WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil producing countries

  1. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhouse gas emissions—for example, the Kyoto 1998 agreement—seems to have had no effect on oil consumption in oil-producing countries.

  2. The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

  3. Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

  4. 1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, A.J.

    1979-03-01

    This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

  5. Wage Inequality and Violent Protests in Oil/Gas Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraliyev, Nurlan

    This work examines contrasting claims made by academic scholars on the relationship between income inequality and political discontent. Does income inequality directly cause social unrest or is this relationship conditional on the level of democratic development? Using the data from 55 oil/gas producing countries between 2010-2013, the author finds: 1) income disparity between an average income per capita of local population and an average income of foreign labor employed in the oil/gas industry results in higher number of violent protests in more democratic oil/gas producing societies; 2) wage disparity between local and foreign labor in the oil/gas industry is associated with higher number of protests in this industry in more democratic oil/gas producing states.

  6. Optimal gasoline tax in developing, oil-producing countries: The case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the methodology of Parry and Small (2005) to estimate the optimal gasoline tax for a less-developed oil-producing country. The relevance of the estimation relies on the differences between less-developed countries (LDCs) and industrial countries. We argue that lawless roads, general subsidies on gasoline, poor mass transportation systems, older vehicle fleets and unregulated city growth make the tax rates in LDCs differ substantially from the rates in the developed world. We find that the optimal gasoline tax is $1.90 per gallon at 2011 prices and show that the estimate differences are in line with the factors hypothesized. In contrast to the existing literature on industrial countries, we show that the relative gasoline tax incidence may be progressive in Mexico and, more generally, in LDCs. - Highlights: We estimate the optimal gasoline tax for a typical less-developed, oil-producing country like Mexico. The relevance of the estimation relies on the differences between less-developed and industrial countries. The optimal gasoline tax is $1.90 per gallon at 2011 prices. Distance-related pollution damages, accident costs and gas subsidies account for the major differences. Gasoline tax incidence may be progressive in less developed countries

  7. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

  8. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  9. Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Ryuhei

    1999-03-01

    Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

  10. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

  12. Oil and gas industry in the 1990s in the producer country of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for the development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are outlined. Oil dominates the economy, well over 80% of export earnings being derived from petroleum. The ideal would be for Nigeria to become a net exporter of processed gas and refined petroleum products and derivatives but not of crude oil thus reaping the maximum benefit of value added earnings. This goal is being pursued wherever possible. By 1996, Nigeria should possess all the major constituents of a modern oil industry state. The three modern refineries which have a total capacity of 445,000 barrels per day will have the necessary pipelines, depots and export terminals. Four petrochemical plants will produce a range of products. A gas condensate field will be in production for export and a number of plants will be producing liquefied natural gas, natural gas liquids, methanol and MTBE. To achieve these objectives for its petroleum industry, Nigeria has set up a structure for the management framework and has developed a national petroleum policy. The salient points of the policy are given. (UK)

  13. How international oil and gas companies respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries: A narrative enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses narrative analysis to critically examine the business practices used by five international oil and gas companies (IOCs) (Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, BP and Total) to respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries (Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Indonesia, Yemen and Indonesia) during the period 2000–2012. The business practices include the formulation of local content strategies that are implemented through programmes and initiatives aimed at developing and using host country suppliers and workforce. Such practices and the narratives used to communicate them implicitly reflect the context in which the effectiveness of local content policies on economic development can be assessed. By comparing and contrasting the narratives across the five IOCs in relation to the wider literature, four emergent narrative strategies justifying the business practices of IOCs are identified and discussed. They include: (1) direct engagement to renegotiate local content requirements with governments, (2) legal compliance framework, (3) the business case for local content strategies, and (4) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The conclusion considers the policy implications of these findings for local content development in petroleum-producing developing countries. - Highlights: • Local content policies define the local context that shape IOCs’ business practices. • Provides a narrative analysis of the business practices of IOCs in developing countries. • IOCs use four narrative strategies to relate their business practices to local content policies. • The business practices of IOCs can determine the effectiveness of local content policies

  14. The adaptation of the financial structures of national companies in oil producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic environment of the oil industry in the nineties contains a number of uncertainties concerning demand evolution and the persistence of low prices. National companies cannot expect high margins for financing their development. To avoid an increased debt burden these companies are looking for organizational flexibility. Their strategies imply cost cutting and a modernization of their management criteria. (Author). 19 refs., 6 tabs

  15. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

  16. The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

  17. A proficiency test for some laboratories in Arab Countries for determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials contaminated soil reference sample with produced water in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, results of first proficiency test exercise for radiochemical laboratories of some Arab counties using contaminated reference soil sample prepared by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The soil sample was collected from one of the highly radioactively contaminated lagoons with production water in the Syrian oil fields. Laboratories from six countries naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation have been participated in this test, viz. Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Jordan and Syria. The results have evaluated using statistical criteria to evaluate the performance of each laboratory in addition to the overall evaluation for each isotope. This evaluation has indicated that 57% and 86% of the results passed the criteria set for precision and accuracy applied for this test in relation to Radium-226 and Radium-228, respectively. These two isotopes are the most important isotopes in the oil industry. (author)

  18. De-carbonisation of electricity generation in an oil and gas producing country: 'A sensitivity analysis over the power sector in Egypt'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel are used in power generation in oil and gas producing countries due to the resource availability. However, the growing electricity demand, the potential exports revenues associated to hydrocarbons as well as the environmental policies have to be taken into account for the definition of the electricity generation mix. Thus, the development of the power generation capacities according to the resource availability and the economic factors (demand and costs) is investigated through a modeling approach. Over the past ten years, Egypt has become an important gas producer and a strategic gas supplier for Europe. Moreover, natural gas represents around eighty percent of the Egyptian power sector mix. However, this extensive share of natural gas in power generation mix could not be sustainable in long-term due to the limited hydrocarbons' resources of Egypt. In this study, the current and future power generation situation of the country is analyzed through a dynamic linear programming model. Finally, a power generation strategy based on a gradual integration of nuclear and renewable is suggested. (authors)

  19. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators-the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional)

  20. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  1. On the economic determinants of oil production: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence for small exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, decisions regarding production in oil exporting countries are studied by means of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Under the assumptions of exogenous oil prices and world oil demand, we are able to describe the relationship between oil production levels and changes in the conditions in world oil markets. Intertemporal production decisions by a representative oil producer are modelled by means of a partial equilibrium model. In this theoretical model, oil produc...

  2. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  3. The economic growth of oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  4. Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  5. Techno-economic study of re-refining waste lubricating oils in the Arabian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ahmad, M.I.; Al-Mutaz, I.S. (King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1991-11-01

    Waste oil reclamation by re-refining is a promising process for recycling valuable pollutant waste. In Arabian Gulf countries, a limited volume of waste oil is recycled. A technical and economical evaluation of some reclamation methods to produce lubricating oil has been conducted. 5 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. The impact of oil on a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development

  7. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ? We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ? The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ? The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ? The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ? These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  8. Oil Prices and Real Exchange Rate Movements in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Role of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rickne, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    Political and legal institutions affect the extent to which the real exchange rates of oil-exporting countries co-move with the oil price. In a simple theoretical model, strong institutions insulate real exchange rates from oil price volatility by generating a smooth pattern of fiscal spending over the price cycle. Empirical tests on a panel of 33 oil-exporting countries provide evidence that countries with high bureaucratic quality and strong and impartial legal systems have real exchange ra...

  9. Business cycles in oil exporting countries: A declining role for oil?

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynov, Salman; Ahmadov, Vugar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate business cycle regularities in oil exporting countries. We ask the question whether oil exporting countries are all alike or whether economic fluctuations and the response dynamics of macroeconomic variables are similar. Besides we also test for the possible sources of economic fluctuations and whether the oil is the main culprit behind business cycles in oil exporting countries. In this paper, we use different empirical methodologies to gain insights about the n...

  10. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  11. Improved oil recovery for independent oil and gas producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgro, A.G.; Kendall, R.P.; Kindel, J.M.; Webster, R.B.; Whitney, E.M.

    1996-04-01

    There are more than fifty-two hundred independent oil and gas producers operating in the US today (based on current IPAA membership figures). Many of these companies have instituted improved oil recovery programs in some form, but very few have had access to the state-of-the-art modeling technology routinely used by major producers to manage these projects. Since independent operators are playing an increasingly important role in production of hydrocarbons in the US, it is important to promote state-of-the-art management practices, including the planning and monitoring of improved oil recovery projects, within this community. This is one of the goals of the Strategic Technologies Council, a special interest group of Independent Oil and Gas producers. This paper describes a project which focuses on the distribution of advanced reservoir management technologies (geological, petrophysical, and engineering) to independent producers. The evolving information highway serves as the distribution medium, specifically the World Wide Web (W3). The procedure for launching petrotechnical applications and retrieving results over the W3 will be presented. A paradigm for the interaction between the independents, the petroleum service sector, and government will also be presented. Of principal concern is the cost of making high-tech modeling applications accessible to independent operators.

  12. Environmental Conservation And Sustainable Development In Oil Producing Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the impact of oil and gas exploration, development and production on the environment and local environmental standards and guidelines are highlighted and compared to prevailing environmental conditions in some of the oil producing communities. The effect of environmental pollution on the sustainable development of oil producing communities is analyzed. The responses of the inhabitants of oil producing communities to environmental degradation in detail. So also are the reactions of the oil producing companies and the Federal government. Special emphasis is placed on the activities of relevant governmental institutions in oil producing areas. Finally, a strategy for ensuring environmental conservation and sustainable development in oil producing communities is proposed

  13. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  14. CRACKING OF PALM OIL TO PRODUCE OLEOCHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokedi I.C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The FTIR and GC - MS tests are necessary for identification of oleochemicals produced via cracking. In this research, thermal cracking (without catalyst and catalytic cracking of palm oil were carried out in a batch reactor. The thermal cracking was performed at temperatures of 700 o C to 900 o C at a time of 30 to 150 minutes while the catalytic cracking was done at temperatures of 100 o C to 400 o C, time of 30 to 150 minutes and catalyst weight of 10 to 50 grams. The evaluation of products involved FTIR, GC - MS, and Effects of process parameters (Temperature, Time and catalyst weight on acid value, density and kinematic viscosity. Viscosity, acid value and density of the liquid condensates fall within the accepted limit of the oleochemical standard, and this showed that triglyceride molecules in the palm oil were broken down to light molecules. The research also showed that Catalytic cracking of palm oil (at a much lower temperature levels with the aid of clay cata lyst yielded better oleochemicals to that obtained from thermal cracking of oil at a very high temperature. This work showed that it is a good process that can be used industrially in obtaining oleochemicals that can serve for different purposes.

  15. The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts

  16. The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts. (author)

  17. Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

  18. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  19. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes

  20. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  1. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  2. Oil market in the 1990s: implications for ESCWA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, prepared for the ESCWA Expert Group Meeting in Amman, Jordan, 20-23 November 1989, concerns the outlook for oil markets in the coming decade and the implications of certain market trends for the ESCWA countries, including both the energy exporting and energy importing members of ESCWA. It is argued that increasing oil consumption may well bring world oil production close to physical capacity before the end of the 1990s, thereby provoking an increase in real oil prices. It is further argued that the uncertainty surrounding this scenario is asymmetric; it is more likely that real oil prices will rise than that they will remain stable or fall. Other major trends, including enhanced worldwide concern for the environment and the bilateralization of world trade, also will affect ESCWA countries. The authors conclude that member countries should expand petroleum exploration activities, improve the operating efficiency of their national oil companies, bring domestic energy prices into line with world markets, expand natural gas development and marketing efforts, participate in multilateral trade negotiations, and expand co-ordination in all energy matters. (Author)

  3. Nuclear power for the oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is the economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil-exporting countries, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. Headings are: status of nuclear power in Iran and Egypt; rationale for using nuclear power (gas value; gas balance; financial and fiscal parameters; opportunity cost of capital; taxation burdens; rate making formulae; conservation ethos); applications (nuclear - oil competition; process heat and desalination; nuclear reactors and development assistance); conclusion. (U.K.)

  4. Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

  5. Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

  6. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  7. Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mañé

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

  8. Method for producing a synthetic lubricating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidov, N.M.; Abasov, A.I.; Kuliyev, R.Sh.; Sarandi, Ye.K.; Taktarov, P.K.

    1980-05-08

    A method is claimed for the production of a synthetic lubricating oil by copolymerization of ethylene and propylene in the presence of a Ziegler-Natt catalyst with subsequent thermal decomposition of the obtained SPL. To increase the output of the target product and the effectiveness of the process, the copolymerization is conducted until the production of an SPL with a molecular weight of 100,000-1,000,000. The obtained SPL contains up to 40-85 molar percent of ethylene. The thermal decomposition is conducted at a temperature of 385-425/sup 0/C and pressure of 10-300 mm of mercury. The output of the target product is increased by 3-10 times (depending on the structure of the SPL), which leads to a reduction in the specific expenditure of the expensive catalyst; the stage for removing the catalyst from the SPL is eliminated and the use of H/sub 2/ under pressure in the polymerization stage is eliminated, which simplifies the technology and reduces the metal volume of the equipment. The process for producing the oil may be accomplished both periodically or continuously. For example, into a dry, stainless steel reactor with a capacity of 7 1, 5 1 of liquid propylene is added with mixing, then it is saturated with ethylene to 5.7 kgf/cm/sup 2/ at 0/sup 0/is contained in. Then 0.6 g of the cocatalyst of diisobutylaluminochloride is added, followed by addition of 0.15 g of a vanadium triacetylacetonate (Ac/sub 3/V) catalyst in solution in benzene and benzine with a concentration of 1-3%. Forty minutes later, the mixing is halted, the reaction mass is dried and subjected to thermal decomposition at a temperature of 415/sup 0/C and residual pressure of 20 mm of mercury. Of the 600 g of SPL in the thermal decomposition, 575 g of a liquid product are obtained with the following characteristics: kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees, 3.02 centistokes; viscosity index, 170; stagnation point, -60 degrees (it moves); iodine number, 75; molecular weight, 395 and specific weight, 0.8031.

  9. Oil And The Macroeconomy : Empirical evidence from 10 OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ameri, Leyth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact ofoil price on Industrial production, real effective exchange rate, long term interest rate and inflation rate for a sample of ten OECD countries using quarterly data for the period 1970q1-2011q1.The impact of oil price shock on industrial production is negative and occurs with a lag of one year. However, the impact has weakened considerably compared to the 1970s. The impact on real effective exchang...

  10. Long-term oil strategy - creating an appropriate fiscal regime in OPEC countries to keep the upstream sector competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is to examine the factors that governed the upstream activities in OPEC countries during three distinct periods, namely: 1950 to 1973, 1974 to 1985 and 1986 to the present. Particular emphasis will be placed on the fiscal and legal instruments adopted by a number of OPEC countries in attracting oil companies to their respective countries, so as to maintain the momentum of oil exploration and production which is commensurate with their huge hydrocarbon reserves and also be in consonance with their pace of economic development while continuing to exercise their sovereign rights. The first part of the paper reviews the concepts governing the strategic behaviour of oil companies and oil-producing countries. Part two is devoted to the evolution of fiscal regimes in OPEC countries showing how the behaviour of OPEC Member Countries and oil companies illustrates the concepts in part one. How the dynamics of the oil market influence the upstream planning in OPEC Member Countries is examined in part three of the paper. Part four looks at the new cooperation and strategic alliances that are evolving between some OPEC countries and a number of oil companies to ensure that OPEC retains a leadership position which is commensurate with its Members' hydrocarbon resources. Conclusions are drawn in part five. (author)

  11. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  12. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  13. Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting and importing countries, differently. So that, in oil exporting countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly positive (negative effect on their TOT, while in oil importing countries, positive (negative oil price shocks have significantly a negative (positive effect on TOT. Furthermore, the findings reveal that in the oil exporting countries, the effect of negative oil price shocks on TOT is more than positive oil price shocks. While, in oil importing countries, it is converse.

  14. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...certain oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation...include loans, grants, income tax incentives, and the provision of goods and services for less than adequate...

  15. Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh; Somaye Sadeghi; Soraya Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting ...

  16. The Influence of Oil Prices on Stock Market Returns: Empirical Evidence from Oil Exporting and Oil Importing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Asteriou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impact of oil price fluctuations on the stock markets and the interest ratesfrom oil importing and oil exporting countries. To this end, Vector Autoregressive (VAR models are estimatedand pairwise Granger Causality tests are performed to the stationary series in order to analyse the short-termrelationships among the variables. Also, the Johansen approach for multiple equations is carried out in order totest for cointegration among the series. Finally, the existence of cointegration set the estimation of VectorError-Correction Models (VECMs to investigate the long-term links between the financial variables and the oilprices. The major findings of this paper include: first, the interaction between the oil prices and the stockmarkets is much stronger than with the interest rates in the short and in the long-run. Second, the impact on oilimporting countries is more significant than on oil exporting countries. Finally, it might be possible that thefluctuations in oil prices have different effects on developed and developing countries.

  17. Oil supply security: the emergency response potential of IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the oil supply security and more particularly with the emergency response potential of International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. The first part describes the changing pattern of IEA emergency response requirements. It begins with the experience from the past, then gives the energy outlook to 2010 and ends with the emergency response policy issues for the future. The second part is an overview on the IEA emergency response potential which includes the organisation, the emergency reserves, the demand restraint and the other response mechanisms. The third part gives the response potential of individual IEA countries. The last part deals with IEA emergency response in practice and more particularly with the gulf crisis of 1990-1991. It includes the initial problems raised by the gulf crisis, the adjustment and preparation and the onset of military action with the IEA response.(O.L.). 7 figs., 85 tabs

  18. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the States Department of Environmental Qualitys WDEQ National Pollutant Discharge...

  19. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  20. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  1. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

  2. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  3. Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  5. Continuous thermochemical conversion process to produce oil from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocfemia, K.; Zhang, Y.; Funk, T.; Christianson, L.; Chen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermochemical conversion (TCC) of livestock manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. A batch TCC system that was previously developed successfully converted 70% of swine manure volatile solids to oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by ??? 75%. The necessary retention time to achieve an oil product was largely dependent on the operating temperature. The highest oil production efficiency was 80% of the volatile solids (or 70 wt % of the total solids). The average carbon and hydrogen contents were ??? 72 and 9%, respectively. The heating values for 80% of the oil products ranged from 32,000 to 36,700 kJ/kg. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition (Indianapolis, IN 6/22-25/2004).

  6. Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 19932010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ? Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ? Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ? There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

  7. Advanced reservoir management for independent oil and gas producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgro, A.G.; Kendall, R.P.; Kindel, J.M.; Webster, R.B.; Whitney, E.M.

    1996-11-01

    There are more than fifty-two hundred oil and gas producers operating in the United States today. Many of these companies have instituted improved oil recovery programs in some form, but very few have had access to state-of-the-art modeling technologies routinely used by major producers to manage these projects. Since independent operators are playing an increasingly important role in the production of hydrocarbons in the United States, it is important to promote state-of-the-art management practices, including the planning and monitoring of improved oil recovery projects, within this community. This is one of the goals of the Strategic Technologies Council, a special interest group of independent oil and gas producers. Reservoir management technologies have the potential to increase oil recovery while simultaneously reducing production costs. These technologies were pioneered by major producers and are routinely used by them. Independent producers confront two problems adopting this approach: the high cost of acquiring these technologies and the high cost of using them even if they were available. Effective use of reservoir management tools requires, in general, the services of a professional (geoscientist or engineer) who is already familiar with the details of setting up, running, and interpreting computer models.

