the plants, but also for infrastructure around the plant and a significant amount of heavy traffic towards the fuel production plants will be the result of this system. 10) To substitute 15 % of the EU 15 countries transport fuel consumption would for example require an area of the size of Poland and it would furthermore require 122 FT-plants of 1.6 GW each. (au)

  13. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively. PMID:18514402

  14. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 ± 2.8, 64.8 ± 4.1 and 76.4 ± 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to ? Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to ?91 ± 3.5, 87 ± 4.1 and 90 ± 6.2%, respectively

  15. Oil well produced water discharges to the North Sea. Part II: comparison of deployed mussels (Mytilus edulis) and the DREAM model to predict ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Johnsen, Ståle; Frost, Tone K; Utvik, Toril I Røe; Durell, Gregory S

    2006-09-01

    Large volumes of water often are produced with oil and gas from offshore platforms. The produced water is separated from the oil and gas and either reinjected into a deep formation or discharged to the ocean. The Norwegian oil and gas industry advocates ecological risk assessment as the basis for managing produced water discharges to the North Sea. In this paper, we compare estimates of ecological risks to water-column communities based on data on hydrocarbon residues in soft tissues of blue mussels deployed for a month near offshore platforms and based on predictions of the Dose related Risk and Effect Assessment Model (DREAM). The study was performed near produced water discharges to the Tampen and Ekofisk Regions of the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea. Because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are considered the most important contributors to the ecological hazard posed by produced water discharges, comparisons made here focus on this group of compounds. The mussel approach is based on predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of individual PAH, estimated from PAH residues in mussels following deployment for a month near several produced water discharges, and predicted no effects concentrations (PNECs) based on a K(ow) regression model. In the DREAM method, PECs for three PAH fractions are estimated in the three-dimensional area around produced water discharge with the DREAM model. PNECs for each fraction are based on the chronic toxicity of a representative PAH from each fraction divided by an assessment factor to account for uncertainty in the chronic value. The mussel method gives much lower estimates of ecological risk than the DREAM method. The differences are caused by the much lower PNECs used in DREAM than derived from the regression model, and by the lower concentrations of aqueous PAH predicted by DREAM than estimated from PAH residues in mussel tissues. However, the two methods rank stations at different distances from produced water discharges in the same order and both identify 2- and 3-ring PAHs as the main contributors to the ecological risk of produced water discharges. Neither method identifies a significant ecological risk of PAH in the upper water column of the oil fields. The DREAM model may produce an overly conservative estimate of ecological risk of produced water discharges to the North Sea. PMID:16730789

  16. Estonian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the duration of oil shale utilization in Estonia the amount of mineable resource and present demand for oil shale must be taken into account. As of beginning of 1999, by economical and environmental criteria active i.e. mineable resource of Estonia oil shale deposit is accounted for 1.5 billion tonnes, which is almost as much as has been mined out from the hole exhausted area. Considering the present oil shale production output together with production losses and written of resource (total ca 15-17 million tonnes per annum), the mineable (active) resource of mine fields (0.59 billion tonnes) guarantee oil shale mining for minimum 35 years. In the future Aidu, Sirgala and Narva opencasts will be transferred into underground mines due to increasing thickness of overburden. Supplementary resource for operating mines and quarries will be obtained on the account of Ojamaa, Seli and Permiskuela exploration fields. Mining licence should be obtained for areas with favourable conditions in Aidu and Sirgala mine fields for which presently the allotment is missing. Taking into account the possible additional resources and somewhat smaller oil shale output, the reserves will last additional 10-15 years. Closing down old mines should be done after using the active reserves in places already prepared for winning, since mining the latter via other mines is hardly possible. In terms of establishing a new opencast, Poehja-Kivioeli exploration is most suitable, while establexploration is most suitable, while establishing of new underground mines would be expedient in Uus-Kivioeli, Sonda and Puhatu exploration fields. In case oil shale production decreases in the nearest future, majority of the resources presently accounted as mineable may remain unused. Several peak periods can be distinguished in oil shale utilization and exploration, e.g. turn of the 19th and 20th century, World War II and first post-war years, world-wide energy crisis in 1070-80. During these years oil shale exploration was carried out in several countries. Besides, test and industrial equipment for producing fuel for vehicles were constructed, tested and manufactured. Later on new oil and gas deposits were discovered and the interest for oil shale decreased, which led to freezing or terminating of most oil shale-related projects. The potential world oil shale resources account for over 500 billion tonnes. Therefore, in connection with possible exhausting of oil resources oil shale as a raw material for producing hydrocarbons may once again become an objective of interest (author)