  8. Challenges of the Banking systems of Oil Exporting Countries (Case of Azerbaijan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mammadyarov, Aliyar

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends of increasing oil prices in world commodity markets lead to the notion that it is a good chance for oil exporting countries to accelerate development of their national economies and to strengthen their financial systems. At the same time, the impact of instability of commodity pricing process (especially in case of unrenewable, limited natural recourses) to national economies is a matter of concern both for buyers and sellers of oil. Moreover, in oil exporting countries these co...

  9. Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mehrara; Maysam Musai

    2011-01-01

    This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-r...

  10. Oil producing communities demand royalties from E and P companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing levels of the activities of oil exploration and producing (E and P) companies especially in the Niger delta region of Nigeria has led to a significant loss of habitat sometimes with disastrous environmental consequences. Compensations are seldom paid to victims of this process. Some communities now see the need to be paid royalties for oil drilled from their communities by E and P companies

  11. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; L.E. Visser; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by small-scale processors cannot be utilized by the larger scale industries in Ghana or abroad because of its poor quality. There is an urgent need to explore the causes and to identify ways to addre...

  12. Case study : producing heavy oil of Intercampo oilfield, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, H.; Chen, H.; Chang, Y. [PetroChina, Langfang (China). RIPED

    2009-07-01

    The Intercampo oil field in Venezuela is characterized by strong heterogeneity, substantial differentials in physical properties, middle-heavy crude oil, edge water and bottom water. Horizontal well technology has been used in the field to produce heavy and extra heavy oil for the past 3 years. Sand production has been the main problem. Forecasting sand production and the optimization of completion methods are therefore of great importance. This paper proposed a new sand control strategy and sand control technology that helps operators successfully overcome sand control challenges for horizontal well completions. Advanced well completion methods and optimized artificial lift technology have been used in horizontal wells in the Intercampo oil field. The target oil production rate was achieved because the new methods reduce pressure losses and improve well productivity for pre-packed screen tubing or other sand tubing with gravel packing. Combination sand control technologies (CSCT) include slotted liners, standalone and expandable screens, and gravel packs, including open hole, cased hole and frac packs. CSCT has met all necessary requirements of heavy oil production and has also provide for more effective and economical production. Since 1998, low API gravity heavy oil has been developed successfully and has been kept sand free for over 10 years. Good economic profit has been obtained because of long sand control life and high oil production rate in the reservoir. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  13. Introduction of regulatory and licensing producers of some OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the OECD countries more than 50 nuclear power plants will have to be closed in the beginning of the next century since their licenses expire. For this reason it is very important to establish reasonable regulations in the field of decommissioning. In this poster , first we define the basic principles related to decommissioning. Then we account on our survey of the situation of the regulatory and licensing procedures in some OECD countries. Finally, we show some case studies for decommissioning. (authors)

  14. Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

  15. Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

  16. Changes to the oil export structure of OPEC Member Countries - an analysis with the Gini coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper's goal is to analyse the impact of changes to the oil export structure on economic growth in OPEC Member Countries. The Gini coefficient has been applied simultaneously as a measure of the annual changes in the structure of per capita oil exports, as well as of the annual share of oil exports among Member Countries. The analysis consists of a calculation of the concentration coefficients, a determination of their trend and an identification of the factors most influencing observed changes to the oil export structure in these countries. As a result, we find that economic growth, crude oil production, proven reserves, imports and time are the major factors influencing changes to the oil export structure. Considering the changed structure, in the context of differences in oil export distribution, we observe that economic growth and production have a positive impact on the distribution of oil exports and that proven reserves and imports have a negative impact

  17. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabr, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. PMID:25838070

  18. An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Askari; Faranghees Abbas; George Jabbour; Dohee Kwon

    2006-01-01

    The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal Oil Fund for All Generations. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time) lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from go...

  19. The impact of oil price shocks. Evidence from the industries of six OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the studies about the macroeconomic consequences of oil price shocks have been focused on US aggregate data. In contrast to these studies, this paper empirically assesses the dynamic effect of oil price shocks on the output of the main manufacturing industries in six OECD countries. The pattern of responses to an oil price shock by industrial output is diverse across the four European Monetary Union (EMU) countries under consideration (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), but broadly similar in the UK and the US. Moreover, evidence on cross-industry heterogeneity of oil shock effects within the EMU countries is also reported. (author)

  20. The Political Economy of Fiscal Policy and Economic Management in Oil Exporting Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eifert, Benn; Gelb, Alan; Borje Tallroth, Nils

    2002-01-01

    Despite massive oil rent incomes since the early 1970s, the economic performance of oil-exporting countries-with notable exceptions-is poor. While there is extensive literature on the management of oil resources, analysis of the underlying political determinants of this poor performance is more sparse. Drawing on concepts from the comparative institutionalist tradition in political science...

  1. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: ?Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. ? Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. ? Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  2. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 19802010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional ...

  3. Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

  4. The closure of European nuclear power plants: a commercial opportunity for the gas-producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned closure of nuclear power plants in Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands and their hypothetical closure in the United Kingdom and Switzerland - two countries where this question remains open - will require their replacement by other types of production capacity, mainly gas turbine combined-cycle power stations (GTCCs). The increase in efficiency of GTCCs and the lower carbon content of natural gas favour the use of gas for electricity generation over coal. However, carbon dioxide emissions are unavoidable and, in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, supplementary measures must be taken to compensate, where possible, for the resulting increases in emissions. The replacement of nuclear plants with a 35-40 year lifetime by up-to-date GTCCs will require some 62 billion cubic metres per year of natural gas, resulting in an emissions increase of about 130 million tonnes per year of CO2. The replacement of polluting coal-fired and oil-fired plants by GTCCs will reduce CO2 emissions, but will also require some extra 42 bcm/y of natural gas, at an (unrealistic) high cost. In short, gas-producing countries will benefit from the market breakthrough of their 'clean' fuel, thanks to the GTCCs, and gas demand will be reinforced by the abandonment of nuclear power. (author)

  5. Granger causality between Health and Economic Growth in oil exporting countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examine the causal relationship between the health expenditure and the GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis. A three variable model is formulated with oil revenues as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to health expenditure in the oil exporting countries. Yet, health spending doesnot have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. The findings imply high vulnerability of oildependent countries to oil revenues volatility. To insulate the economy from oil revenue volatility requires institutional mechanisms de-linking health expenditures decisions from current revenue.

  6. Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign

  7. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.)

  8. Estimation of oil content in producing rock-reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed is the method for estimate the oil content in producing rock-reservoirs according to well logging complex. Noted is the role of the above complex (neutron logging and gamma-gamma logging) in porosity estimation. It is also noted that the complexing of gamma-gamma logging and compensated neutron logging permits to determine the clayiness of reservoir with high accuracy and to estimate its general porosity with regard to clayiness

  9. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

  10. Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

    2013-01-01

    Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced. PMID:24002524

  11. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and...materially retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine,...

  12. The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizardi, Carlos Guerrero de; Padilla-Perez, Ramon [Focal (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

  13. Oil consumption and output: What causes what? Bootstrap panel causality for 49 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the growth, conservation, neutrality and feedback hypotheses for 49 countries during the period from 1970 to 2010 using panel causality analysis: this technique accounts for both dependence and heterogeneity across the countries. The results provide evidence as to the direction of causality between oil consumption and output and are consistent with the neutrality hypothesis for 24 countries, the growth hypothesis for 5 countries, the conservation hypothesis for 13 countries, and the feedback hypothesis for 7 countries. The findings provide important policy implications for the 49 countries under study. - Highlights: ? Bootstrap panel causality for 49 countries. ? Examines the growth, conservation, neutrality and feedback hypotheses for 49 countries during the period from 1970 to 2010.

  14. An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal Oil Fund for All Generations. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, the likelihood of waste, corruption and wars will be reduced, and there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies to enhance equity across generations.

  15. More countries in recession: Oil supply looking for demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation

  16. A Research on the Socio-economic Features of the Olive Oil Producers in Western Part of Turkey: Production, Organization, Marketing Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Metin ARTUKOGLU

    2002-01-01

    General characteristics of the olive/olive oil producers in Turkey, one of the most important countries in the production of the olive oil, have been put forward here. Current situation related to the processing and the marketing is analyzed and the underlying problems are presented. Finally some solutions are developed.

  17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  18. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

  19. Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not

  20. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  1. Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudia, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudia, Lgia R. Rodrigues, Jos A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using micro...

  2. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

  3. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 19802010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

  4. Production and use of plant oil as fuel in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical possibilities for the production and use of plant oil as fuel are given: cultures supplying interesting seeds containing oil are known, simple and small oil presses for decentralized oil production have been developed and engines which can use plant oil are ready for use. As the plants supplying seeds containing oil are used as protective hedges around gardens and to protect fields to be harvested against animals and the soil against erosion, there is a positive feedback in this case between energy production and agricultural production. The feedback of the pressed cake produced in obtaining the oil as an organic fertiliser is particularly important here. Due to the monetarisation of erosion protection measures, the fight against desertification can receive a great boost, or it can become self-sustaining, from previous experience in the field. (orig.)

  5. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  6. The political role of national oil companies in the large exporting countries : the Venezuela case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper starts by defining the role of mining companies vis-a vis the landlords in a modern economy. Then it examines the role international oil companies played in exporting countries. Finally the role of national oil companies is analyzed following the same scheme : what is their contribution to the development of a new landlord-tenant relationship, nationally and internationally ? ''Petroleos de Venezuela'' is taken as an example. (Author). 27 refs

  7. Reconsidering the Relationship between Oil Prices and Industrial Production: Testing for Cointegration in some of the OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Halil EKSI; Berna Balci IZGI; Senturk, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of crude oil prices on the industrial production for some of the OECD countries. According to it, the empirical results sign that there is statistical meaningful short term causality from crude oil price to industrial production in all countries except France. In France however, causality is from industrial production to oil price in short run. The error correction mechanism is run for US. The causality is from oil price to industrial production in long run...

  8. Simulation of demand (or consumption) of fuel and lubricating oils in countries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand on fuel and lubricating oils mixtures is estimated in transport sector of the Asia countries. Model of demand is constructed with help of co-integration structures and error correction model for definition of fuel and lubricating oils mixtures elasticity. Researches have been conducted with use of program complex in operational medium of the Windows-95. Co-integrating vectors for demand on gasoline were defined by all of considered countries (beside Thailand), for demand on diesel fuel - for Indonesia and South Korea

  9. Macroeconometric Modelling in an Oil-Exporting Country: The case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas VALADKHANI

    2006-01-01

    The critical review undertaken in this paper pinpoints some of the major deficiencies and the strength of the earlier macroeconometric models (MEMs) constructed for Iran as a major oil exporting country. In constructing a new MEM, the flaws of past MEMs should be rectified and their strengths need to be retained. Most of the equations in these models are directly and indirectly affected by oil and gas exports and/or value added in the oil sector. Two dualities are observed in most models, viz...

  10. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  11. The war on illegal drugs in producer and consumer countries: a simple analytical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Meja, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a model of the war against illegal drugs in both producer and consumer countries. The paper studies the trade-off faced by the government of the drug consumer country between prevention policies (aimed at reducing the demand for drugs) and enforcement policies (aimed at reducing the production and trafficking of drugs), and shows how the optimal allocation of resources between these two alternatives depends on the key parameters of the model. We use available data for the ...

  12. The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbod, G

    2007-02-15

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  13. Reconsidering the Relationship between Oil Prices and Industrial Production: Testing for Cointegration in some of the OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Halil EKSI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of crude oil prices on the industrial production for some of the OECD countries. According to it, the empirical results sign that there is statistical meaningful short term causality from crude oil price to industrial production in all countries except France. In France however, causality is from industrial production to oil price in short run. The error correction mechanism is run for US. The causality is from oil price to industrial production in long run for US. These results show us that oil prices do affect industrial production index. Another interesting finding that, similar results were observed for oil exporting and importing countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran as well. This situation is important that firm sensitivity towards oil price shows a similarity among the countries.

  14. Oil adsorbent produced by the carbonization of rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Seiji; Noguchi, Yosuke; Kurimoto, Yasuji; Takeda, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, rice husks considered to be agricultural waste are converted into an adsorbent intended for use in the disposal of oil spills. The raw and refined (defiberized) husks of Japanese Akita Komachi rice were pyrolyzed in a vacuum (500 Pa) at 300-800 degrees C. The amount of A-heavy and B-heavy oils adsorbed on the carbonized rice husk were then evaluated. Oil adsorption is dependent on the type of oil. Rice husks refined and then pyrolyzed at 600-700 degrees C (1.0 g) adsorbed >6.0 g of B-heavy oil and rice husks, rather than their porosity, are closely related to oil adsorption capacity. PMID:16753291

  15. New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  17. The role of diversification strategies in the economic development for oil-depended countries: - The case of UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Zain Elabdin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Diversification strategies adopted by oil-depended economies' played an important role in the economic development in these countries, which rely heavily on oil exports. UAE as an oil-dependency economy has the type of strategy to diversify the sources of its national income and reduce its dependence on oil to counter the instability in global oil prices. This paper seek to investigate whether the diversification strategies adopted by (UAE) is adequate to manage its economic development. T...

  18. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  20. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  10. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  11. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

  12. Global standards and local knowledge building: Upgrading small producers in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Aleman, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global pra...

  13. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  14. Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets. The case of GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes. (author)

  15. Time-varying predictability in crude-oil markets: the case of GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a time-varying parameter model with generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity effects to examine the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period February 7, 1997-January 8, 2010. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term predictability in oil-price changes over time, except for several short sub-periods. However, the hypothesis of convergence towards weak-form informational efficiency is rejected for all markets. In addition, we explore the possibility of structural breaks in the time-paths of the estimated predictability indices and detect only one breakpoint, for the oil markets in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Our empirical results therefore call for new empirical research to further gauge the predictability characteristics and the determinants of oil-price changes.

  16. Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

    2009-03-01

    Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

  17. Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang

    2014-01-01

    -cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own...... suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice....

  18. Overview of oil market developments with regard to demand and price and their impact on Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of oil market developments since 1973 with regard to demand and price and their impact on Arab countries. Three critical factors are identified: political, economic, environmental and technical. Topics discussed include perception of prices and demand for oil between 1990 and 2000 and the effect of energy developments on Arab countries. (UK)

  19. Water and Energy in the GCC: Securing Scarce Water in Oil-Rich Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states has traditionally been addressed by finding new ways of producing water. Desalination techniques have allowed these countries to satisfy their increasing water demand, driven by economic and demographic development. The high CAPEX and OPEX costs of desalinated water production are borne by the State through subsidies in the forms of low water and electricity prices. As this trend is not environmentally or economically sustainable, new strategies are now giving priority to cost recovery and efficient resource management. This comparative study will show that in the GCC countries, whose oil or gas reserves are among the largest worldwide, the management of water and energy resources has been relying upon vertically integrated government agencies and companies, with water supply policies fueled by cheap energy. Wealth redistribution coming from oil and gas revenues has been ensured through low or nonexistent water and electricity tariffs. Groundwater resources, which are the only water sources of the region (there are no surface waters available, except for few dams in Saudi Arabia), are quickly diminishing. Desalination has been developing very fast and now seems to be the only reliable form of supplying water for future requirements. Saudi Arabia alone might need 18 billion cubic meter (bcm) of fresh water per year by 2050 to sustain current consumption patterns. For this reason, huge amounts of energy will be required and the question of the right energy/water balance is at stake. Technological choices in the electricity sector will influence the way water is produced in the future, and vice versa. In particular, water production fueled by gas or heavy fuel can be linked to power generation, enhancing efficiency but lowering flexibility. Membrane technologies, which require only electricity inputs, allow for a diversified energy and electricity mix but they have smaller critical sizes and therefore produce smaller desalinated water outputs. An overall transformation map will have to be drafted in each country to show the development plans of both electricity generation and water production. This would enable governments and their agencies to assess cross-sector spill-over effects in a timely manner. The single buyer model has ensured stability and predictability of the water and electricity system and enabled policy makers to forecast precisely water and electricity demand. However, the assumption of simply adding new water or electricity capacity is no longer coherent since cheap, domestic fuel is not as abundantly available as it was in the 1980's. The United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are already short of natural gas. New plans have therefore been drafted to fit into an overall strategy of process optimization and reflecting costs, in view of minimizing the impact on the wealth redistribution policy, while starting to raise awareness about the outmost importance of water for the future of the GCC population. If rising tariffs seem the most obvious action to take, other ambitious political decisions have to be addressed, such as the creation of a water law and an inter-GCC water pricing framework. (author)

  20. World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

  1. Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang

    2014-01-01

    In generally, there is a phenomenon of free rider in the establishment of national oil reserves for different countries, which means that they have the tendency of underestimating the strategic oil reserves. This paper attempts to explain this phenomenon from the perspective of non-cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice.

  2. Preliminary Characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils produced in eastern area of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, F; Ben Moumen, A.; Lopez, G.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sindic, Marianne; Serghini-Caid, H.; Elamrani, A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional olive oil production is limited by its high cost, mainly due to labour expenses for harvesting and pruning. New olive cultivars (e.g. Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki) with greater adaptability to modern irrigated high-density orchards and producing good quality olive oils are highly demanded by an olive oil industry in continuous change The aim of this study is the characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils from three cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki) recentl...

  3. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in...... developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains...

  4. Bubble scrub : process aims to reduce oil content and dispose of solids in produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-03-15

    The oil and water separation processes used by the petroleum industry typically leave behind between 5000 and 30,000 parts per million of oil in its produced water. The water is then injected back into the ground or disposed of in tailings ponds. This article described a water-oil remediation technology designed to reduce the hydrocarbon content in injected water to less than 5 parts per million. The process used aeration in a tank configuration that injected gas into the produced water. The aeration process created micron-sized gas bubbles that super-saturated the produced water in order to break the oil-water interfaces. A prototype unit has been designed to process 1000 bbls per day of water-oil mixture and is currently being used by an Alberta producer. It was concluded that the new system will help to reduce the massive amounts of water used in oil sands production. 1 fig.

  5. The impact of oil prices on GDP in European countries: An empirical investigation based on asymmetric cointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the existence of a long-term relationship between oil prices and GDP in 12 European countries. To account for the fact that economic activity responds asymmetrically to oil price shocks, we propose an approach based on asymmetric cointegration. Our results show that, while standard cointegration is rejected, there is evidence for asymmetric cointegration between oil prices and GDP in the majority of the considered European countries

  6. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  7. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  8. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  9. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  10. From Oil Crisis to Climate Change. Understanding CO2 Emission Trends in IEA Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD CO2 emissions from fuel combustion increased 13% between 1990 and 2001. This signals an important shift since, over the 1973 to 1990 period, emissions only increased by 3.4%. As a result, CO2 emissions from energy use (fuel combustion) contributed 81.1% of total OECD greenhouse gas emissions in 2001 compared to 77.7% in 1990. As these figures make clear, reducing CO2 emissions from fuel combustion constitutes a key challenge to combat climate change. Developing and successfully implementing the most efficient policies for reducing CO2 emissions requires a good understanding of how factors such as income, prices, demography, economic structure, lifestyle, climate, energy efficiency and fuel mix affect energy use and resulting CO2 emissions. This paper presents selected results from the analysis of CO2 developments included in the IEA publication 'From Oil Crisis to Climate Challenge: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries'. The paper gives a brief overview of aggregate CO2 emission trends and of how recent developments in selected IEA countries compare to emissions levels implied by the Kyoto targets. A deeper understanding of the aggregate trends is provided by showing results from a decomposition analysis and by discussing developments in key end-use sectors. The full publication presents a more detailed analysis of how various factors have shaped energy use patterns and CO2 emissions since 1973. The analysis draws on a newly developed database with detailed information on energy use in the manufacturing, household, service and transport sectors. The database represents the most disaggregated information available on a consistent basis across countries and sectors. The study uses quantitative measures to illustrate the forces that drive or restrain energy use. These measures - or indicators - include: activities such as manufacturing output or heated-floor-area of homes; structural developments such as changes in manufacturing output mix or changes in the mix of transport modes; and energy intensities for sub-sectors and end-uses. Energy intensity is defined as energy per unit activity, representing the energy used to produce some output or provide a service. At a disaggregated level, changes in this indicator are closely related to changes in energy efficiency. The decomposition approach used in the IEA study disentangles the impacts that changes in activity, structure, and energy intensities have on total energy use in each sector. For example, the analysis reveals that in some countries changes in manufacturing structure (the mix of goods produced) have been as important as changes in energy intensities in determining manufacturing energy use developments. The decomposition approach is also used to explain trends in CO2 emissions. In this case, the energy decomposition is expanded with factors representing changes in fuel mix. To analyse trends at an economy-wide level, the results of the sector decomposition are re-aggregated into measures that represent the impact each component has had on changes in a country's total energy use and CO2 emissions

  11. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Brian K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil consumption is related to higher IHD mortality rates in developing countries. Palm oil consumption represents a saturated fat source relevant for policies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease burdens.

  12. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil...

  13. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  14. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  15. Use of raw glycerol to produce oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by a thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Spencer D; Armenta, Roberto E; Berryman, Kevin T; Norman, Andrew W

    2011-03-01

    Glucose is the typical carbon source for producing microbial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with single cell microorganisms such as thraustochytrids. We assessed the use of a fish oil derived glycerol by-product (raw glycerol), produced by a fish oil processing plant, as a carbon source to produce single cell oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), notably docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results were compared to those obtained when using analytical grade glycerol, and glucose. The thraustochytrid strain tested produced similar amounts of oil and PUFA when grown with both types of glycerol, and results were also similar to those obtained using glucose. After 6 days of fermentation, approximately 320 mg/g of oil, and 145 mg/g of PUFA were produced with all carbon sources tested. All oils produced by our strain were 99.95% in the triacylglycerol form. To date, this is the first report of using raw glycerol derived from fish oil for producing microbial triglyceride oil rich in PUFA. PMID:22112910

  16. The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Liberalization of Trade in Producer Services - the Impact on Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, James; Nords, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of liberalization of trade in producer services, focusing on financial services, telecommunications and transport. The likely effects on developing countries is that they will become net importers of the liberalized services, but they will also become more industrialized and increase their exports of labor-intensive goods and services, if given market access under the most appropriate modes of trade. Potential gains from this pattern of trade are large, since im...

  18. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  19. The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga PEETERS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, Dutch disease, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

  20. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

  2. Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlined

  3. The impact of oil-export dependency on a developing country; The case of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarian, J. (World Bank, Washington, DC (USA)); Green, R.D. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (US). Dept. of Economics)

    1989-10-01

    A large oil export sector is often considered to be a potential spur to diversification and full modernization in third world countries, especially when a central government controls and plans the use of oil revenues with such goals in mind. We evaluate this proposition by developing a 12-equation Keynesian econometric model of the Algerian economy. The model's equations, estimated using ordinary least squares, are robust with strong R-squares, significant t-tests for the independent variables, and reasonable Durbin-Watson statistics. Historical simulations track the true variables rather closely. Our RMSEs (percentage) are in general better than those in most studies of less-developed countries, ranging from 7 to 21%. Our results indicate that there has been a growing dependency of most major economic sectors on oil revenues, both before and after nationalization. Improvements in oil exports will, ceteris paribus, lead to elastic increases in luxury imports and domestic consumption, and inelastic increases in domestic investment. Thus, the goals of diversification, modernization and industrialization will not be met under the current set of policies in Algeria. (author).

  4. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. PMID:25903403

  5. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry

  6. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Zemnek, P.; Jon, A.; Telle, H. H.

    2011-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry.

  7. Optimal design of a novel oil-water separator for raw oil produced from ASP flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu-hong; Zhang, Dan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Hai-tao; Xu, Li-juan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Distillation Technology, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Oil recovery can be greatly enhanced with the ASP (Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer) flooding technology by increasing sweeping efficiency and displacing efficiency. But the emulsification of the residual chemical in the recovered oil from ASP flooding makes it very difficult to separate water from oil. To make the oil-water separation of ASP products more efficient to meet the discharge standards, some improvements need to be made on regular oil-water separators. Based on the physical properties of ASP products in Daqing Oilfield, novel packing and newly designed Crude oil-water separator are studied in this paper. Orthogonal test is used to optimize the design of the novel separator, including the structure and material of coalescent packing, as well as the operating conditions. Experiment results suggest that the separation efficiency of the new type separator is higher than 98%. Both the outlet oil phase and the water phase have met the corresponding standards. Oil concentration in the discharge water is reduced to 600 mg L{sup -} {sup 1} and average drop size is about 6 {mu}m. It can be easily concluded that the new type separator has a better performance on the oil-water separation of ASP products. At the end of this paper, the drop size distribution (DSD) in the outlet water is analyzed to provide data for the wastewater treatment process following the crude oil-water separation. (author)

  8. The impact of oil price increases on the market for nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1973, the Agency concluded a market survey of nuclear power in fourteen selected developing countries throughout the world. The results of this survey have been reported in fourteen country reports and a general report and also in a summary report presented at the Seventeenth Regular Session of the Agency's General Conference. These results indicate that in the fourteen countries surveyed, about 60,000 MW(e) of nuclear plant capacity might be put into operation during the period 1980 to 1989. Most of this nuclear capacity would be in the form of units of 600 MW(e) or larger since under the assumed economic conditions, nuclear units in the 200-400 MW(e) size range were generally found to be uneconomical compared to oil-fired plants. (author)

  9. 19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a metal buckle imported from a non-beneficiary country to create a finished belt which is imported... value requirement. The cost or value of the metal buckle imported into the beneficiary country may not be counted toward the 35 percent value requirement because the buckle was not...

  10. How the future international oil situation will be. Trend of Majors and non-OPEC countries; Kongo no kokusai sekiyu josei wo do tenbosuruka. Mejazu to hi OPEC no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toichi, T.; Horie, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This is a report of the 323rd regular research meeting on an outlook of the future international oil situation. Described first was an outlook of the late international oil situation and the trend of production development in non-OPEC oil producing countries, and next a prospect for the 21st century and subjects of Japan. The world oil demand will increase 2% from 70 million B/D in 1995 to 85 million B/D in 2005. The supply will increase from 42 million B/D (non-OPEC) plus 28 million B/D (OPEC) in 1995 to 50 million B/D plus 35 million B/D in 2005. There will be no large shortage of oil in the coming 10 years or so. Asia, however, depends by 90% largely on the Middle East, and still has a great risk of cutoff of the supply. In Asian countries, especially in China, the increasing oil import is feared. Further, it is difficult to predict how presence of the U.S. in the Middle East and uncertainty of the future will be on a long term basis. As subjects of energy security, cited are promotion of oil resource development in the Asia region, increase in number of sources from which oil is imported, strengthening of depending correlation with oil producing countries in the Middle East, and reinforcement of the oil stockpiling system in the Asian region. 39 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

  12. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  13. Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  14. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  15. The relevance of asymmetry issues for residential oil and natural gas demand: evidence from selected OECD countries, 1970-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In times of low oil prices, oil demand in OECD countries has not rebounded as textbook economic theory would suggest. On the other hand, natural gas demand has increased, despite prices being at almost the same level as in 1985. In this paper, the impact of volatile prices on oil demand is investigated. Different econometric approaches are applied. The major conclusions of these investigations are: (i) with respect to the the choice of fuels, strong patterns of asymmetry exist; (ii) the maximum historical oil price is the dominating parameter on residual oil demand; and (iii) volatile prices have a greater influence on energy demand than high but rather constant prices

  16. Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

    2004-09-30

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  17. 78 FR 45505 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...Oil Country Tubular Goods from the Socialist...underselling and price depression or suppression...this wage rate for inflation using the Indian Consumer Price Index as published...adjust these data for inflation as they became...

  18. WHICH ARE THE POSSIBILITIES TO PRODUCE AN AUTOCHTON OLIVE OIL IN ALBANIA?

    OpenAIRE

    Etleva Muca(Dashi); Fatmir Guri; Elena Kokhti; Natasha Hodaj

    2012-01-01

    Olive orchard is considered as one of the main sectors of agriculture and an inseparable part of the nutrition regime in Albania. Actually the country is facing with a lot of problems with the quality of olive oil, which is related to the cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. In the other side olive genetic patrimony of the country is considered very rich (Kafazi & Muo, 1984; Osmani, 1993), considering the small area of cultivation. Last years, Albanian consummators are skeptics in u...

  19. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  20. Batch type synthesis of high free fatty acid Jatropha Curcus oil biodiesel- India as supplying country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gandhi Bojan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Jatropha Curcas oil grown and extracted in the rural belts of western ghat section of South India was tested for its physical and chemical properties to determine its suitability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. A compact, simple, 4-litre biodiesel processor was developed locally. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing biodiesel sufficient in quantity for formers in village level to run the commonly used farm engine for producing electricity for agricultural and other purposes. The properties like kinematic viscosity, acid number, specific gravity, Cetane number, etc of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standard but the yield quantity was comparatively low (80.50% because of the high free fatty acid content in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The overall efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke diesel engine coupled with a electric generator was high (24.38% at maximum load conditions compare to raw Jatropha Curcas oil and petro diesel as fuels which gives only 19.6% and 20.11%, respectively shows the possibilities of using biodiesel produced as a fuel in diesel engine.

  1. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheeps non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheeps milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheeps milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheeps milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheeps milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg?1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las caractersticas fsico-qumicas y la composicin de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extrada de coco hmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los cidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el ndice de perxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meqO2Kg?1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de saponificacin ligeramente inferiores y altos valores de ndice de yodo en comparacin con VCNO. La composicin en cido lurico (55,8%, cidos grasos de cadena media (69,65% y triglicridos de cadena media (59.27% fueron significativamente mayores en VCNO. Los fitoesteroles, compuestos fenlicos y tocoferoles + tocoferoles fueron 83,7; 54,9 y 81,4 mg; 9,4; 1,8 y 2,1 mg; 4,9; 2,8 y 4,0 mg, para UCNOs, VCNO y RBDCNO, respectivamente, siendo para los aceites UCNOs significativamente mayores que para VCNO y RBDCNO. Estos resultados mostraron que UCNOs tienen ms fitonutrientes en comparacin con VCNO y RBDCNO.

  3. Energy efficiency developments in IEA countries 30 years after the oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents findings from a study that examines how energy efficiency and factors such as economic structure, income, lifestyle, climate, prices and fuel mix have shaped developments in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries since the first oil price shock in 1973. The results show that IEA countries have made significantly progress in energy efficiency since 1973. However an alarming finding is that energy savings rates across all sectors and in almost all countries have slowed since the late 1980s. This indicates that the oil price shocks in the 1970s and the resulting energy policies did considerably more to control growth in energy demand and CO2 emissions than energy efficiency and climate policies implemented in the 1990s. Energy price developments offer some explanation of these long-term trends. The lower prices that followed the high price period of 1973-1986, combined with the fact that energy intensities were already significantly reduced resulted in considerably lower energy expenditures for both industry and private consumers from the mid 1980s. The energy share of total production cost in some industries fell by as much as 50% from the early 1980s until the late 1990s. Similarly, the share of energy costs for stationary uses in IEA household budgets fell by 20-50% over the same period, while the fuel cost per kilometre driven by private cars fell between 20% and 60%, depending on the country. The slowing rate of energy efficiency improvements is the primary reason for the weaker decoupling of CO2 emissions from GDP growth since 1990. Failing to accelerate improvement of energy efficiency would thus have serious implications for many countries prospects of controlling growth in future emissions

  4. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

  5. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Ayoub [Department of Economics, Business and Mathematics, King' s College, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 2M3 (Canada); Wirjanto, Tony S. [Department of Economics, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada) N2L 3G1

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia.

  6. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

  7. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Lhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of...

  8. Novel bioemulsifier produced by a Paenibacillus strain isolated from crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gudi??a, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Costa, Rita; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Coutinho, Jo??o A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.; Rodrigues, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surface active compounds produced by microorganisms are attracting a pronounced interest due to their potential advantages over their synthetic counterparts, and to the fact that they could replace some of the synthetics in many environmental and industrial applications. RESULTS: Bioemulsifier production by a Paenibacillus sp. strain isolated from crude oil was studied. The bioemulsifier was produced using sucrose with and without adding hydrocarbons (paraffin or crude oil) und...

  9. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the...... research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  10. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Brian K; Seligman Benjamin; Farquhar John W; Goldhaber-Fiebert Jeremy D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture inter...

  11. Energy supply and food production in oil-importing countries (The case of Costa Rica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, W.; Rao, M.A.; Cervinka, V.

    Costa Rica illustrates the relationship of energy supply and food sector in an oil-importing, developing country in which agriculture is the core of the economy. The recent trade pattern terms show increasing volumes of agricultural exports to pay for the fertilizers and fuels needed to fuel the agricultural industry. The report deals with the specific question of whether the current role and structure of the food system is effective and whether or not there are opportunities to improve energy use and management. It concludes that agriculture must become more self-reliant by converting its starch and other surplus raw materials into import substitutes. The displacement of diesel by fuel oil in thermal application in agroindustry and light diesel fuel by marine diesel in the fishing fleets will reduce petroleum imports. Other strategies include product diversification and the production and promotion of high value food products for export. 12 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonalves, Maria L A; Caramo, Elina B; dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakdia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. PMID:24753476

  13. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

  14. [Livestock producer participation in the control of epizootics in developed countries: the experience of France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, M H

    2004-04-01

    Based on the French experience of animal health defence groups (groupements de dfense sanitaire), the author highlights the importance, for both Veterinary Services and livestock producers, of livestock producer health organisations acting as partners of the Veterinary Services to complement the actions of private veterinarians. Charged with the task of providing livestock producers with information and raising awareness of the health regulations, these organisations offer key support to Veterinary Services in carrying out regulatory prophylactic measures, monitoring their execution, supplementing public compensation measures, and even being delegated to manage all or part of such prophylactic measures. By designing and implementing plans, with the support of private veterinarians, to combat or control epizootics which have an economic or trade impact, and by participating in or carrying out animal identification and offering health and environmental services, these organisations help to improve herd health and support the livestock producing industry. Growing demand, from both European Union applicant members and countries to the south, shows that although the French experience is not transposable, it can serve as a useful example. PMID:15200094

  15. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

  16. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina da Silva, Grem; Bianca Natividade Barreto, Lima; Wiliam Ferreira, Carneiro; Yure Gomes de Carvalho, Queirs; Claudia Regina Elias, Mansur.

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers [...] for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP) and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  17. Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigerias oil producing communities

    OpenAIRE

    Oluduro, Olubayo

    2012-01-01

    This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian states over-reliance on oil; prolon...

  18. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Trujillo; Pedro Peláez; Josep-Vicent Sinisterra

    2014-01-01

    Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude pa...

  19. Method of producing an oil including docosahexaenoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ratledge, C; Anderson, A. J.; Kanagachandran, K.; Grantham, D.J.; Stephenson, J.C.; Swaaf, M.E., de; Sijtsma, L.

    2005-01-01

    C. cohnii is cultured in a suitable growth medium with acetic acid/acetate as the main carbon source. The acetate is provided, and replenished, by adding acetic acid to the growth medium in response to an increase in pH resulting from the utilisation of acetic acid/acetate by C. cohnii. The C. cohnii produces relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A stationary phase is not essential for satisfactory DHA production.

  20. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    2001-06-15

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

  2. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Georgeta DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point characterizes natural resources, especially of oil and mining of precious metals. Therefore, we can say that the power exerted on natural resources determines the ranking of countries of the world economic power and living standards of the population. Use of natural resources as an effective weapon in the economic consolidation became state policy and the expansion of exploration and exploitation in foreign lands required the development of complex regulations. Therefore, this study aims at presenting an analytic perspective of foreign law - specific states with relevant impact on the exploitation of natural resources - and the presentation of some features of international law.

  3. Obesity in Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%55% and in adult males 1%30% in countries of gulf region.

  4. Oil prices, inflation and interest rates in a structural cointegrated VAR model for the G-7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices, and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) a stationary money demand, as suggested by the classic theory of money, can be identified for most countries; ii) according to the estimated coefficients of the structural part of the model, for all countries except Japan and U.K. the null hypothesis of an influence of oil prices on the inflation rate cannot be rejected. Inflation rate shocks are transmitted to the real economy by increasing interest rates; iii) impulse response analysis suggests, for most countries, the existence of an instantaneous, temporary effect of oil price innovations on prices; iv) impulse response functions indicate different monetary policy reactions to inflationary and growth shocks; v) the simulation exercises directed to estimate the total impact of the 1990 oil price shock indicate that for some countries (U.S.) a significant part of the effects of the oil price shock is due to the monetary policy reaction function. For other countries (Canada, France and Italy), however, the total impact is offset, at least in part, by an easing of monetary conditions. (author)

  5. Upgrading of Light Dewaxed Oil through Hydrofinishing and Additives Blending for Producing Automatic Transmission Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A.N Gohar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Light dewaxed oil was produced through dewaxing process of the light waxy distillate raffinate of crude oil from Western Desert of Egypt using methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent. Hydrofinishing process was used to remove the non-hydrocarbon constituents and to improve the physicochemical properties of the produced oils such as color, viscosity index, inhibition responses, oxidation and thermal stability. The operating parameters which affected the quality of the hydrofinished oils were studied separately at different values that including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The optimum operating conditions to be adopted for producing high quality automatic transmission fluid base oil were reactor temperature 290 oC, pressure 130kg cm?2, liquid hourly space velocity 0.4 h?1 and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio 800 Nm3 M?3. The effect of changing hydrofinishing temperature and liquid hourly space velocity on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN reactions as well as their thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Calculations of activation energy (Ea and free energy of activation (?G indicated that HDS was easier to occur than HDN and these reactions are more faster at higher temperatures. The effect of commercial and formulated additives on the quality of the hydrofinished oil was also studied. Automatic transmission fluid possessing the Dexron IID specification was produced by adding 7 wt% from Infenium T442 additive or by adding 9 wt% from Lubrizol 6701 D additive to the hydrofinished light dewaxed oil. Oils with the same efficiency were also produced using a formulated additive containing 4% viscosity index improver, 1.5% anti-oxidant and 1% anti-wear. The effect of increasing Infenium T442, Lubrizol R 6701 D and formulated additive percents on the protection efficiency of the automatic transmission fluid was studied through AC impedance technique. According to this technique, the effect of these additives on the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons can be negligible.

  6. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation Lipase A-10. The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orgenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en funcin de su actividad cataltica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancretica, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal adems de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontr que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la ms activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparacin vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan tambin a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicacin como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de Chromobacterium mientras que los ms polares se obtienen usando las preparaciones de lipasa de hongo Lilipase A-10. La polaridad del producto est tambin influenciada por la temperatura del proceso aunque la forma de su efecto es distinta para las diferentes lipasas.