  17. East Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the changes taking place and about to take place in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the oil business is presented. The focus is mainly on product demand, quality of product, refining and trade balances. Charts show (i) demand for oil products to 2005, (ii) oil demand to 2005, (iii) the demand barrel by country, (iv) CDU capacity to 2005, (v) cracking to distillation ratios to 2005, (vi) fuel oil's share in demand barrel and (vii) net product trade. It was concluded that despite recent economic difficulties in East Asia, the oil market is large and dynamic and China in particular is a major oil producer with a fast growing oil demand. Overall, East Asia is a growth market for petroleum with an expected addition of some 2.4 million bpd of extra demand between 1998 and 2005. (UK)

  18. Kepler-Chevreux: 100 billions invested in solar photovoltaic and wind energy produce more energy than with oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the calculation of a new index created by Kepler-Chevreux experts: the energy return on invested capital, EROCI. This index reveals the benefit of solar-energy and wind-energy based electro-mobility compared to the oil-based thermo-mobility. This index only takes economic issues into account, but not the benefits in terms of public health, environment, climate or geopolitics. It also outlines that whenever oil prices increase or decrease, the oil sector has reached a dead end, and that photovoltaic and wind energy present a growing interest among not only ecologists but also finance experts

  19. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 oC with N2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N2, particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 oC) and 2 L/min of N2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: ? This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. ? Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. ? The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  20. 76 FR 27852 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...response to the deteriorating marketing environment since 2008 has been to recommend...beginning of the 2010-2011 marketing year. The Committee's response to the difficult marketing environment for Native spearmint oil...

  1. 76 FR 11971 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...response to the deteriorating marketing environment since 2008 has been to recommend...beginning of the 2010-2011 marketing year. The Committee's response to the difficult marketing environment for Native spearmint oil...

  2. Oil and Gas Producing Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1998)[platforms_MMS_1998

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point data set for the location of over 4300 MMS administered platform structures used for oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico. Groups of...