  7. Two steps ethanolysis of castor oil using sulfuric acid as catalist to produce motor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, I.B.; Warnijati, S.; Wiratni, A. [Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Mixture of castor oil and sulfuric acid was heated in a three neck flask to about 80{sup o}C, and then boiling ethanol was introduced into the reactor. After 60 minutes of processing, the experiment was stopped and the glycerine formed was separated and the oil left was realcoholyzed in the same way as the first step. From the study it was obvious that the first and second steps of alcoholysis followed first order reactions, and the rate constants were affected by the catalyst concentration exponentially. The one step process for 120 minutes converted only 60% of the glyceride, while the two steps alcoholysis could reach 82% conversion in 120 minutes total time. Except for its viscosity, the liquid product approached the specification of diesel oil. (Author)

  8. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  9. Advancing the Frontier of Extended Producer Responsibility: The management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in non-OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Manomaivibool, Panate

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a salient issue in non-OECD countries. With a growing awareness about serious damages to the environment and human health from a lack of safe treatment and recycling of WEEE, there has been a search for policy responses in several of these countries. This research finds that extended producer responsibility (EPR), a policy principle that underpins WEEE programmes in many OECD countries, can help solve the WEEE problem in non-OECD cou...

  10. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

  11. Aquatic model for engine oil degradation by rhamnolipid producing Nocardiopsis VITSISB

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Suki; Chandni, Shreta; Das, Ishita; Karthik, Loganathan; Kumar, Gaurav; Bhaskara Rao, Kokati Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The present study was focused on isolation, screening, characterization and application of biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria. Twenty actinobacteria were isolated from marine water sample and were primarily screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity method. Among the 20 isolates, six showed positive result for hemolytic activity and those were taken for further secondary screening tests such as oil collapse method, oil spreading method and emulsification method....

  12. Antimicrobial activities of laboratory produced essential oil solutions against five selected fungal strains

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Emilija; Atanasova-Pan?evska Natalija; Kungulovski Doko

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC...

  13. Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    A.Y. Zahrim

    2014-01-01

    Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm o...

  14. Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasri Sihabut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

  15. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA..., 2012 (77 FR 4300). The public comment period was to end on February 27, 2012--30 days after...

  16. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  17. Microbiological stability of canned tuna produced in Italy and in non-European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the microbiological stability of canned tuna produced by Italian companies and similar canned products manufactured in countries outside Europe are reported herein. The study involved 38 samples of canned tuna of various brands, of which 14 were produced by companies outside Europe and 24 by Italian companies. Qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests were conducted for the following parameters: bacterial colony counts at 30C, total coliforms, total Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite-reducing anaerobes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and molds. Bacterial loads and mold contamination were respectivelyin found in 8/14 (57% samples from outside EU and 7/24 (29% Italian samples. The bacterial flora was represented by Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus lentus, Streptococcus mitis, Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Gram-negative bacteria (Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Rhizobium radiobacter, spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus vallismortis, while the fungal species was represented by Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Alternaria spp. Excluding anomalies in the thermal treatment process of products and any contamination after treatment, the contaminations encountered in both cases were most likely due to insufficient production quality standards and the quality of the raw material used. These results may require a redefinition of the concept of commercial stability as hitherto stated.

  18. Oil taxation in the presence of consumer adjustment costs and volatile prices: the case of small countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians in various countries (e.g. in the USA, Switzerland and Austria) have suggested the levy of different forms of taxes or duties on crude oil. One of the major (normative) arguments behind all these proposals seems to somehow smooth oil prices after observing the dramatic oil price collapse and because of the conjecture of another, future, oil price hike. Hence, these arguments refer (implicitly or explicitly) to adjustment costs to justify government intervention. This paper analyses whether the instrument of a tax on crude oil may improve welfare if oil prices are volatile and adjustment costs are important. It will be shown that these proposals are only defensible if the government is smart (uses foresight) and when the consumers are myopic. However, the optimal commodity tax should be zero if consumers and the government use the same forecast (perfect foresight). (author)

  19. Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Cristina, Martins; Isabel, Alves-dos-Santos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os leos florais como recompensa a polinizadores esto presentes em onze famlias e surgiram ao menos 28 vezes na histria evolutiva das plantas florferas. Estes so produzidos em glndulas tricomticas ou epiteliais e coletados por abelhas coletoras de leo. O presente trabalho foi focado nas esp [...] cies produtoras de leo floral de Plantaginaceae, um grupo neotropical conhecido como clado Angelonia. Este grupo compreende cerca de 40 espcies nos gneros Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera e Melosperma, que no produz leo floral. Ns apresentamos uma reviso de todas as espcies no clado Angelonia, sua distribuio geogrfica, recursos oferecidos e registros de visitantes florais, especialmente abelhas coletoras de leo. Estas plantas dependem das abelhas coletoras de leo das tribos Centridini e Tapinotaspidini para uma polinizao bem-sucedida, sendo a interao entre ambos os parceiros um caso especial de adaptao abelha/planta na Regio Neotropical. Algumas espcies dependem somente do leo coletado em espcies do clado Angelonia, enquanto outras tambm podem coletar em vrias fontes de leos florais. Essas abelhas exploram as glndulas de leo localizadas em bolsas utilizando pelos especializados nas pernas anteriores. Com o presente trabalho esperamos inspirar estudos futuros com este fascinante grupo de plantas, que so em sua maioria espcies raras e que ocorrem nos altamente ameaados biomas de vegetao aberta da Amrica do Sul. Abstract in english Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Pla [...] ntaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

  20. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45C under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  1. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. PMID:26802271

  2. Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluduro, Olubayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

  3. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO2 per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

  5. The Role of Savings in Reducing the Effect of Oil Price Volatility for Sustainable Economic Growth in Oil Based Economies: The Case of GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ritab Al-Khouri; Aruna Dhade

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the simultaneous links between oil price changes, national savings, legal and institutional development, and economic growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Our study includes six GCC countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. We base our analysis on annual data that covers the period from 1980 to 2011. We implement different methodologies on time series cross sectional data: First, we test our model using fixed e...

  6. Estimation of the size of asphaltene aggregates produced by shear of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmachowski, L.; Paczuski, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated asphaltene aggregation in Russian Export Blend Crude Oil (REBCO) using a Couette device over a range of shear rates similar to that in pipelines transporting the crude oil. After each experiment an amount of n-heptane was added to a crude oil sample. A turbidimeter was used to observe the sedimentation behaviour of the obtained suspension. The behaviour was found to be highly dependent on the concentration of the crude oil in the mixture. The fractal dimension was determined upon analyzing the sedimentation velocity of asphaltene aggregates. The mutual dependence between the sedimentation velocity and the turbidity for different concentrations was also determined. The fractal dimension was shown to be very close to that of the diffusion limited process, suggesting that aggregates were formed during a secondary process induced by the addition of n-heptane. The earlier aggregates produced by shear of crude oil were monomers for the secondary aggregates. The affect of the shear rate on the settling velocity-turbidity relation was very weak, indicating that the size of asphaltene aggregates produced by crude oil shear does not change much with the shear rate.

  7. Extraction of trace elements by ultrasound-assisted emulsification from edible oils producing detergentless microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements from edible oils via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) producing detergentless microemulsions. These were then analyzed using ICP-MS against matrix matched standards. Optimum experimental conditions were determined and the applicability of the proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction method was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (?g kg(-1)) were 2.47, 2.81, 0.013, 0.037, 1.37, 0.050, 0.049, 0.47, 0.032 and 0.087 for Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3Sb/m). The accuracy of the developed method was checked by analyzing certified reference material. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower seed oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and cod liver oil. PMID:26041176

  8. Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

  9. New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

  10. Kinetics of hydrocarbon extraction from oil shale using biosurfactant producing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to extract hydrocarbon compounds from El-Lajjun oil shale using biosurfactant produced from two strains Rhodococcus erythropolis and Rhodococcus ruber. The results have shown that, optimal biosurfactant production was found using naphthalene and diesel as a carbon source for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum nitrogen concentration was 9 g/l and 7 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. Optimum K2HPO4 to KH2PO4 ratio, temperature, pH, and agitation speeds were 2:1, 37 deg. C, 7 and 200 rpm. Under optimal conditions R. erthropolis and R. ruber produced 5.67 and 6.9 g/l biosurfactant, respectively. Maximum recovery of oil achieved with hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment was 25% and 26% at biosurfactant concentration of 8 g/l and 4 g/l for R. erthropolis and R. ruber, respectively. The extent desorption of hydrocarbons from the pre-treated oil shale by biosurfactant were inversely related to the concentration of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, asphaltenes compounds. Pre- treatment of oil shale with hydrogen peroxide produced better improvement in aromatic compounds extraction in comparison with improvement which resulted from demineralization of the oil shale

  11. Diesel oil and petrol can be produced from coal to the same price as from petroleum by means of nano catalyzers; Kull paa tanken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Claude R.

    2002-07-01

    New nano catalyzers make it possible to produce diesel oil and petrol from coal to the same price as from petroleum. This will turn the power balance from OPEC countries to coal producing countries. The American company Hydrocarbon Technologies Inc. (HTI) have developed a catalyzer that will transform coal directly to liquid fuel to a competitive price. When the first commercial plant is completed in 2005, the price of fuel from the plant is expected to correspond to the price of fuel from petroleum to 20 - 22 dollars per barrel. The price of oil is currently about 25 dollars per barrel. In addition to the HTI catalyzers many other nano catalyzers are appearing on the market. There is extensive research on nano catalyzers all over the world. If successful, this new technology may have geopolitical consequences.

  12. Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-21

    Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils?¢???? physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

  13. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs.

  14. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.

  15. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  16. Attribute analysis and quality assessment of extra virgin olive oil produced in Sitia, Crete, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kalarchakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    In this study, extra virgin olive oil produced in the mountainous organic semi- intensive production systems of Krya (Sitia, Crete, Greece) was under investigation in different stages of production. The region is characterized by high altitude, sloping and difficulty to access systems that are considered as high risk of abandonment but its sustainability has extreme survival importance for the local population that consists of producers and suppliers that strive daily to improv...

  17. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  18. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

  19. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazraati, M. [OPEC Secretariat, Vienna (Austria). Energy Studies Department

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

  20. Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96h; pH, 1; temperature, 50C; concentration of palm oil, 50g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214U/mL at a fermentation time of 72h; pH, 1; temperature, 35C; concentration of fish oil, 30g/L; maltose concentration, 10g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

  1. Aqueous extractive upgrading of bio-oils created by tail-gas reactive pyrolysis to produce pure hydrocarbons and phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) of biomass produces bio-oil that is lower in oxygen (~15 wt% total) and significantly more hydrocarbon-rich than traditional bio-oils or even catalytic fast pyrolysis. TGRP bio-oils lend themselves toward mild and inexpensive upgrading procedures. We isolated oxyge...

  2. New perspectives for sustainably produced palm oil?; Neue Perspektiven fuer nachhaltiges Palmoel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenigk, Florian [KaiserCommunication GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Bereich erneuerbare Energien

    2010-12-15

    Power generation from biomass is one of the key issues of renewable power generation today, and the demand for raw materials like palm oil is increasing accordingly. Malaysia, the world's second biggest producer after Indonesia, considers that the time has come for a change of perspective in the political discussion of the global biomass potential. Palm oil may indeed become a staple in biomass supply for power generation and mobility, but only if rigid sustainability criteria are maintained to prevent environmental damage from the very biomass utilization technology originally developed to protect the environment.

  3. The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By using a standard econometric approach, we find that the effects of different deregulation policies are substantial. We also analyse the impact of a policy based on autonomous energy-efficiency improvement. Finally, a combination of both policies is elaborated and quantified. Our results show that a policy geared at more rational use of energy would permit these countries to save enough oil to meet future increases in demand while maintaining stable production capacity. Furthermore, such an energy policy could result in additional oil revenues which would enhance their economic development. (author)

  4. Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

    2013-12-01

    Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics. PMID:24140851

  5. The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

  6. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  7. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charles Ogugua, Nwuche; James Chukwuma, Ogbonna.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered [...] (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

  8. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress. PMID:25976784

  9. Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMAR SCHUBERT

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90 in the concentration range of 2.5 ? 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 m were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

  10. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkr, Jens Peter; Lhndorf, Bo

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...... is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely...

  11. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  12. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  13. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products. PMID:22688247

  14. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  15. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. → Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. → The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. → Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. → The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  16. Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

  17. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of???1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

  18. Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chima Jack-Osimiri

    2011-01-01

    From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s), which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs...

  19. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  20. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  1. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

  2. Potential impact of production chemicals on the toxicity of produced water discharges from North Sea oil platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production chemicals are used on offshore oil production platforms to prevent corrosion and scale formation, and to assist oil-water separation. A proportion of these chemicals may enter the marine environment via the produced water discharge. This study investigated the potential impact of 11 oil field production chemicals on the toxicity of the produced water discharge. The Microtox(r) system was used for toxicity assessment of the chemicals, both directly in aqueous preparations and following their partitioning between oil (crude and low toxicity mineral base oil) and North Sea brine. For the majority of the chemicals tested, the toxicity of the aqueous phase to the test organism following partitioning against crude oil, was not significantly altered by the presence of process chemicals when used in their normal field dosage concentrations. However, there was evidence that certain chemicals could increase the partitioning of oil components into the aqueous phase by an order of magnitude, when applied at high dosage concentrations. (Author)

  3. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    EdlayneGonalez; MarciaOrtiz MayoMarques; RobertoCarlosFelicio

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

  4. Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Pl Lee

    2013-01-01

    Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeability. The main finding in this thesis was that...

  5. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Q.; Bai, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, L; Wang, S.; Xi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, ho...

  6. 78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 13, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-23433 Filed 9-24-13; 8:45 am] Billing code..., Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. A country's... 2013 to combat transnational organized crime. Projects include, for example, anti-corruption...

  7. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  8. WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probable candidate for financial crisis.

  9. WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhem Selmi; Nejib Hachicha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probabl...

  10. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wei Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

  11. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Trujillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude palm oil and its industrial derivatives. Contrarily in the isolated fungus, the lipase mainly remains bonded to biomass. In all cases, greater hydrolytic activities are observed in the hydrolysis of palm olein and super-olein than with saturated substrates as stearine. P. uchicensis lipase shows moderated selectivity versus saturated acid triglycerides compared to substrates with high proportion of oleic acid (olein or superolein. The opposite behavior is observed with C. uchicensis and fungal lipases. P. uchicensis produces a more active crude lipase than C. uchicensis with lower biomass production. The kinetic runs performed with crude yeast lipases suggest a three steps mechanism where the high penetration of lipase in the fat gouts favors the hydrolysis.

  12. Energy security. The external legal relations of the European Union with energy producing countries

    OpenAIRE

    HAGHIGHI, Sanam Salem

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyzes in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy. T...

  13. Are There Smaller Leverage Effects in Less-Developed Markets? Evidence from an Oil Exporting Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayeb Phalavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study uses daily data from the Tehran Stock Market (TSM to illustrate the nature of stock market volatility in an undeveloped and young stock market. Although most studies suggest that a negative shock to stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of equal magnitude but there is no evidence of asymmetric effect in TSM. Determine the nature of stock market volatility in an oil exporting country. Approach: Trading in Tehran Stock Market (TSM is based on orders sent by the brokers. The data consist of 2375 daily observations of the closing value of the Tehran stock market from 3/30/1998 to 5/04/2007. Our empirical finding shows that the unconditional variance is 0.18 but visual inspections of the time series suggests that volatility of the stock return rate displays the clustering phenomenon associated with GARCH processes. Results: The estimation and test results for all models suggest that the leverage effect term, ?, is not significant at 5% level. Although, in Asym. CARCH model based on normal distribution for errors, the estimated coefficient on the asymmetry term is -0.066 with a z-statistics of -1.749 recognized as significant at 10% level, but it has the wrong sign. It seems that good news and bad news has the same effect on stock prices in TSM, a result that is contradictory to other studies for developed countries. Conclusion: The estimated models containing TARCH, EGARCH, asymmetric CARCH and PARCH with different assumptions on error distributions suggest no strong and significant asymmetric effect. There are some reasons for this finding: (1 In Iran with Islamic laws, debt contracts are illegal or at least not enforced and Iranian firms do not have any financial leverage. As a result, we would expect to find smaller leverage effects in volatility in Iran than in the United States, for example. In deed the institutional differences with western financial markets manifest themselves in different return characteristics. (2 Stock prices in the TSM by regulation and intervention cannot exceed from some range. The strong serial correlation in returns necessitating long lags in the mean equations is possibly due to such regulations. (3 The history of TSM is very short compared to other stock markets and the information flow in this market is very slow. The estimated coefficients on the expected risk (as a measure of the risk-return tradeoff are not significant. These findings suggest that the TSM is not efficient.

  14. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

  15. Lipid profile of in vitro oil produced through cell culture of Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra M; Atehortúa, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in energy demands as a consequence of population growth and industrialization, and pollution caused during the extraction and combustion of fossil fuel sources have driven the development of new energy sources that do not cause pollution and are inexpensive and renewable. Consequently, it is necessary to develop alternative ways of generating biofuels that put less pressure on agricultural lands and water supplies, and ensure ecosystems conservation. In order to achieve the proposed goals related to energetic coverage and independence, several approaches have been developed, including biodiesel production using vegetal oils as feedstock. The aim of the current research project was to apply a nonconventional bioprocess for in vitro biomass and oil production of Jatropha curcas, for assessing different J. curcas varieties, where seed tissue was isolated and used for callus induction. Once friable callus was obtained, cell suspension cultures were established. The cell viability, fatty acid content, and characteristics were used to select the most promising cell line according to its fatty acid profile and ability to grow and develop under in vitro conditions. Oil produced by cell suspension culture of the Jatropha varieties studied was extracted and characterized by GC/MS. Differences encountered among Jatropha varieties were related to their fatty acid profiles, oil content (% on dry basis), and cell viability measurements (%). PMID:22970586

  16. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and oil recovery application of biosurfactant produced by indigenous pseudomonas aeruginosa WJ-1 using waste vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-Jie; Luo, Zhi-Bin; Dong, Han-Ping; Yu, Li; Cui, Qing-Feng; Bi, Yong-Qiang

    2012-03-01

    A bacterial strain was isolated and cultured from the oil excavation areas in tropical zone in northern China. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, WJ-1, was identical to those of cultured representatives of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentage lipid (?74%, w/w) and carbohydrate (?20%, w/w) in addition to a minor fraction of protein (?6%, w/w). The best production of 50.2g/l was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 6.0% (w/v) glucose and 0.75% (w/v) sodium nitrate supplemented with 0.1% (v/v) element solution at 37C and 180rpm after 96h. The optimum biosurfactant production pH value was found to be 6.0-8.0. The biosurfactant of WJ-1, with the critical micelle concentration of 0.014g/L, could reduce surface tension to 24.5mN/m and emulsified kerosene up to EI(24) ?95. The results obtained from time course study indicated that the surface tension reduction and emulsification potential was increased in the same way to cell growth. However, maximum biosurfactant production occurred and established in the stationary growth phase (after 90h). Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and mass spectrum analysis indicate the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The core holder flooding experiments demonstrated that the oil recovery efficiency of strain and its biosurfactant was 23.02% residual oil. PMID:22198867

  18. Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produce...

  19. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review different risk assessment techniques applicable to onshore unconventional oil and gas production to determine the risks to water quantity and quality associated with hydraulic fracturing and produced water management. Water resources could be at risk without proper management of water, chemicals, and produced water. Previous risk assessments in the oil and gas industry were performed from an engineering perspective leaving aside important social factors. Different risk assessment methods and techniques are reviewed and summarized to select the most appropriate one to perform a holistic and integrated analysis of risks at every stage of the water life cycle. Constraints to performing risk assessment are identified including gaps in databases, which require more advanced techniques such as modeling. Discussions on each risk associated with water and produced water management, mitigation strategies, and future research direction are presented. Further research on risks in onshore unconventional oil and gas will benefit not only the U.S. but also other countries with shale oil and gas resources. PMID:26386446

  20. Using catalytic methods for producing basic oil from domestic raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selakovic, O.; Cavcic, E.; Jovanovic, M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of catalysts and catalytic methods for producing high quality lubricating oils. The results of studies in laboratory and semiindustrial scales, conducted to explain the capability of producing basic lubricating oils from domestic raw material with the use of various catalytic methods, are cited. Serving as the raw material was a vacuum distillate of oil from the Velebit deposit (a 343 to 540 degree fraction) with the following properties: density of 0.9187 per 15 degrees, a viscosity of 83.8 centistokes per 38 degrees and 8.12 centistokes at 99 degrees; a viscosity index of 61, an inflamation point of 200 degrees; a stagnation point of -24 degrees; a sulfur content of 0.32 percent and an anylin point (AT) of 88.2 degrees. The fraction was hydrated: in laboratory conditions in an aluminum, nickel and molybdenum catalyst at 8 to 11 megapascals, 340 to 380 degrees, a cubic feeding speed of 0.5 to 1 per hour, a supply of H/sub 2/ of 1,000 liters per liter of raw material. It was also hydrated in semiindustrial conditions, which are cited.

  1. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  2. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

  3. Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

  4. Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

  5. Producer Organisations and Market Chains: Facilitating Trajectories of Change in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, G.; Bijman, J.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The role of producer organizations in market chains has received increasing attention in recent years, both from governments and donors. In order to lower transaction costs, markets demand that smallholder farmers operate in an organized manner. However, though the policy openings for support seem promising, smallholder market access through farmer-led economic organisations is not easy. This book presents various approaches to support producer organisations in terms of providing economic ser...

  6. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  7. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding a...... differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  8. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, C.

    2005-09-01

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs.

  9. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs

  10. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  11. Natural radioactivity in produced water from the Norwegian oil and gas industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of a survey of natural radioactivity (226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb) in produced water from all 41 Norwegian platforms in the North Sea discharging produced water. The sampling campaign took place from September 2003 to January 2004. Based on the data presented the average activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in produced water from the Norwegian oil and gas industry have been estimated to 3.3 Bq l-1 and 2.8 Bq l-1, respectively. With one exception, all results obtained for 210Pb were below the detection limit of about 1 Bq l-1. The estimated total activities of 226Ra and 228Ra discharged in 2003 arc 440 GBq (range 310-590 GBq) and 380 GBq (range 270-490 GBq), respectively. (author)

  12. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  13. Catalytic hydrothermal upgrading of crude bio-oils produced from different thermo-chemical conversion routes of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peigao; Wang, Bing; Xu, Yuping

    2015-06-01

    This study presents experimental results that compare the use of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), alcoholysis (Al), pyrolysis (Py) and hydropyrolysis (HPy) for the production of bio-oil from a microalga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and the catalytic hydrothermal upgrading of crude bio-oils produced by these four conversion routes. The yields and compositions of bio-oil, solid residue, and gases were evaluated and compared. HTL resulted in a bio-oil that has a higher energy density and superior fuel properties, such as thermal and storage stabilities, compared with the other three conversion routes. The N in crude bio-oils produced from Py and HPy is more easily removed than that in the bio-oils produced from HTL and Al. The upgraded bio-oils contain reduced amounts of certain O-containing and N-containing compounds and significantly increased saturated hydrocarbon contents. All of the upgraded bio-oils have a larger fraction boiling below 350°C than their corresponding crude bio-oils. PMID:25802049

  14. Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)]|[Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-05-15

    The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

  15. Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

  16. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A.

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  17. Oil Price Shocks and Macroeconomic Activities in Asean-5 Countries: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhriz Izraf Azman AZIZ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on real economic activities in ASEAN-5 from 1991 to 2014 using an unrestricted panel Vector Auto Regressive (VAR method. Results from the impulse response function (IRFs show evidence of an asymmetric relationship between oil prices and economic activities. Specifically, positive oil price shock measures negatively affect output growth both in the short term and in the long term. For oil price decrease specifications, real output responds negatively in the short term before recovering to its pre-shock level in the long term. The variance decomposition analysis (VDCs also exhibit differences between the effects of positive and negative oil price shocks on economic activities, supporting the evidence of asymmetric relationship obtain in the IRFs simulations.

  18. Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouh, K.H.

    1995-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

  19. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

  20. Structural characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2 isolated from oil reservoir water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Biosurfactant-producing microorganisms inhabiting oil reservoirs are of great potential in industrial applications. Yet, till now, the knowledge about the structure and physicochemical property of their metabolites are still limited. The aim of this study was to purify and structurally characterize the biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FIN2, a newly isolated strain from an oil reservoir. The purification was conducted by silica gel column chromatography followed by pre-RP HPLC and the structural characterization was carried out by GC-MS combined with MS/MS. The results show that the biosurfactant produced by FIN2 is rhamnolipid in nature and its four main fractions were identified to be Rha-C10-C10(46.1 %), Rha-Rha-C10-C10(20.1 %), Rha-C8-C10 (7.5 %) and Rha-C10-C12:1(5.5 %), respectively. Meanwhile, the rarely reported rhamnolipid congeners containing ?-hydroxy fatty acids of C6, C9, C10:1 and C11 were also proved to be present in the rhamnolipid mixture produced. The rhamnolipid mixture exhibited a strong surface activity by lowering the surface tension of distilled water to 28.6 mN/m with a CMC value of 195 mg/l. PMID:24297330

  1. Study on the hydrodeoxygenative upgrading of crude bio-oil produced from woody biomass by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of yellow poplar wood was subjected to HDO (hydrodeoxygenation) for the purpose of reducing water content as well as increasing heating value. HDO was performed in an autoclave reactor at three different reaction factors: temperature (250370C), reaction time (40120min), and Pd/C catalyst loading (06wt%) under hydrogen atmosphere. After completion of HDO, gas, char, and two immiscible liquid products (light oil and heavy oil) were obtained. Liquid products were less acidic and contained less water than crude bio-oil. Water content of heavy oil was ranged between 0.4wt% and 1.9wt%. Heating values of heavy oil were estimated between 28.7 and 37.4MJ/kg, which was about twice higher than that of crude bio-oil. Elemental analysis revealed that heavy oil had a lower O/C ratio (0.170.36) than crude bio-oil (0.71). H/C ratio of heavy oil decreased from 1.50 to 1.32 with an increase of temperature from 250C to 350C, respectively. - Highlights: Bio-oil was subjected to hydrodeoxygenation with Pd/C catalyst in supercritical ethanol. Gas, char and two immiscible liquids (light/heavy oil) were obtained as final products. Ethanol addition reduced the char formation during hydrodeoxygenation. The heavy oil was characteristic to less acidic and less water content than bio-oil. Higher heating value of the heavy oil was measured to 28.737.4MJ/kg

  2. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  5. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kamau

    Unconventional gas and hydraulic fracturing is helping to increase natural gas production, which is widely viewed in the U.S. as a key asset to bolstering a clean and energy-independent future. Safe and economical management and treatment of water produced during such processes remain of key importance. With the increase of hydrocarbon production and national shale gas production expected to increase threefold and account for nearly half of all natural gas produced by 2035, advanced water treatment and management processes must be investigated, to ensure water conservation and associated economic prudence. The state of the art of produced water treatment technologies is described including the efficacy of plasma to modulate the contents of such aqueous solutions, meeting target parameters and potentially enabling the operation of other treatment technologies. Among other effects, progress is presented on the enhancement of an arc-in-water system to remove bicarbonate ions and prevent the mineral fouling ability of water which causes formation of CaCO3 in heat exchangers and distillation units. Qualitative and quantitative treatment targets of produced water treatment are discussed. Experimental work is conducted to test theories and identify and reproduce favorable effects useful to treating wastewaters. Plasma arc-in-water systems demonstrated capability of producing bicarbonate-depleted wastewaters, with experiments with gas-field produced waters indicating that generation of H+ ions plays a greater role in bicarbonate ion removal than local heating. Tests showed abatement of bicarbonate ions from a range of 684--778 mg/L down to zero. Subsequent scaling/fouling tests with waters ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L bicarbonate ions, in the presence of high calcium ion concentrations, showed that scale thickness, as well as mass on a 1-kW heating element was an order of magnitude less for process water containing 100 mg/L bicarbonate ions compared to process water with 500 mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  6. Climate Policies in a Fossil Fuel Producing Country - Demand Versus Supply Side Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Taran FÆHN; Hagem, Cathrine; Lindholt, Lars; Mæland, Ståle; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2014-01-01

    In absence of joint global action, many jurisdictions take unilateral steps to reduce carbon emissions, and the usual strategy is to restrict domestic demand for fossil fuels. The impact on global emissions of such demand side policies is found by accounting for carbon leakage, i.e. changes in emissions abroad induced by the domestic action. Another domestic option for fossil fuel producers, that is yet not well explored, is to reduce own supply of fossil fuels, again accounting for leakages....

  7. Producing biofuels in low-income countries: An integrated environmental and economic assessment for Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Branca, Giacomo; Felix, Erika; Maltsoglou, Irini; Rincn, Luis E.; Thurlow, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the greenhouse gas emissions and economic impacts from producing biofuels in Tanzania. Sequentially-linked models capture natural resource constraints; emissions from land use change; economywide growth linkages; and household poverty. Results indicate that there are economic incentives to convert unused lands to sugarcane-ethanol production, but only grasslands (not forests) have a reasonable carbon payback period. There are also strong socioeconomic reasons to involve s...

  8. Fungi isolated from produced water and water-soluble fraction of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was sought to determine the fungi present in the produced water (PW) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil as a preliminary approach to determining that fungi can survive in crude oil polluted water and their possible use in bioremediation. Different concentrations of PW and WSF of crude oil samples from Ughelli East Flow Station in Delta State of Nigeria were exposed to onion (Allium cepa) primordial cells at different concentrations for twelve days. Thereafter; samples of the PW and WSF were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar. Isolates of Thamnidium sp, Gelasinospora sp, Zygorhynchu. sp and Colletotrichum sp were found. Zygorhynchus and Colletotrichum were associated with PW while thaminidium and Gelasinospora associated with the WSF. There were changes in the pH and turbidity of the PW and WSF before and after exposure to Allium cepa cells. At 25% level of treatments there were significant differences in pH and turbidity values of the PW and WSF at P 0.01 before and after exposure to the plant. (author)

  9. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  10. Hydrocarbon status of soils in an oil-producing region with karst relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Oborin, A. A.; Puzanova, T. A.; Krasnopeeva, A. A.; Zhidkin, A. P.

    2008-11-01

    Features and factors of the hydrocarbon status of soils developed in oil-producing karst regions were considered using an oilfield as an example. The notion of the hydrocarbon status of soils involves the proportions of the gas, bitumen, and polyarene components of the total hydrocarbons and their radial and lateral variations. The following types of soil hydrocarbon status were identified: (1) the background (reference) type; (2) the first kind of emanation type related to soil degassing (most probably, in an oilfield); (3) the technogenic type developed in the areas of oil spills, contaminated surface runoff, and industrial waste storage; and (4) the emanation type of the second kind related to the degassing and evaporation of spilled oil and other substances in underground karst caves. It was shown that the data on the hydrocarbon status of the soils can be used for the identification of hydrocarbon areas in the soil cover and the indication of the sources of pollutants deteriorating the environmental conditions in the landscape.

  11. Comprehensive utilization of the mixture of oil sediments and soapstocks for producing FAME and phosphatides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, B.; Zhu, M.; Fan, P.; Yu, L.-J. [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Comprehensive utilization of the mixture of oil sediments (OS) and soapstock (SS) for producing FAME and phosphatides was investigated. A process consisting of three steps was employed for obtaining high conversion and by-product. In the first step, the OS-SS mixture was extracted with ethyl ether and the mixture was divided into three phases. The organic top phase contained triglycerides and phosphatides was extracted with cooled acetone and the acetone insoluble (phosphatides) was obtained. At the same time, triglycerides were separated also. In the second step, soap phase was then acidified with sulfuric acid to yield fatty acid. This ''high-acid'' acid oil was efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification. The esterification reaction has been carried out with 5:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) in the presence 3% H{sub 2}S0{sub 4} (wt.%) as an acid catalyst at 85 C for 5 h. FAME recovery under these conditions was 92.1% of theoretical. In the third step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification process converts the triglycerides to its mono-esters and glycerol. The optimized variables, 6:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1% NaOH (wt.%) reacted at 65 C for 1 h, giving a maximum ester yield of 94%. Five important fuel properties of FAME from the OS-SS mixture were found to be comparable to those of No. 2 diesel fuel and conforming to both the American and German standards for biodiesel. (author)

  12. Oil rents, governance quality, and the allocation of talents in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeke, Christian; Omgba, Luc Dsir

    2011-01-01

    Evidence shows that the allocation of talented people is not neutral for growth. Thus, a country with a large population of law concentrators tends to develop rent-seeking activities that reduce growth. A country with a large population of engineers tends to foster innovation and strengthen growth. But what determines the allocation of talents? This question has not yet been empirically examined. This paper contributes to fill this gap. Based on a sample of 69 developing countries the paper h...

  13. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  14. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY02. Activities were maintained at recent record levels. Strategic planning from multiple sources within the framework of the organization gives PTTC the vision to have even more impact in the future. The Houston Headquarters (HQ) location has strived to serve PTTC well in better connecting with producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database, exhibit at more trade shows and a new E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience. All considered, the PTTC network has proven to be an effective way to reach domestic producers locally, regionally and nationally.

  15. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-31

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  16. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  18. Use of the product of thermal ethylene-propylene rubber as alkylating agent for producing high-index oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliyev, R.Sh.; Abasov, A.I.; Abasova, T.M.; Gasanova, R.Z.; Mustafayev, A.M.; Seidov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of producing lubricating oils by using products of the thermal destruction of ethylene-propylene copolymer with content of olefins 60%, isoparaffins 40% as the alkylating petroleum fraction of the agent is indicated. Use of high molecular products of the thermal destruction (molecular mass 300) as alkylating agent allows one to produce oils of the transformer type, and highly viscous component. The yield of oil fractions, which boil above 350/sup 0/C, is 45.3-74.9% for the alkylate.

  19. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-10-31

    In pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) functions as a cohesive national organization that implements industry's directives through active regional programs. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) organization includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. PTTC relies on 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) as its main program delivery mechanism to industry. Through its regions, PTTC connects with independent oil and gas producers--through technology workshops, resources centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY98, and its strategy for achieving further growth in the future.

  20. A methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (principal investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have shown that it is feasible to design a methodology that can provide suitable guidelines for operational production of small scale rural land use maps of semiarid developing regions from LANDSAT MSS imagery, using inexpensive and unsophisticated visual techniques. The suggested methodology provides immediate practical benefits to map makers attempting to produce land use maps in countries with limited budgets and equipment. Many preprocessing and interpretation techniques were considered, but rejected on the grounds that they were inappropriate mainly due to the high cost of imagery and/or equipment, or due to their inadequacy for use in operational projects in the developing countries. Suggested imagery and interpretation techniques, consisting of color composites and monocular magnification proved to be the simplest, fastest, and most versatile methods.

  1. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization efficiently has an impact on business economics as the focus remains on proven applicable technologies, which target cost reduction and efficiency gains.

  2. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author)

  3. On managing adjustment to external shocks in oil importing developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Togan, Sbidey

    1982-01-01

    This paper employs country specific multisectoral general equilibrium models of Turkey, Kenya and India to study the adjustment problems confronting these countries. The affects of liberal and interventionist policies on GDP and on incomes of different classes are analysed. The results show that liberal policies minimise the GDP losses and that farmers are relatively better off under these policies.

  4. Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological contamination of soil environment of an industrial zone, which one can render parasitic influencing to health working, and also being diffused in nearest territory of a residential zone to create a health danger of the population. Therefore, the hygienic control in firms of a petroleum industry is necessary

  5. EU and US safeguards against Chinese textile exports: What consequences for West African cotton-producing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Delpeuch, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, following the phase-out of the Agreement on Textile and Clothing, the EU and the US have implemented new restrictions on textile and clothing imports from China. Available data suggests that the shortfall thus imposed on China, in terms of textile exports to the EU and to the US, is significant. West African cotton-producing countries are very dependant on cotton earnings for their GDP and over the last years, most of the growth of their cotton exports revenues has resulted from inc...

  6. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  7. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oils green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describindolas por medio de preguntas marque todo lo que corresponde que consiste en una lista de 17 trminos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vrgenes. Mediante un anlisis de conglomerados jerrquico se identific a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites ms amarillos eran de baja calidad, describindolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asign puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describindolos como sabrosos, aromticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consider que los aceites de color verde ms intenso eran tambin de baja calidad, describindolos como con sabor extrao, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y defectuosos. Este estudio demuestra que en los pases con olivicultura emergente pero con poca tradicin de consumo de aceite de oliva, los consumidores an no tienen preferencias comerciales claras sobre el color de este producto, aunque coinciden en rechazar y considerar como de baja calidad a los aceites de oliva amarillos posiblemente por asociarlos con los aceites de semillas que habitualmente se encuentran en el mercado.

  8. Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Jack-Osimiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s, which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs on land. This unfortunate incident makes the oil bearing and host community to demand compensation, which in most times breeds in conflict such that the two parties engage in tirade of accusations and counteraccusations. The conflict is such that it has defiled all known antidotes, real or imaginary. Until arbitration was resurrected, studied and applied, before it became the messiah or saviour of the two warring groups. Hitherto, the conflict had led to the destruction of equipment/tools, loss of income, loss of company/man hours, peace, and abduction/kidnapping of expatriates/indigenous staffers. In the light of the grave consequences, the author recommended both direct and indirect approaches to deal with the incessant conflicts between the oil and gas firms and oil bearing and host community. Having known that conflict is an ill-wind that blows nobody any good.

  9. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL?kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL?kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0?mL?kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5?mL?kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages. PMID:21827282

  10. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ? We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ? We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ? We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ? Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ? More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  11. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  12. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; E.J. Sullivan; R.S. Bowman

    2000-10-31

    Whereas most water produced from onshore oil and gas operations is disposed via reinjection, some waters, such as those from offshore production platforms, coastal production, and some onshore wells, must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current methods for reducing residual free phases and dissolved organic carbon are not always fully effective in meeting regulatory limits. In addition, cost, space requirements, and ease of use are important factors in any treatment system. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. This research will use laboratory batch and column studies to design a field system that will be used to treat produced waters to reduce dissolved and free-phase organic constituents. The system will be designed to operate simply and to have low operating costs. Methods for regeneration of the spent zeolite will also be tested, as will the treatment system at a field production site in the final project task. Research over the past six months has focused on the method development, batch adsorption studies to demonstrate removal of target organic constituents, and the selection of a likely test site and characterization of produced waters from the site. Current contacts for selection, and ultimately, testing of example oil field waters include Phillips Petroleum Corp. (offshore location, Gulf of Mexico); MCA Petroleum Corporation in Flatonia, Texas; Amoco production in Farmington, New Mexico; and the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (mining operators for coal bed waters from the Farmington area). Water from Phillips Petroleum was received in August and analyzed at the University of Texas. These waters are being used in the laboratory to evaluate interactions between oil field waters and the SMZ. A site visit to MCA Petroleum operations was undertaken on October 12, 2000, and the analyses of samples taken are included in this report. MCA may not be chosen as a field site due to non-detected levels of volatile organic compounds in the sampled waters. Other field site contacts will be visited in November and December 2000. Current funding to the subcontract with Los Alamos National Laboratory was not received from DOE until August 30, 2000, thus slowing progress in field test site identification. Improved contact with the State of Texas Railroad Commission will help to move this part of the project forward. New Mexico Tech has now acquired a full-time technician for regeneration testing.