  3. Preferences for sunflower oil produced conventionally, produced with nanotechnology or genetically modified in the Araucanía Region of Chile / Preferencias hacia aceite producido en forma convencional, con nanotecnología y genéticamente modificado en la Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Berta, Schnettler; Gloria, Crisóstomo; Natally, Mills; Horacio, Miranda; Marcos, Mora; Germán, Lobos; Klaus G, Grunert.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available B. Schnettler, G. Crisóstomo, N. Mills, H. Miranda, M. Mora, G. Lobos y K.G. Grunert. 2013. Preferencias hacia aceite producido en forma convencional, con nanotecnología y genéticamente modificado en la Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):17-29. Considerando el creciente uso de la n [...] anotecnología en la producción de alimentos, se evaluó la aceptación de aceite de maravilla producido con nanotecnología, con materias primas genéticamente modificadas (GM) y producido convencionalmente en consumidores de Temuco (Región de La Araucanía, Chile), se diferenciaron segmentos de mercado en relación con la aceptación hacia la nanotecnología y, se caracterizaron según sus características sociodemográficas y nivel de neofobia alimentaria, mediante una encuesta a 400 personas. Utilizando análisis conjunto se determinó que la marca (33,6%) y el sistema de producción (32,6%) fueron más importantes que el precio (19,2%) y una certificación sanitaria (14,6%), con preferencia hacia el aceite con marcas nacionales, producido convencionalmente, con sello de certificación sanitaria, al menor precio. Mediante análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos se diferenciaron tres segmentos principales. El mayoritario (45,5%) prefirió el aceite producido con nanotecnología. El segundo (29,75%) prefirió el aceite convencional y con nanotecnología. El tercero (20,75%) prefirió el aceite convencional y presentó alto rechazo hacia los aceites con nanotecnología y GM. Los segmentos se diferenciaron significativamente según estado civil y en los puntajes de la escala de neofobia alimentaria. Aproximadamente el 75% de la muestra tuvo una respuesta positiva hacia el aceite producido con nanotecnología, lo que se relaciona con el nivel de neofobia alimentaria. Abstract in english B. Schnettler, G. Crisóstomo, N. Mills, H. Miranda, M. Mora, G. Lobos and K.G. Grunert. 2013. Preferences for oil produced conventionally, produced with nanotechnology or genetically modified in the Araucanía Region of Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):17-29. In light of the increasing use of nanotechnol [...] ogy in food production, consumer acceptance of sunflower oil produced with nanotechnology or from genetically modified (GM) plants and the conventionally produced raw materials available in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile), market segments were differentiated with respect to their acceptance of nanotechnology and characterized according to their sociodemographic characteristics and food neophobia level. To achieve this aim, a survey was administered to 400 people. Using a conjoint analysis, the brand (33.6%) and production system (32.6%) were determined to be more important than the price (19.2%) and health certification (14.6%); national brands, produced conventionally with a health certification seal and sold at the lowest price, were preferred. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified three main segments. The largest (45.5%) preferred oil made with nanotechnology. The second (29.75%) preferred conventional oil and oil made with nanotechnology. The third (20.75%) preferred conventional oil and rejected oils made with nanotechnology and GM. The segments differed significantly according to marital status and according to the score on the food neophobia scale. Approximately 75% of the sample had a positive response to the oil produced with nanotechnology, and this positive response was related to the food neophobia score.

  4. Surfactant-Enhanced Washing of Soils Contaminated with Wasted-Automotive Oils and the Quality of the Produced Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Zacarias-Salinas; Mabel Vaca; Flores, Miguel A.; Bandala, Erick R.; Torres, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    An old automotive industrial site located at Mexico City with many years of operation and contaminated with heavy oil hydrocarbons, particularly spent oils, was assessed for restoration using the surfactant enhanced soil washing (SESW) process. The main goal of this study was to characterize the contaminated soil in terms of TPHs, BTEX, PAHs, and metals contents as well as microbiologically (total heterotrophs and specific degrading microorganisms). We also aimed to det...

  5. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil and natural gas producing region of the western US

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadov, R.; Mckeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional scale air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high resolution mete...

  6. The new relations between the OPEC countries and the international petroleum firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the reopening of the up-file activities of the petroleum industry to private foreign assets, there are new relations between the OPEC countries and the oil producing countries. In this paper, the author recalls at first briefly the type and the extent of these new relations and explains their motivations. He analyzes then the implications for the OPEC countries and for the industry. At last, he explains some of the consequences of this privatization for the petroleum market. (O.M.)

  7. Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh-Tung

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] to improve soybean oil quality is an important and evolving theme in soybean research to meet nutritional needs and industrial criteria in the modern market. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of the oil. Commodity soybean oil typically contains 20% oleic acid and the target for high oleic acid soybean oil is approximately 80% of the oil; previous conventional plant breeding research to raise the oleic acid level to just 50-60% of the oil was hindered by the genetic complexity and environmental instability of the trait. The objective of this work was to create the high oleic acid trait in soybeans by identifying and combining mutations in two delta-twelve fatty acid desaturase genes, FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B. Results Three polymorphisms found in the FAD2-1B alleles of two soybean lines resulted in missense mutations. For each of the two soybean lines, there was one unique amino acid change within a highly conserved region of the protein. The mutant FAD2-1B alleles were associated with an increase in oleic acid levels, although the FAD2-1B mutant alleles alone were not capable of producing a high oleic acid phenotype. When existing FAD2-1A mutations were combined with the novel mutant FAD2-1B alleles, a high oleic acid phenotype was recovered only for those lines which were homozygous for both of the mutant alleles. Conclusions We were able to produce conventional soybean lines with 80% oleic acid in the oil in two different ways, each requiring the contribution of only two genes. The high oleic acid soybean germplasm developed contained a desirable fatty acid profile, and it was stable in two production environments. The presumed causative sequence polymorphisms in the FAD2-1B alleles were developed into highly efficient molecular markers for tracking the mutant alleles. The resources described here for the creation of high oleic acid soybeans provide a framework to efficiently develop soybean varieties to meet changing market demands.