  13. Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudia, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Soares, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. Its a flat structure at 450 m dept...

  14. Do Oil-Rich GCC Countries Finance US Current Account Deficit?

    OpenAIRE

    Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Sari, Ramazan; Alesia, Eisa

    2008-01-01

    Given the secrecy that wraps the flows of the GCC countries? petrodollar surpluses to the United States and the pressures on these countries to spend and recycle more, this study attempts to uncover the direct and reverse causal relationships between the GCC financial accounts and the US current account deficit. It examines whether the GCC petrodollar surpluses are a global savings glut (an external factor) that causes the US current account deficit or in contrary this deficit is home-grown a...

  15. Environmental life cycle optimization of essential terpene oils produced by the macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prez-Lpez, Paula; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Rorrer, Gregory; Moreira, Mara Teresa

    2016-01-15

    The macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea is a well-known producer of essential terpene oils with promising biological activities and similar applications to those of microalgal biocompounds in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics sectors. This study assesses the environmental impacts associated with the production of five essential terpene oils (myrcene, 10Z-bromomyrcene, 10E-bromo-3-chloromyrcene, apakaochtodene B and acyclic C10H14Br2) by O. secundiramea cultivated in a closed airlift photobioreactor with artificial illumination. The results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) allowed analyzing the effect of implementing a semi-continuous operation on several stages of the life cycle of the products, which may lead to impact reductions from 1% up to 25%. Regarding the most problematic aspects of the process, the cultivation in the photobioreactor (S4) was identified as the main stage responsible for the environmental burdens, with contributions ranging between 60% and 80% of the total impacts for a semi-continuous production maintained during one year of operation. The electricity supply is the key activity affecting eight of the ten assessed categories and involves between 50% and 60% of the impact of the process. S4 is the main cause of the high energy requirements, with 86% of the total electricity consumption. Additionally, several scenarios aiming at improving the environmental profile of the system were evaluated. The application of LCA finally led to the proposal of two optimized scenarios with improvements between 8% and 40% with respect to the baseline case study. PMID:26519589

  16. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  17. Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

  18. Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2009-04-13

    A new linear saturated terminal diisocyanate was synthesized from oleic acid via Curtius rearrangement, and its chemical structure was identified by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and MS. The feasibility of utilizing this new diisocyanate for the production of polyurethanes (PUs) was demonstrated by reacting it with commercial petroleum-derived polyols and canola oil-derived polyols, respectively. The physical properties of the PUs prepared from fatty acid-derived diisocyanate were compared to those prepared from the same polyols with a similar but petroleum-derived commercially available diisocyanate: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. It was found that the fatty acid-derived diisocyanate was capable of producing PUs with comparable properties within acceptable tolerances. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear saturated terminal diisocyanate derived from fatty acids and corresponding PUs mostly from lipid feedstock. PMID:19281152

  19. Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sahaid Kalil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

  20. Photocatalytic/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessa, E.; Sant' Anna, G.L.; Dezotti, M. [Water Pollution Control Lab, Programa de Engenharia Quimica PEQ, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, bloco G, sala 115, CEP 21945-970 , RJ Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-01-15

    Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) was used to evaluate the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants present in the oil field produced waters from Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil over TiO{sub 2} (anatase), in terms of organic loading reduction and acute toxicity removal observed in a previous publication. The effect of adding hydrogen peroxide has been investigated through an experimental design and found to be an adverse one. Two types of photocatalyst (Aldrich and Degussa P25) were used, and afterwards, their surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The former showed an intense initial coverage by organic compounds and a severe corrosion with the use of hydrogen peroxide. The latter presented almost no initial coverage and was not corroded for small periods of photocatalytic treatment, also in the presence of the peroxide.

  1. AL-PAM assisted filtration of mature fine tailings produced from oil sands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.; Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The inventory of mature fine tailings (MFT) produced by the oil sands extraction process continues to grow, and is considered as a long-term environmental liability. Large amounts of water are trapped in the MFT, and the tailings ponds present a threat to local wildlife and ecosystems. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a research project that is being conducted to identify conditions for producing stackable MFT deposits. The study is investigating various types and dosages of polymers and evaluating the degrees of MFT dilution and process configurations needed to maximize re-usable water recovery. Polymeric flocculants include AL-PAM and Magnafloc 1011. Settling tests have demonstrated that 50 ppm is the optimum dosage for both polymers when MFT is diluted to 5 wt percent solids, while 75 ppm of AL-PAM and 100 ppm of MF1011 are optimum dosages for MFT diluted to 10 wt percent solids. A novel supernatant filtration method was then used to produce filtration cakes and water. The study showed that the supernatant can be used to further dilute the MFTs. tabs., figs.

  2. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lvia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assuno; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality. PMID:25577329

  3. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; E.J. Sullivan; R.S. Bowman

    2000-04-01

    Whereas most water produced from onshore oil and gas operations is disposed via reinjection, some waters, such as those from offshore production platforms, coastal production, and some onshore wells, must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current methods for reducing residual free phases and dissolved organic carbon are not always fully effective in meeting regulatory limits. In addition, cost, space requirements, and ease of use are important factors in any treatment system. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. This research will use laboratory batch and column studies to design a field system that will be used to treat produced waters to reduce dissolved and free-phase organic constituents. The system will be designed to operate simply and to have low operating costs. Methods for regeneration of the spent zeolite will also be tested, as will the treatment system at a field production site in the final project task. Research over the past six months has focused on the selection and characterization of the surfactant modified zeolite and the produced waters. The zeolite to be used in this work has been obtained from St. Cloud Mine near Winston, New Mexico. The primary surfactant to be used to modify the zeolite is hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA).

  4. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M. E.; Satterlee, K.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division; ExxonMobil Production Co.; Shell Offshore

    2006-01-01

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN [total Kjeldahl nitrogen]) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

  5. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of produced water inputs to hypoxia will be made.

  6. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    OpenAIRE

    Linden NH van der; Linde C.; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion that the agreed reduction targets will lead to a significant decrease in revenue from petroleum exports, with the result that OPEC countries are unfairly affected by measures p...

  7. Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In this study, solid oil palm shell (OPS) waste biomass was subjected to microwave pyrolysis conditions with uniformly distributed coconut activated carbon (CAC) microwave absorber. The effects of CAC loading (wt%), microwave power (W) and N2 flow rate (LPM) were investigated on heating profile, bio-oil yield and its composition. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to study the significance of process parameters on bio-oil yield. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the bio-oil yield is 0.89017 indicating 89.017% of data variability is accounted to the model. The largest effect on bio-oil yield is from linear and quadratic terms of N2 flow rate. The phenol content in bio-oil is 32.24-58.09% GC-MS area. The bio-oil also contain 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine of 10.54-21.20% GC-MS area. The presence of phenol and 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine implies that the microwave pyrolysis of OPS with carbon absorber has the potential to produce valuable fuel products. PMID:25794811

  8. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  9. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES PRODUCED BY EUPENICILLIUM JAVANICUM AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL 337 ON PALM OIL FACTORY WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA; YANTYATI WIDYASTUTI; PIUS P. KETAREN; DYAH ISWANTINI PRADONO; NONI NIRWANA

    2003-01-01

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), substances from palm oil factory wastes, for monogastric is limited by their high cellulose and mannan contents. Hydrolytic enzymes have been supplemented to increase the nutrient digestibility. The maximal digestibility was obtained in the synergistic action of all enzyme components including B-D-endoglucanase (CMCase), B-D-glucosidase, B-D-mannanase, p-D-mannosidase, and oc-D-galactosidase. Two kinds of enzymes produced by...

  10. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing an extension in the public comment period for the ``Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a NODA, which included a request for comment, in the Federal Register on January 27, 2012 (77 FR 4300). The......

  11. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing an extension in the public comment period for the ``Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a NODA, which included a request for comment, in the Federal Register on January 27, 2012 (77 FR 4300). The......

  12. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  13. 30 CFR 250.1157 - How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? 250...approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? (a...gas-cap gas from each completion in an oil reservoir that is known to have an associated...

  14. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Kadarwati; Sri Wahyuni

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni) at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC) in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The ef...

  15. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  16. Saving-Growth Nexus in an Oil-Rich Exporting Country: A Case of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebowale Musefiu Adeleke

    2014-01-01

    The study considers the saving-growth nexus in Nigeria using annual data over the period 1970-2013. For this purpose, ARDL bounds testing approach to co-integration and error correction model (ECM) for short run dynamics have been applied. According to empirical analyses, real GDP per capita, labour force, total savings, Oil revenue, Population growth, and Human capital are co-integrated. Compared to other variables, savings and population growth are major determinant of economic growth in th...

  17. Measurement of Emissions from Produced Water Ponds: Upstream Oil and Gas Study #1; Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant uncertainty exists regarding air pollutant emissions from upstream oil and gas production operations. Oil and gas operations present unique and challenging emission testing issues due to the large variety and quantity of potential emissions sources. This report summ...

  18. Price elasticity of petroleum products in selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a fundamental understanding of the economic impact which is directly related to the price elasticity of petroleum products in six selected African countries is obtained by using the Jorgorson-Lian model for shares. Each kind of fuel price has a different impact on the share of oil products for the different countries. The price increase of one kind of fuel may increase or decrease the share of another fuel in the total oil products. In the oil importing African countries, the price of one product is relatively inelastic, whereas in the oil producing African countries, the price is elastic. (Author)

  19. State companies dominate OGJ100 list of non-U.S. oil producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State owned oil and gas companies dominate the OGJ100 list of non-U.S. producers. Because many of them report only operating information, companies on the worldwide list cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. The list, therefore, is organized regionally, based on location of companies' corporate headquarters. The leading nongovernment company in both reserves and production is Royal Dutch/Shell. It ranks sixth in the world in liquids production and 11th in liquids reserves, as it has for the past 2 years. British Petroleum is the next largest nongovernment company. BP ranks 11th in liquids production and 16th in liquids reserves. Elf Aquitaine, 55.8% government-controlled, ranked 17th in liquids production. AGIP was 20th in liquids production. Kuwait Petroleum returned to the list of top 20 producers, ranking 12th, as it restored production shut in by facilities damage sustained during the Persian Gulf crisis. New to the top 20 reserves list is Petroleo Brasileiro, which moved to 20th position. The top 20 companies in the OGJ100 held reserves estimated at 869.3 billion bbl in 1992 vs. 869.5 billion bbl in 1991 and 854.2 billion bbl in 1990

  20. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  1. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  2. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37C as well as at higher temperature of 55C. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37C and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55C, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120C), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37C and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 C. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and temperature.

  3. Feasibility and comparative studies of thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake in different supercritical organic solvents for producing bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for producing bio-oil. Type of solvent affected the yield and composition of bio-oil considerably. Liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 C was preferred for producing bio-oil. - Abstract: Thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake (COC) for producing bio-oil was conducted in supercritical methanol (SCML), ethanol (SCEL) and acetone (SCAL), respectively. GCMS, elemental analysis and ICP-OES were used to characterize properties of bio-oil. Results showed that thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for generating bio-oil. Increase of temperature was beneficial to the increase of bio-oil yield, and yield of bio-oil followed the sequence of SCAL > SCEL > SCML. In spite of the highest bio-oil yield, the lowest calorific value and highest contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr were found in bio-oil from SCAL. Though SCML has very similar bio-oil composition and calorific value with SCEL, higher bio-oil yield and lower contents of heavy metals could be obtained with SCEL, especially in bio-oil from SCEL at 300 C. Moreover, the origin of ethanol could make the bio-oil product totally renewable. Therefore, liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 C could have great potential in generating bio-oil

  4. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been...

  5. Structural characterization of novel extracellular liamocins (mannitol oils) produced by Aureobasidium pullulans strain NRRL 50380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Neil P J; Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Vermillion, Karl E; Bowman, Michael J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-04-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a common, ubiquitous fungus, which is used industrially to produce the polysaccharide pullulan. We have previously shown that A. pullulans produces various heavier-than-water oils, first named here as liamocins, that accumulate in fermentations. Here we report the structural characterization of four liamocins, A1, A2, B1, and B2, produced by A. pullulans strain NRRL 50380 using a combination of MALDI-TOF/MS, quadrupole-TOF/MS, isotopic labeling, NMR, GC/MS, and classical carbohydrate analysis. The data showed that the liamocins are composed of a single mannitol headgroup partially O-acylated with three (for liamocin A1 and A2) or four (for liamocin B1 and B2) 3,5-dihydroxydecanoic ester groups. Liamocins A1 and B1 are non-acetylated, whereas A2 and B2 each contain a single 3'-O-acetyl group. Each of these compounds is characterized by pseudomolecular [M+Na](+) ions in the MALDI-TOF/MS spectra at m/z 763.22, 949.35, 805.22, and 991.37, respectively. The 186Da mass difference between A-type and B-type liamocins corresponds to one O-linked 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate group. HMBC NMR showed that one 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate carbonyl group is ester linked to a primary hydroxyl on the mannitol. Other long range (13)C-(1)H couplings across 1,5-ester bridges showed that the 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate groups form 1-5-linked polyester chains, similar in structure to the antibiotic substance exophilin A. Moreover, the MS analysis identified several non-conjugated poly-3,5-dihydroxydecanoate esters as minor components that are tentatively assigned as exophilins A1, A2, B1, and B2. The liamocins, and three of the exophilins, are new, previously unreported structures. PMID:23435167

  6. Technical efficiency analysis of banks in major oil exporting Middle East countries

    OpenAIRE

    onour, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Abdelgadir

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates efficiency performance of thirty six banks operating in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the period 2006-2008 . Our results indicate in general GCC banks showed considerable pure technical efficiency in the past three years with the year 2007 exhibit the most efficient year, as the number of pure technical efficient banks reached 33 percent of the total banks compared to 25 percent in 2008. The fall in technical efficiency in 2008 is due to simultaneo...

  7. Evolution of oil-producing trichomes in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): insights from the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Raquin, Christian; Silvrio, Adriano; Brown, Spencer; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corine; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Yockteng, Roxana; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Nadot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Iridoideae: Sisyrinchieae) is one of the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genera in Iridaceae, with all species except one native to the American continent. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures related to specialized oil-bee pollination examined. Methods Phylogenetic analyses based on eight molecular markers obtained from 101 Sisyrinchium accessions representing 85 species were conducted in the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Total evidence analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and retrieved nine major clades weakly connected to the subdivisions previously recognized. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to reconstruct biogeographical patterns, and to trace the evolutionary origin of glandular trichomes present in the flowers of several species. Key Results and Conclusions Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paran river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing. PMID:21527419

  8. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars. PMID:25895270

  9. Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N2O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (−3.0 to 5.3 kg CO2eq kg−1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

  10. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  11. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

  12. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  13. Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

  14. Oil and gas development in the United States in the early 1990`s: An expanded role for independent producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Since 1991, the major petroleum companies` foreign exploration and development expenditures have exceeded their US exploration and development expenditures. The increasing dependence of US oil and gas development on the typically much smaller nonmajor companies raises a number of issues. Did those companies gain increased prominence largely through the reduced commitments of the majors or have they been significantly adding to the US reserve base? What are the characteristics of surviving and growing producers compared with companies exiting the US oil and gas business? Differences between majors` development strategies and those of other US oil and gas producers appear considerable. As the mix of exploration and development strategies in US oil and gas increasingly reflects the decisions of smaller, typically more specialized producers, what consequences can be seen regarding the costs of adding to US reserves? How are capital markets accessed? Are US oil and gas investments by the nonmajors likely to be undertaken only with higher costs of capital? This report analyzes these issues. 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Amirante

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

  16. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

  17. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  18. Developing a used-oil recycling activity in developing countries: general considerations and alternative available technologies. Working paper series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-07

    UNIDO pub on development of used oil recycling in developing countries covers (1) significance of such recycling for the environment and pollution control; (2) economic implications of re-refining of used lubricants from engines, machinery, etc; (3) prefeasibility factors: quantity and quality of used oils: collection system; potential uses; marketing assessment; (4) the implementation stage for facilities; (5) choice of technology. Flow charts, information sources. Additional reference: petroleum products.

  19. FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD) TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edwin, Rodrguez; Jaime, Orjuela.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD) presentan una de las tecnologas ms eficientes y rentables para la produccin de crudos pesados y arenas petrolferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados [...] cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de inters, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petrleo, condensado y agua de la formacin) y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994)(Figura 1). Esta tecnologa ha sido implementada con xito en pases tales como Canad, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, logrndose Factores de Recuperacin superiores al 50%. Este artculo presenta una revisin de los mecanismos de operacin de esta tcnica y de las caractersticas ms importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categoras en las que se divide dicha tecnologa, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Ms an, este artculo fija las condiciones mnimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemticos, permiten pronosticar la produccin, la eficiencia trmica (OSR) y el petrleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista tcnico) aplicar dicha tecnologa al yacimiento. La informacin y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigacin provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de informacin, anlisis e interpretacin para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeo de esta tecnologa. Con base en el artculo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del pas, identificando cules eran las condiciones mnimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located ne [...] ar the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994) (Figure 1). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.

  20. Production and characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from brazilian oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jorge F. B.; A. R. COSTA; Gudia, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that comprise both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, allowing the reduction the surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the formation of oil in water or water in oil emulsions. These surface-active compounds are extensively used by petroleum industries in order to reduce the capillary forces that entrapped the oil inside the reservoir. The compounds synthetized chemically, chemical surfactants, have some applicability limitations according some e...

  1. Evaluation and characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J. F.; Gudi??a, Eduardo J.; Costa, Rita; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Coutinho, Jo??o A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-active agents or surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that comprise both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, allowing the reduction of the surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the formation of oil in water or water in oil emulsions. Due to their interesting properties, surfactants are widely used by petroleum industries to reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir. However, since chemical surfactants present some limitations related to environment...

  2. Removal of Radium Isotopes from Oil Co-produced Water using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters-pH over other comparable parameters.(author)

  3. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  4. Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta state (Nigeria))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 242 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 293 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 25637 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 71 Bq kg-1. The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe. (authors)

  5. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  6. Removal of Radium isotopes from oil co-produced water using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters pH over other comparable parameters. (author)

  7. Co-production of bio-oil and propylene through the hydrothermal liquefaction of polyhydroxybutyrate producing cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan; Bransgrove, Rachel; Beacham, Tracey A; Allen, Michael J; Meixner, Katharina; Drosg, Bernhard; Ting, Valeska P; Chuck, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    A polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing cyanobacteria was converted through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) into propylene and a bio-oil suitable for advanced biofuel production. HTL of model compounds demonstrated that in contrast to proteins and carbohydrates, no synergistic effects were detected when converting PHB in the presence of algae. Subsequently, Synechocystis cf. salina, which had accumulated 7.5wt% PHB was converted via HTL (15% dry weight loading, 340C). The reaction gave an overall propylene yield of 2.6%, higher than that obtained from the model compounds, in addition to a bio-oil with a low nitrogen content of 4.6%. No propylene was recovered from the alternative non-PHB producing cyanobacterial strains screened, suggesting that PHB is the source of propylene. PHB producing microorganisms could therefore be used as a feedstock for a biorefinery to produce polypropylene and advanced biofuels, with the level of propylene being proportional to the accumulated amount of PHB. PMID:26881334

  8. Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

  9. Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A. [Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)] e-mail: maliriani@uaeu.ac.ae

    2005-12-01

    The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement.

  10. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410C to 500C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78C for 60 min with the ethanol to acetic acid ratio of 3. Crude pyrolytic oil obtained from the RTI International had distillation temperatures from 164.8C to 365.5C and 50% volumetric fraction of the crude bio-oil was distillable. Esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased distillability up to 55% volumetric fraction. The esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had an increased pH of 6.12. Diesel range pyrolytic bio-oil distilled from esterified pyrolytic bio-oil had quite comparable properties with commercial diesel, with an energy content of 41.41 MJ/kg, water content of 0.58 wt%, and viscosity of 7.45 cP.

  11. 77 FR 33076 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 5, 2012 (77 FR 13019). A copy of the rule was provided to... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year...

  12. 75 FR 27631 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... (75 FR 13445). Copies of the rule were provided to Committee staff, which in turn made it available to... / Tuesday, May 18, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far...

  13. 76 FR 27852 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2011 (76 FR 11971). Copies of the rule were provided to... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2011-2012 Marketing Year...

  14. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... the Federal Register on April 15, 2013 (78 FR 22202). A copy of the rule was provided to Committee... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2013-2014 Marketing Year...

  15. 77 FR 13019 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would establish the quantity...

  16. Effect of an essential oil-containing mouth rinse on VSC-producing bacteria on the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of a commercially available essential oil-containing mouth rinse 12 hours after a single rinse and two weeks of twice daily rinsing, on volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) producing bacteria on the tongue. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover design. Thirty-six healthy subjects, aged 20-48 years, volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to rinse twice daily with either an essential oil-containing mouth rinse (Cool Mint Listerine Antiseptic) or a negative control rinse. Bacteria samples were taken from the dorsum of the tongue at baseline, after the first rinse and two weeks later. They were plated on OOPS medium to enumerate the VSC-producing bacteria. Intergroup comparisons of log10 transformed colony-forming units of the samples were made using analysis of covariance. Each comparison was performed at a 5% significance level. The mean VSC-producing bacteria in subjects using the essential oil mouth rinse were significantly lower than those using the control rinse twice daily. In healthy subjects, rinsing with an essential oil-containing mouth rinse can have a significant effect on VSC-producing bacteria on the tongue and may be useful for controlling intrinsic oral malodor over prolonged periods. PMID:21710870

  17. Environmental and economic assessment of producing hydroprocessed jet and diesel fuel from waste oils and tallow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal fats and waste oils are potential feedstocks for producing hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) jet and diesel fuels. This paper calculates the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and production costs associated with HEFA jet and diesel fuels from tallow, and from yellow grease (YG) derived from used cooking oil. For YG, total CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq.) GHG emissions of jet and diesel were found to range between 16.8–21.4 g MJ−1 and 12.2–16.9 g MJ−1 respectively. This corresponds to lifecycle GHG emission reductions of 76–81% and 81–86% respectively, compared to their conventional counterparts. Two different system boundaries were considered for tallow-derived HEFA fuels. In System 1 (S1), tallow was treated as a by-product of the rendering industry, and emissions from rendering and fuel production were included. In System 2 (S2), tallow was considered as a by-product of the meat production industry, and in addition to the S1 emissions, cattle husbandry and slaughtering were also included. The lifecycle emissions (CO2 eq.) from HEFA jet fuel for S1 and S2 were estimated to be 25.7–37.5 g MJ−1 and 67.1–83.9 g MJ−1 respectively. HEFA diesel lifecycle emissions were found to be 21.3–33.3 g MJ−1 for S1 and 63.4–80.5 g MJ−1 for S2. Production costs for these fuels were calculated using a discounted cash flow rate of return model. The minimum selling price was estimated to be 880 $ m−3–1060 $ m−3 for YG-derived HEFA, and 1050–1250 $ m−3 for tallow-derived HEFA fuels. - Highlights: • Lifecycle GHG emissions were calculated for HEFA jet and diesel fuel. • Feedstock considered was tallow and yellow grease. • GHG emissions of fuels were up to 86% lower than petroleum counterparts. • Production costs of HEFA jet and diesel from tallow and yellow grease were calculated. • Costs were estimated at 880 $ m−3 to 1250 $ m−3 for HEFA diesel and jet fuel

  18. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ► The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ► The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ► Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ► Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and compared different technologies in a unique “Clean Energy Economy” improved document (Paris, November 16–17, 2011), by the contribution of this vision too (see reference). In concert with “energy efficiency” improvement both for plants and buildings, in the frame of the “smart cities” scenarios, and the upstanding use of “energy savings”, the energetic planning on regional scale where these cities are located, are strategic for the year 2050: this planning is strongly depending by the underground availability and typology. Therefore, if both literature and European Policy are going fast to improve the concept of “smart cities” this paper stresses the concept of “smart regions”, more strategic than “smart cities”, passing throughout a discussion on the synergic and conflicting use of underground to produce energy for the “smart regions” as a whole. The paper highlights the research lines which are urgent to plan the soundest energy mix for each region by considering the underground performances case by case: a worldwide mapping, by GIS tools of this kind of information could be strategic for all the “world energy management” authorities, up to ONU, with its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the G20, the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Platforms such as the “Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants” (EU-ZEP Platform), the Steel Platform, the Biomass Platform too. All of these organizations agree on the need for synergistic and coexistent uses of underground for geological storage of CO2, CH4, nuclear waste and geothermic exploitation. The paper is therefore a discussion of the tools, methods and approaches to these underground affecting technologies, after a gross view of the different uses of underground to produce energy for each use, with their main critical issues (i.e. public acceptance in different cases). The paper gives some gross evaluation for the Lazio Region and some hints from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calculated for each renewable energy technology (solar, wind, geothermal) highlighting the potentiality of the last. Why the Italian case history among the densely populated countries? on the Italian territory is hard to find suitable areas (mostly if greenfields) to use the own underground, with respect to other European countries, due to the presence of seismotectonic activity and many faulted areas characterized by Diffuse Degassing Structures (DDSs, which are rich in CO2 and CH4). In this cases, public acceptance must be facilitated by the concerted efforts of researchers, universities, NGOs and policy-makers.

  19. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  20. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T A; Wu, P F; Wang, L F; Lee, H; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) and benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A). Concentration of DB[a,h]A and B[a]A were 1.9 and 2.2 micrograms/m3 in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 micrograms/m3 in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 micrograms/m3 in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 micrograms/m3, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer. PMID:9434872

  1. Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

  2. Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films and pouches for produce safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived essential oils (EOs) and oil compounds, with relatively high vapor pressure, have been evaluated at their liquid and gas phases for their ability to protect food against pathogenic bacteria. The evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of EOs in edible films can be done by different m...

  3. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka; Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS), electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH), and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between AprilJune, JulyAugust, and SeptemberOctober of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oilproducing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing indust...

  4. Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Properties of Medium-Density Fibreboard Produced from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    U.M.K. Anwar; M.Y. Mohd Nor; A.A. Astimar; M.T. Paridah; M.A. Norul Izani

    2012-01-01

    Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are readily available residues from palm oil industry and have tremendous potential to be used as fibre raw material for Medium-density Fibreboard (MDF) manufacture. However, some of the properties of the MDF produced from EFB have been reported to be relatively inferior to those made from rubberwood, presumably due to presence of residual oil in the fibres. In this study, the effects of EFB fibre treatment (soaking in 2% NaOH, boiling in water, both soaking and boil...

  5. Use of Ambersorb{reg_sign} carbonaceous adsorbent for removal of BTEX compounds from oil-field produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallup, D.L. [Unocal Corp., Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Isacoff, E.G.; Smith, D.N. III [Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The removal of high concentrations of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) from oil-field produced waters using a carbonaceous adsorbent was successfully demonstrated in the field. The carbonaceous adsorbent was much more effective in removing BTEX compounds from produced water than activated carbon or modified clays. The primary objectives of the field studies were to evaluate the efficiency of oil removal processes to protect the adsorbent from fouling, to determine the BTEX removal efficiency of a carbonaceous adsorbent at a high flow rate loading, and to demonstrate regeneration of the adsorbent. Adsorbent fouling with oil was mitigated by mechanical coalescing for heavier crude and emulsion-breaking for lighter crude. Adsorbent extenders and filters did not control fouling in the presence of exceedingly emulsified crude oil. Carbonaceous adsorbent reduced BTEX compounds levels from the 25-130 mg/l range to less than 1 mg/l treating approximately 500 bed volumes of produced water per cycle. Regeneration of the adsorbent using low pressure steam or solvents was successfully achieved with regeneration efficiencies exceeding 95 percent. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Selection of lipase producing yeasts for methanol-tolerant biocatalyst as whole cell application for palm-oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimhan, Purimprat; Kongnum, Khanitta; Taweerodjanakarn, Siriporn; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2011-03-01

    Methanol-tolerant lipase producing yeast was successfully isolated and selected thorough ecological screening using palm oil-rhodamine B agar as one step-approach. All 49 lipase-producing yeasts exhibited the ability to catalyze esterification reaction of oleic acid and methanol at 3 molar equivalents. However, only 16 isolates catalyzed transesterification reaction of refined palm oil and methanol. Rhodotorula mucilagenosa P11I89 isolated from oil contaminated soil showed the strongest hydrolytic lipase activity of 1.2U/ml against palm oil. The production of oleic methyl ester and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) of 64.123 and 51.260% was obtained from esterification and transesterification reaction catalyzed by whole cell of R. mucilagenosa P11I89 in the presence of methanol at 3 molar equivalents against the substrates, respectively. FAME content increased dramatically to 83.29% when 6 molar equivalents of methanol were added. Application of the methanol-tolerant-lipase producing yeast as a whole cell biocatalyst was effectively resolved major technical obstacles in term of enzyme stability and high cost of lipase, leading to the feasibility of green biodiesel industrialization. PMID:22112914

  7. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Guerra de, Oliveira; Crispin Humberto, Garcia-Cruz.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinas [...] se and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  8. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  9. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  10. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, H. [Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-12-15

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  11. Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Sousa; I. T., Dantas; F. X., Feitosa; A. E. V., Alencar; S. A., Soares; V. M. M., Melo; L. R. B., Gonalves; H. B., Sant' ana.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water) was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( [...] FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005) consists of a lipopeptide similar to surfactin. The influences of temperature and the composition of oil + biosurfactant + water were determined by using phase diagrams. Three types of oil were used, namely: motor oil, hydrogenated naphthenic oil (NH140) and castor bean oil. The emulsified systems were analyzed using optical micrography. The results presented here indicated that the biosurfactant produced in this work presents a potential use as stabilizing agent for oil-in-water emulsions.

  12. The Protective Role of Anise Oil in Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity Produced in Favism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Arbid, Mahmoud S; El-Gendy, Nadia F

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic disease favism is an acute hemolytic anemia. Anise oil was obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds (family Apiaceae). The objective of this study was to establish the protective effect of anise oil in favism disorders. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into six groups: group 1 orally administrated 1 mL distilled water, group 2 orally received 300 mg/kg anise oil, and group 3 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole over a seven-day period, group 4 favism-induced rats, group 5 orally administrated 300 mg/kg anise oil and group 6 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole once a day over a seven-day period prior to favism induction. The result obtained revealed that oral administration of either anise oil or anethole into normal rats over a seven-day period did not induce any change. Following favism induction, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, serum glucose, blood glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, total protein, globulin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases levels were significantly decreased, while serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin showed significant increase. Pretreatment with either anise oil or anethole into favism-induced rats prevented these changes. Favism also induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and prior treatment of anise oil maintained liver DNA content. These results were supported by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, anise oil pretreatment into favism-induced rats decreased the favism disorders, and this effect was related to the anethole ingredient of the oil. PMID:26745557

  13. Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh byproducts : influence of temperature during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Aidos, I.; Lourenco, S.; Padt, A., van der; Luten, J.B.; Boom, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    Crude herring oil, extracted from fresh byproducts, was stored at 0, 20, and 50C in order to study the effect of temperature on lipid oxidation. The oil had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), and free fatty acids of 0.7 meq peroxides/kg of lipid, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. During storage, the oil reached the secondary oxidation stage for all 3 temperatures. The formation of fluorescent compounds was inhibited at 0C. Significant decrease of the ?-tocopherol content was f...

  14. Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers

    OpenAIRE

    HELMAR SCHUBERT; SABINE BROSEL; GORAN T. VLADISAVLJEVIC

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90) in the concentration range of 2.5 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet ...

  15. The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

  16. Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amount of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra), is discharged to the sea in connection with oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. In addition, chemicals are used to avoid production problems due to corrosion, scaling (precipitation of sulphates or carbonates in the production system), foaming, phase separation, etc. Some of these chemicals are designed to interact with alkaline earth elements and will influence the speciation of radium. The presence of barium in the produced water (0.1 - 1 mM) makes it a carrier for radium. The main questions addressed are how the presence of added chemicals will affect the speciation and mobility of Ra, and if it will increase the biological uptake in biota? To answer these questions we have performed tests of mobility and uptake in biota in controlled environments, simulating real conditions. To enable measurement of low uptake of 226Ra, the concentration used was higher than that in seawater, i.e. 2 - 10 Bq/L activity concentrations were chosen. Liquid scintillation counting was used for measuring 226Ra and daughters. Using Quantulus with peak shape analysis gave a good separation of alpha- and beta radiation. Although the quenching in some samples was considerable, the loss of alphas seems to be low. The results from force-feeding of cod indicate a much higher increase in Ra-uptake from food when scale inhibitor is present, i.e. ca 18% vs. ca 4%. To analyse precipitated BaSO4 with and without scale inhibitor, SEM and particle analysis have been used. The presence of scale inhibitor makes the crystals smaller and thus more mobile. The average crystal sizes were reduced from 8 to 3 ?m. To measure the amount of biological accessible Ra we used MnO2-based disks of DTG (Diffusion through Thin Gradient). The DTG showed a linear uptake as a function of time with an efficiency of 60% of theoretical uptake. (author)

  17. Why heavy oilfields exist? The dynamic interplay of oil charge, basin dynamics, caprock leakage and gas generating biodegradation that produces heavy oilfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. J.; Larter, S. R.; Huang, H.; Bennett, B.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy oil and bitumen resources develop by extensive in-reservoir oil biodegradation resulting in a wide range of oil compositional gradients that reflect the complex interplay of oil charge rate and composition, biodegradation in oil-water transition zones at the base of oil columns and geologically controlled in-reservoir diffusive mixing over geological time. Worldwide, observed compositional gradients are maintained by unaltered oil charge near the top of reservoirs and concomitant degradation at the base of the reservoirs at rates comparable to the charge rates of oil fields. Across the Alberta oil sands, elevated CO2, high CH4 and low C2+ gas contents, steep oil compositional gradients, high aqueous bicarbonate concentrations and isotopic values in equilibrium with enriched d13CCO2 gas signatures are indicative of active persistence of active biodegradation to the present. Numerical models of carbon isotope systematics identify the dominant reaction pathway of subsurface hydrocarbon biodegradation as methanogenic alkane degradation by CO2 reduction, which produces large volumes of isotopically light methane and heavy CO2 in solution gas. Simple charge-degrade numerical models predict generation of 3 to 6 times reservoir volumes of biogenic gas in the genesis of heavy oil over geological time, which would have displaced oils from the traps. Gas caps in shallow reservoirs are small at best, suggesting seal leakage is pervasive and this is confirmed by degraded oil in many heavy oil caprocks. Also much less CO2 is measured in biodegraded oil field gases than is predicted based on reaction stoichiometry. The paucity of large gas caps, evidence of methane-rich and sometimes oil charged cap rocks, anomalously high formation water alkalinity and enriched aqueous d13Ccarbonate values in shallow Alberta biodegraded oil reservoirs point to leaky reservoir top seals and dissolution of biogenic gas into the water and oil phases. Indeed we consider top seal leakage of biogenic gas required to produce heavy oil and super heavy oil fields to maintain active biodegradation at the oil-water contact by transport of nutrients through the water phase. This would otherwise be curtailed by petroleum completely filling the reservoir to the underseal. The abundance of heavy oil and super heavy oil in shallow reservoirs reflect leaky reservoir seals at these depths and systematic removal of large volumes of gas generated by petroleum biodegradation and sometimes spill of oil. In uplifted basins with shallow heavy oil resources, degassing of oil and discharge of biodegradation generated gas may also have episodically contributed substantial carbon loads to the atmospheric carbon budget.

  18. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countri...

  19. An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

  20. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Soewono

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  1. Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

  3. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil against extended spectrum ? lactamase produced by urinary isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Nejad Ebrahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%, thymol (13.38% and p-cymene (8.27%. All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.

  5. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dub, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglck, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (~ 20% in total). In total, 53-59 in UBWOS 2013 and 50-55% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic acid and to narrow the gaps between measurements and model results.

  6. Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jilu, E-mail: triace@163.co [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, 75, DaXue Street, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China) and Zheng Zhou HengXing Science and Technology Co. Ltd., 20, East Street of Bai Zhuang of HuaGong, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450007 (China); Kong Yongping [Zheng Zhou HengXing Science and Technology Co. Ltd., 20, East Street of Bai Zhuang of HuaGong, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450007 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NO{sub x} concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SO{sub x} emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (<30 ppm). The O{sub 2} concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

  7. Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji-Lu Zheng; Yong-Ping Kong [Zheng Zhou HengXing Science and Technology Co. Ltd., 20 East Street of Bai Zhuang of HuaGong, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450007 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NO{sub x} concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SO{sub x} emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (<30 ppm). The O{sub 2} concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines. (author)

  8. Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NOx concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SOx emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (2 concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

  9. Structural and Developmental Studies on Oil Producing Reproductive Organs in Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rafiei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical changes in lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle reproductive organs were investigated, with emphasis on the ontogeny of essential oil glands and their relation to organ development. Perianth had a leaf-like internal structure, with the developmental changes restricted to the ground system. Ovary diameter increased by cell divisions until fruit color change and by increase in size, wall thickness and intercellular space towards fruit maturity. Development of oil glands in flower and fruit peel revealed a similar pattern and was investigated in the ovary wall. Glands seemed to develop from some epidermal and subepidermal cells, into a conical stalk and a globular or oblong structure consisting of a central cavity surrounded by a protective sheath. Initiation of ovary oil glands started at preanthesis and was restricted to young green fruit. Mature oil glands continued to enlarge throughout fruit growth. Disputes regarding the manner of cavity opening in Citrus could be resolved by considering the three dimensional aspect of the oil glands.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Azhari S. Baharuddin; Mohamad N.A. Razak; Lim S. Hock; Mohd N. Ahmad; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Nor A.A. Rahman; Umi K.M Shah; Mohd A. Hassan; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai

    2010-01-01

    Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile ...