  8. Characterization by electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry of rhamnolipids produced by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from Brazilian crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Gudin?a, Eduardo J.; Do?ria, M. L.; Domingues, M. R. M.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Coutinho, J. A. P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, biosurfactants produced by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from Brazilian crude oils were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and further characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis in positive mode and their surface activities evaluated. Mono-rhamnolipids and di-rhamnolipids were identified for both isolates, but the most abundant were found to be mono-rhamnol...

  9. Management of Water for Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations Enhanced with the Expanded U.S.Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.; Reidy, M. E.; Engle, M.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Rowan, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in hydraulic fracturing practices for shale gas and tight oil reservoirs have dramatically increased petroleum production in the USA, but have also made the issue of water management from these operations a high priority. Hydraulic fracturing requires ~ 10,000 to 50,000 m3 of water per well for injection in addition to water used to drill the well. Initially much of the water used for hydraulic fracturing was fresh water, but attitudes and operations are changing in response to costs and concerns. Concerns about groundwater depletion and contamination have prompted operators to increase the amount of produced water that can be recycled for hydraulic fracturing and to find suitable locations for salt-water injection. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water recycling. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use outside of the petroleum industry (e.g. irrigation, municipal uses, and industrial operations). The updated and expanded USGS Produced Waters Database available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp/ will facilitate and enhance studies on management of water, including produced water, for unconventional oil and gas drilling and production. The USGS database contains > 160,000 samples. Expanding on the 2002 database, we have filled in state and regional gaps with information from conventional and unconventional wells and have increased the number of constituents to include minor and trace chemicals, isotopes, and time series data. We currently have produced water data from 5,200 tight gas wells, 4,500 coal-bed methane (CBM) wells, 3,500 shale gas wells, and 700 tight oil wells. These numbers will increase as we continue to receive positive responses from oil companies, state oil and gas commissions, and scientists wanting to contribute their data. This database is an important resource for a wide range of interested parties. Scientists from universities, government agencies, public municipalities and citizens can determine the geochemical nature of deep groundwater supplies, contamination sources, and impacts of hydraulic fracturing. Energy companies can utilize the database for determining the suitability of water reuse and for identifying regions where non-potable hydraulic fracturing water may be obtainable.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of oil produced from Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Carthamus tinctorius L seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat M. Goja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. seed oil obtained from the farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bakht Alruda and Forestry garden in Ed Dueim city, Sudan. The hexane-extracted oil yield of Moringa, Jatropha and Safflower was 34.5, 63 and 42% respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follows: Peroxide number, 14.5, 16.5 and 83; Saponification value, 134.40, 206.93 and 141.78 mg/g; Iodine value, 14.5, 24.5 and 16.7 g/100g; Free fatty acids (FFA, 0.376, 0.765 and 0.210%; Viscosity, 40.7, 53,2 and 97.5 (mPas, respectively. The result's analysis of fatty acid profile of Moringa oleifera seed oil showed Oleic acid (42.43% and ?-Linolenic (32.82% are the most predominant fatty acids, followed by Palmitic (9.04%, Elaidic (5.66%, Behenic (2.98%, Stearic (2.27%, Palmitoleic (2.07% and Arachidic (1.61%. The Minor content of Nervonic, Myristic, Myristoleic, Linoleic and g-linolenic were present and the values don't exceed 0.50% of the total fatty acids. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the hexane solvent is more effective in the extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds than Safflower and Moringa. However, Moringa seed oil can be used as edible oil in human nutrition due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids (61.53%.

  11. Cor ASTM: um método simples e rápido para determinar a qualidade do biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos residuais de fritura / ASTM color: a simple and fast method for determining quality of biodiesel produced from used cooking oils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Verônica Santos de, Morais; Eustáquio Vinícius Ribeiro de, Castro; Maria Tereza Weitzel Dias, Carneiro; Geisamanda Pedrini, Brandão; Reginaldo, Fabri Júnior; Denise Rocco de, Sena.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In this study, 23 biodiesel samples were produced, 20 from used cooking oil and the remaining 3 from refined soybean oil. The following properties were determined in all of the samples (oil and its respective biodiesel): density; viscosity; total acid number and ASTM color. The results indicated hig [...] h correlation (R > 0.6) between ASTM color of used cooking oil and total acid number of its resultant biodiesel. This high correlation allows prediction of the quality of the biodiesel produced using a simple and fast procedure such as ASTM color.

  12. Cor ASTM: um método simples e rápido para determinar a qualidade do biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos residuais de fritura ASTM color: a simple and fast method for determining quality of biodiesel produced from used cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 23 biodiesel samples were produced, 20 from used cooking oil and the remaining 3 from refined soybean oil. The following properties were determined in all of the samples (oil and its respective biodiesel: density; viscosity; total acid number and ASTM color. The results indicated high correlation (R > 0.6 between ASTM color of used cooking oil and total acid number of its resultant biodiesel. This high correlation allows prediction of the quality of the biodiesel produced using a simple and fast procedure such as ASTM color.

  13. Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro and micro nutrients are important ingredients for successful anaerobic digestion. The presence or lack of nutrients can enhance or limit the functioning of the fermentation process. Micro-nutrients most often reported as stimulatory are trace metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, and zinc. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nickel and cobalt as trace metals on digestion performance and biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a two litres stirred tank reactor and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from a fat pit of palm oil mill’s waste water treatment facility belongs to one of the palm oil company in North Sumatera which has VS concentration of 26,300 mg/L and COD value of 42,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of digester were employed. Supporting materials were also needed such as sodium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and hydrochloric acid solution. Variables observed were included M-alkalinity, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and biogas production. Hydraulic retention time (HRT was maintained at 6 days. Experimental results concluded that the reduction of trace metals concentration did not affect the TS and VS concentration and M-alkalinity. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.2.2012.16-19 [ How to cite this article: Irvan, M. (2012. Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent. International Journal of Waste Resources (IJWR, 2(2, 16-19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.2.2012.16-19

  14. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse

    The potential offered by biomass for solving some of the world's energy problems is widely recognized. The energy contained in biomass can be utilized either directly as in combustion or by converting the biomass into a liquid fuel for transportation. The Catliq® (catalytic liquid conversion) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the CatLiq® process compared with combustion is that also wet material can be processed. In the process, the waste is transformed to bio-oil, combustible gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The raw material used in this study was DDGS (Dried Distilled Grain with Solubles), a residual product in 1st generation ethanol production, available in huge quantities. DDGS is today used as animal feed but in a future with increasing production of DDGS, converting it into bio-oil may be an attractive alternative. The bio-oil can be used for green electricity production or it can be upgraded to bio-diesel. In the current work, catalytic conversion of DDGS was performed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 10-20 L/h of wet biomass. The oil obtained was characterized using FTIR and GC-MS for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the product.

  15. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediatof pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  16. Oil companies and village development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic interest of oil companies and the oil-producing Third World countries, together with the technological handicaps and political considerations of the latter, provide the scenarios within which the two groups interact. In the early history of oil exploitation, the relationship was such that the oil companies had the final say in all matters. Furthermore, apart from the token royalty, no taxes were usually imposed on the exploration companies. The relationship between the oil companies and the host local communities, even in the developed countries, seems to be a replica of that between the companies and the host countries. There is the feeling in many of the local communities that they have gained little or nothing from petroleum exploitation. This is the case not only in the setting of a less developed country, such as Nigeria, but also in that of a developed country, such as the United States. In these communities, the adverse environment effect of oil exploitation is usually perceived as being overwhelming. (author)

  17. / Corrosivity of H2S-producing bacteria isolated from formation waters used in secondary crude-oil recovery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zoilabet, Duque; Eduardo, Chicote; M. Isabel, Sarró; Diego A, Moreno; Matilde F, de Romero; Orlando A, Pérez.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La industria petrolera en sus sistemas de inyección de agua para la recuperación secundaria de crudo ha presentado problemas de Corrosión Microbiana asociados con la presencia de Bacterias Reductoras de Sulfato (BRS), productoras de H2S; lo cual es considerado por diferentes investigadores como el p [...] rincipal causante de los problemas de corrosión bacteriana en los sistemas de distribución y almacenamiento de aguas naturales. Ante lo anteriormente planteado y dado que en los tratamientos y controles microbiológicos actuales generalmente no son considerados otros grupos bacterianos, resulta significativo investigar la presencia de microorganismos anaerobios productores de este metabolito agresivo o de sus derivados en los sistemas de inyección de agua. En este artículo se reporta la evaluación de la actividad y corrosividad de una cepa BRS y otra No-BRS aisladas de un sistema de inyección e identificadas por secuenciación del ADN como Desulfovibrio termitidis (BRS) y Escherichia coli (No-BRS). Los resultados establecen una significativa diferencia de actividad en los medios selectivos seleccionados. Principalmente, la generación de sulfuro por el proceso desasimilatorio del sulfato es mucho mayor que la del grupo que lo genera por vía fermentativa, al igual que la corrosividad sobre acero al carbono API 5L grado X65 determinada por los potenciales de corrosión, resistencia de polarización y pérdida de peso durante 60 horas de evaluación en medios selectivos sin sales ferrosas. No obstante, la evaluación por microscopía electrónica de barrido indicó el desarrollo de biopelículas y ataques localizados en el acero por ambas bacterias, lo cual confirma la necesidad de indagar la participación de estos grupos anaerobios No-BRS y su consideración a efectos de realizar un mejor control de la corrosión bacteriana. Abstract in english There have been problems in the water-injection systems of the oil industry due to Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC), associated with the presence of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB), which produce H2S. Several investigators consider that this is the principal cause of bacterial corrosion in [...] natural-water storage and distribution systems. Given the fact that other groups of bacteria are not considered in current microbiological treatments and controls, it would be useful to investigate the presence of other anaerobic microorganisms that produce this aggressive metabolite or its derivatives in water-injection systems. This article reports on SRB and Non-SRB strains isolated from injection systems and identified by DNA sequencing, among them, Desulfovibrio termitidis (SRB) and Escherichia coli (Non-SRB). Evaluation of the activity and corrosivity of the two types of bacteria indicated that there was a significant difference in activity in the selective media, mainly that sulphide generation by the sulphate dissimilation process is much greater than that of the group that generates it by fermentation, as well as corrosivity on the carbon steel API 5L grade X65, as determined by open circuit potential, polarization resistance and weight loss during 60 hours’ evaluation in selective media with no ferrous salts. Nevertheless, Scanning Electron Microscopy indicated biofilm development and localized attacks on the steel by both types of bacteria, which confirms the need for investigating and considering the role of these Non-SRB anaerobic groups so as to exercise better control over bacterial corrosion.

  18. 77 FR 4300 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ...CDM-registered. As defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the CDM allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to implement emission-reduction projects in...

  19. It only hurts when you produce : ten years of federal/provincial conflict over oil industry revenue sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a collection of more than 300 cartoons which were published in 'Oilweek Magazine' between February 1973 and 1983. For the oil industry, this decade represented a time of increased provincial royalties and rising federal taxation. The cartoons depict the ongoing federal-provincial conflict over oil industry revenue sharing. The implication of the title is that while federal and provincial governments each determined the oil industry to be their own golden goose, the goose concluded that future demands for golden eggs would be painful to satisfy. At the time, the cartoons were submitted anonymously, but were well received by 'Oilweek' readers. In 1986, Amoco Regional Petroleum Engineering Supervisor Don Smith, revealed that he was the anonymous artist

  20. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L? 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L? 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L? 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L? 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L? 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L? 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.