  11. Effects of ChemicalBiological pretreatment of corn stalks on the bio-oils produced by hydrothermal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Fresh corn stalks were treated by ChemicalBiological pretreatment before liquefaction. The compositions of corn stalks were changed markedly. The majority of hemicellulose was converted to reducing sugars and ethanol. ChemicalBiological pretreatment reduced the kinds of chemical compounds of the bio-oils. The major compounds of the bio-oils was 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol that can be used as antioxidant in fuels. - Abstract: The production of bio-oils by hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulose is an attractive prospect. However, bio-oils produced using traditional methods have multiple components and are low grade, which limit their application. In this study, a new method was proposed to improve the quality of bio-oils. ChemicalBiological pretreatment (CB-pretreatment) was performed on fresh corn stalks to separate a partial lignin and to convert hemicellulose, generating ethanol for hydrothermal liquefaction and improving the quality of the resulting bio-oils. Furthermore, the influence of CB-pretreatment on the components of lignocellulose in corn stalks and the pretreated samples was analyzed. And the materials and bio-oils were analyzed with TGA and GCMS. The results showed that the relative content of lignin reduced from 13.25 0.87% to 8.97 0.77% in the alkaline treatment. And the relative content of hemicellulose in the alkaline-acid pretreated substrates decreased from 21.65 0.74% to 10.06 0.48%. After the whole pretreatment, the concentrations of ethanol and remaining reducing sugar in the fermented liquor were 2.88 0.09 mg/mL and 3.59 0.30 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the pretreated substrates had a lower degradation temperature and less ash content than the corn stalks. The heating value of the bio-oil was 32.21 MJ/kg. Moreover, the number of bio-oils components was obviously reduced. Toluene and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, which are respectively used as high octane additive and antioxidant in fuels increased significantly in quantity, with their total percentage of corresponding peak area reaching 30.77%

  12. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

  13. Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

  14. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

  15. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Arajo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendona Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimares; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5mN/m) and interfacial (11.4mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121C for 15min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. PMID:26350801

  16. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO32.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The effects of process temperatures and Ni content in Ni/zeolite have been studied. The results showed that Ni-2/zeolite could give a yield of 99.0% at 500oC but only produced gasoline fraction of 18.35%. The physical properties of bio-fuel produced in this condition in terms of density, viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity were less than but similar to commercial fuel. The results of performance test in a 4-strike engine showed that the mixture of commercial gasoline (petrol and bio-fuel with a ratio of 9:1 gave similar performance to fossil-based gasoline with much lower CO and O2 emissions and more efficient combustion

  17. FEASIBILITY TO APPLY THE STEAM ASSITED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SAGD TECHNIQUE IN THE COUNTRY'S HEAVY CRUDE-OIL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oilfield base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (Oil, condensate and formation water and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994 (Figure 1. This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching Recovery Factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process' most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oilfield's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (OSR and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of Software which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project.Los procesos Drenaje de Gravedad con Ayuda de Vapor (SAGD presentan una de las tecnologías más eficientes y rentables para la producción de crudos pesados y arenas petrolíferas. Estos procesos implican perforar un par de pozos horizontales paralelos, separados por una distancia vertical y situados cerca de la base del yacimiento. El pozo superior se utiliza para inyectar vapor continuamente en la zona de interés, mientras que en el pozo inferior se recogen los fluidos que salgan (petróleo, condensado y agua de la formación y los lleva a la superficie (Butler, 1994(Figura 1. Esta tecnología ha sido implementada con éxito en países tales como Canadá, Venezuela y los Estados Unidos, lográndose Factores de Recuperación superiores al 50%. Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de operación de esta técnica y de las características más importantes del proceso, al igual que de las distintas categorías en las que se divide dicha tecnología, incluyendo todas sus ventajas y limitaciones. Más aún, este artículo fija las condiciones mínimas del yacimiento petrolero bajo las cuales el proceso SAGD se considera eficiente, cuyas condiciones, integradas a una serie de modelos matemáticos, permiten pronosticar la producción, la eficiencia térmica (OSR y el petróleo que se va a recuperar, siempre y cuando sea posible (desde el punto de vista técnico aplicar dicha tecnología al yacimiento. La información y los conceptos recopilados durante esta investigación provocaron el desarrollo de un software que puede ser utilizado como herramienta de información, análisis e interpretación para pronosticar y cuantificar el desempeño de esta tecnología. Con base en el artículo, se comenzaron estudios preliminares para los yacimientos de crudo pesado del país, identificando cuáles eran las condiciones mínimas para el desarrollo exitoso de un proyecto piloto.

  18. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  19. Producing extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Belt, Cerro Negro area, Venezuela, using bottomdrive progressive cavity pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M.A.; Brown, J.C. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (Venezuela); Rojas, M.; Kuyucu, O.; Flores, J.G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Schlumberger (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Various oil recovery technologies currently in use in the Cerro Negro area in Venezuela were compared. The reservoir consists of unconsolidated sandstone with moderate intercalations of shale saturated with extra heavy oils. Rod pumping units and top-drive progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) have been the traditional means of artificial lift for vertical and deviated wells. The implementation of horizontal drilling technologies for the construction of wells in unconsolidated sandstones as well as electric submersible pumps (ESPs) has increased production rates. Top-drive PCPs have been installed in order to produce extra-heavy oil at high rates. Full specifications and equipment descriptions were provided, as well as installation data. A comparison of bottom-drive and top-drive PCP installations was made. It was concluded that the bottom-drive PCP system is a more effective alternative to lift extra-heavy oils in the area, as an additional oil production of 9 per cent was achieved with the bottom-drive PCP, and volumetric efficiency in terms of bpd/rpm was 7 per cent higher. It was observed that the discharge pressure in a bottom-drive PCP was 19 per cent lower, which generated an additional runlife of the downhole system. The heat generated by the downhole motor helped to reduce oil viscosity by 55 per cent. It was recommended that an additional 10 horse power increment should be considered in the motor design and should also consider the additional energy needs during startups. It was concluded that the bottom-drive PCP is an efficient artificial lift method where flow rates range from between 1000 to 1500 b/d. Details of rotor and stator adapter were provided, as well as performance parameters. A description of a typical horizontal well with a bottom-drive PCP was presented. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council: Dominance of OXA-48 and NDM Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Zowawi, Hosam M.; Sartor, Anna L.; Hanan H. Balkhy; Walsh, Timothy R.; Al Johani, Sameera M.; AlJindan, Reem Y.; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Ibrahim, Emad; Al-Jardani, Amina; Al-Abri, Seif; Al Salman, Jameela; Dashti, Ali A; Kutbi, Abdullah H.; Schlebusch, Sanmari; Sidjabat, Hanna E.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were determined in hospitals in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Isolates were subjected to PCR-based detection of antibiotic-resistant genes and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) assessments of clonality. Sixty-two isolates which screened positive for potential carbapenemase production ...

  1. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  2. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils) for Their Antimicrobial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    James Redfern; Malcolm Kinninmonth; Dariel Burdass; Joanna Verran

    2014-01-01

    As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  3. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  4. Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

  5. Experience of Acacia operation project: support to food security, poverty alleviation and soil degradation control in the gum and resins producers countries

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Mamoum Gasim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acacia Operation is a regional project implemented in six Sahelian countries. In Sudan the project started in 2004 in two gum producing States namely (North Kordofan and Sinnar,). The project was funded by the Italian Government, implemented by Forests National Corporation with FAO as an executing agent. The project has been formulated with the specific objective of improving the livelihoods of the small-scale producers/collectors of gum Arabic in the Sudan. A number of different...

  6. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric study of the oil fractions produced by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of different sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnguez, A; Menndez, J A; Inguanzo, M; Bernad, P L; Pis, J J

    2003-09-19

    The pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a microwave oven using graphite as microwave absorber. The pyrolysis temperature ranged from 800 to 1000 degrees C depending on the type of sewage sludge. A conventional electrical furnace was also employed in order to compare the results obtained with both methods. The pyrolysis oils were trapped in a series of condensers and their characteristics such as elemental analysis and calorific value were determined and compared with those of the initial sludge. The oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The oils from the microwave oven had n-alkanes and 1-alkenes, aromatic compounds, ranging from benzene derivatives to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogenated compounds, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, ketones and esters and also monoterpenes and steroids. The oil from the electric oven was composed basically of PAHs such as naphthalene, acenapthylene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthenes, benzopyrenes, indenepyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and anthanthrene. In contrast, these compounds were not produced in the case of microwave-assisted pyrolysis. PMID:14521315

  7. The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyad Rafa'a Zair

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved: 1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30 wt.%. 2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45 wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP with (35-55 wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

  8. [Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

  9. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil. PMID:25980560

  10. Budget deficit remedies and their impact on the non-oil sectors of an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the non-oil production side of the Kuwaiti economy was developed and estimated. The model, then, was simulated according to various scenarios designed to eliminate the budget deficit by the year 2000, in order to examine the effect on the non-oil sector of the economy. The results indicate that, in terms of its impact on non-oil GDP, the extreme case scenario is harsh, bringing down the level of non-oil GDP by more than 20% by the year 2000 from its level in 1993. The impact on the budget deficit may be very positive, but non-oil production and consumption will decline very rapidly, creating widespread hardship across all economic sectors. The results suggest a better option lies in adopting either of two intermediate case scenarios. While each of these will also cause a decline in non-oil GDP, it will not be to the extent caused by the extreme case scenario

  11. Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations, bioavailability and doses to marine biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R.; Eriksen, D. Oe.; Straalberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Rye, H.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.

    2006-03-15

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Preliminary results indicate that presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in the produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bio-availability of radium (and barium) may be larger than anticipated. Also, the bio-availability of radium may be increased due to presence of such chemicals, and this is presently being studied. (author) (tk)

  12. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  13. Applications of Crude Bio surfactant Produced by Egyptian Local Bacteria in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio surfactant production capacities of Stenotorphomonas maltophilia and Suez Gulf consortium were detected in sea water containing irradiated 5 % rice straw or cane baggase as carbon sources. On adding irradiated rice straw (10 KGy), the optimum time for bio surfactant production were 60 hrs and 72 hrs for S. maltophilia and the consortium, respectively, where the optimum time by adding irradiated cane baggase (10 KGy) was 72 hrs in both cases. In general the production of bio surfactant using rice straw as supplement was higher than cane bagasse. The percentage of both emulsification activity and oil recovery capacity of S. maltophilia and the consortium gradually increased by increasing irradiation dose for the supplement wastes .The consortium oil recovery capacity percentage was higher than S. maltophilia

  14. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  15. Lots of life left : southeast remains preferred target for oil and gas producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbourne, C.

    2005-10-01

    A review of recent oil and gas activities in southeastern Alberta was presented. Southeastern Alberta remains a hot spot for development drilling and unconventional gas exploration. Harvest Trust is expecting to drill about 25 more wells in 2005 in Suffield Block, with the same number of wells predicted for 2006. The Suffield operation was acquired by Harvest Trust in 2004. The Suffield Block has an estimated 170 million bbl of original oil in place. Although current technologies mean that less than 20 per cent of the oil will be recovered, the company is working to develop new technologies to extract the left-behind oil. Details of Harvest Trust's relationship with the Canadian military, which also operate in the area, were provided. EnCana Corporation also has a long-standing tradition of working in the Suffield and Palliser areas, where heavy rain in the summer of 2005 made the ground too soft for heavy equipment to move around effectively. It was noted that new types of extraction technologies are being used by EnCana in their coalbed methane (CBM) projects in the southeast, allowing them to extract CBM in a more cost-effective way. It was anticipated that EnCana will be able to sustain future development in southern Alberta because it still has an abundance of land in the region. It was also noted that Compton Petroleum, another major player in southern Alberta, has now drilled 250 wells of its 2005, 390 well drilling program. The company's 2006 capital budget and drilling program will not be finalized until December 2005. The success of the program will hinge on a number of factors, including drilling success, commodity prices, rig availability and staffing. The company has over 1200 net sections of land in southern Alberta, where they plan to continue with exploration and expansion initiatives. 3 figs.

  16. Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

  17. LCA METHODS TO COMPARE TREATMENT OPTIONS ON BIOMASS RESIDUES PRODUCED IN A PALM-OIL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Bessou, Cécile; Heijungs, Reinout; De Snoo, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil systems generate large amounts of biomass residues. According to best agri-cultural practices, they are supposed to be returned back to plantation to maintain soil fertility. However, there are variations in practice. Differences in economic status and treatment options on biomass residues cause variations on the preference to perform LCA, leading to divergence in results that complicate interpretation. Difficulties found in comparing LCA results based on literature are not unusual. ...

  18. Release of single cells from the colonial oil-producing alga Botryococcus braunii by chemical treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Liyuan; Park, Hyunsun; Okada, Shigeru; Ohama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We tested for chemical reagents that would be useful in preparing a large number of vital single cells from colonial Botryococcus braunii B-race, variety Showa. Among the 18 reagents assayed, glycerol and erythritol showed the highest potency for releasing single cells. Incubation in medium containing these reagents released 4050% single cells in 15min. Fluorescent staining with Nile red revealed that except for the cap-like structures the released single cells were free of hydrocarbon oil...

  19. Renewable gasoline produced by co-cracking of methanol and ketones in bio-oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the upgrading of bio-oil by cracking has been done under atmospheric pressure, which results in a catalyst coke yield as high as 20 wt%. In this paper, pressurized cracking, as well as co-cracking with methanol proved to be an effective solution for relieving catalyst deactivation. HZSM-5 catalyst was found to deactivate rapidly in the cracking process of pure ketones. However, when methanol was used as the co-cracking substance for ketones under 2 MPa, ketones reached a full conversion of 100 % without obvious catalyst deactivation. The highest selectivity of bio-gasoline phase from co-cracking of ketones and methanol reached a value of 31.6%, in which liquid hydrocarbons had a relative content of 97.2%. The co-cracking of hydroxypropanone and methanol had lower bio-gasoline phase selectivity but better oil phase quality (liquid hydrocarbons selectivity up to 99% than those of cyclopentanone and methanol. Based on the experimental results, the promotion mechanism of methanol on cracking of ketones in bio-oil was illustrated by a co-cracking mechanism model.

  20. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernndez, Jorge A; Valds, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers. PMID:25660089

  1. Perspectives of Venezuelan economy development in relation to its oil industry policy

    OpenAIRE

    Damborsk, Kate?ina

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis is mainly concerned with the impact of oil revenues on an economy of an oil producing and exporting country. The theoretical part of the diploma thesis discusses this impact as well as problems these countries face in relation to their oil industries. Venezuela pertains to this group of countries and its economy is also strongly affected by oil revenues. The practical part of the diploma thesis starts with the analysis of Venezuelan economy and with defining the position a...

  2. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  3. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  4. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  5. The changing pattern in international trade and capital flows of the Gulf cooperation council countries in comparison with other oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Marga PEETERS

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC cou...

  6. Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope.I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finch vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilit di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilit di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere lequit tra le generazioni.JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

  7. Produce More Oil and Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner; Ben Grunewald

    2005-07-22

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  8. PRODUCE MORE OIL AND GAS VIA eBUSINESS DATA SHARING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

    2004-04-30

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  9. An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

  10. Development of a mobile water maker, a sustainable way to produce safe drinking water in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Groendijk, L.; Vries, H.E. de

    2009-01-01

    Moreover, there is a growing demand for a simple, low capacity drinking water treatment used by local people in developing countries to reduce mortality caused by water born diseases. To solve this problem a small portable water treatment unit with a production capacity of approximately 500 L/day was developed. The unit can operate without the use of external electricity/pumps/generators in order to operate completely independent. The mobile water treatment unit uses tubular ceramic membranes...

  11. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeh...

  12. Renewable gasoline produced by co-cracking of methanol and ketones in bio-oil

    OpenAIRE

    Shurong Wang; Qinjie Cai; Zuogang Guo; Yurong Wang; Xiangyu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Most research on the upgrading of bio-oil by cracking has been done under atmospheric pressure, which results in a catalyst coke yield as high as 20 wt%. In this paper, pressurized cracking, as well as co-cracking with methanol proved to be an effective solution for relieving catalyst deactivation. HZSM-5 catalyst was found to deactivate rapidly in the cracking process of pure ketones. However, when methanol was used as the co-cracking substance for ketones under 2 MPa, ketones reached a full...

  13. Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: We obtained biodiesel from aai, cupuau, passion fruit and linseed oil. Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the aa biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuau fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), aa (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the aa, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

  14. Safety assessment of EPA-rich polar lipid oil produced from the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Michael L; Sullivan, Dexter W; Gad, Shayne C; Ballou, Corey M

    2014-01-01

    Almega PL is an eicosapentaenoic acid-rich ?-3 oil that is isolated from Nannochloropsis oculata algae and developed as a dietary supplement. The safety of the algal oil was evaluated in 14- and 90-day studies in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral gavage at dose levels of 0, 250, 500, and 2500 mg/kg/d and 0, 200, 400, and 2000 mg/kg/d, respectively. No mortalities occurred and no signs of toxicity were observed during the studies. No treatment-related effects were seen for body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, neurological effects, urinalysis, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. Although statistically significant effects were noted for some end points, none were considered to be of toxicological significance. The no observed adverse effect level for Almega PL was 2000 mg/kg/d. Additionally, Almega PL was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli, did not induce chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and did not induce genotoxic effects in vivo in rat bone marrow erythrocytes. PMID:25305242

  15. Metabolic responses produced by crude versus dispersed oil in Chinook salmon pre-smolts via NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scoy, April R; Yu Lin, Ching; Anderson, Brian S; Philips, Bryn M; Martin, Marida J; McCall, James; Todd, Charles R; Crane, David; Sowby, Michael L; Viant, Mark R; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil spills from tankers remain a serious threat along coastal California. Resource managers require information on the acute toxicity of treated and untreated oil, and their sublethal effects on wildlife. This investigation compared the toxic actions of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and the chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF; Corexit 9500) of Prudhoe Bay crude oil in pre-smolt Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. Metabolite profiles from muscle samples, after 96h exposures, were measured using 1D (1)H NMR and compared via principal component analysis. It was determined that both WAF and CEWAF produced similar profiles in which amino acids, lactate and ATP comprised the highest intensity signals. Overall, metabolic substrates and growth measurements did not show residual effects of short-term exposure on long-term development. In conclusion, the 96h LC(50)s indicate dispersant application significantly decreased hydrocarbon potency and identified metabolites may be bio-indicators of hydrocarbon stress from hydrocarbon exposure. PMID:20363027

  16. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  17. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability

  18. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  19. 78 FR 73828 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Trading Co., Ltd. 112. Faray Petroleum Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. 113. Field Construction Bohai Equipment... Shengli Oil Field The Thermal Recovery, Zibo Branch 116. Gaoyou Huaxing Petroleum Pipe Manufacturing Co.... General Machinery Plant of Shengli Petroleum Administration (Shengli Oil Field Shengli Petroleum...

  20. Analysis of Flue Gas Emissions Using a Semi-industrial Boiler Fueled by Biodiesel Produced from Two-stage Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mansourpoor, M.; Shariati, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, waste cooking oil and methanol as feedstock together with sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts were used to produce biodiesel. The physical properties of the waste cooking oil, the produced biodiesel and the purchased petrodiesel were measured using specified ASTM standards. To examine their performance and their flue gases emissions, biodiesel and petrodiesel were burnt in a wet base semi-industrial boiler. The emitted combustion gases, including CO, NOx, SO2 and ...

  1. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III). Finally, chapter III covers an extraction method that is more than 95% efficient in removing the tocopherolquinone from the oil waste prior to the reduction process.

  2. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  3. Generalized Representation of the Oil and Gas Producing Areas from the Miocene in Southern Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior For each of the four Miocene sequences, polygons representing producing areas within fields were created by constructing a grid of sq. mi. cells and proximal...

  4. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on properties of bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng; Zhao, Zengli; Zheng, Anqing; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Zhen; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Eucalyptus wood powder was first subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment in a high-pressure reactor at 160-190C, and subsequently fast pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500C to obtain high quality bio-oil. This study focused on investigating effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on bio-oil properties. Hemicellulose and some metals were effectively removed from eucalyptus wood, while cellulose content was enhanced. No significant charring and carbonization of constituents was observed during hydrothermal pretreatment. Thus pretreated eucalyptus wood gave higher bio-oil yield than original eucalyptus wood. Chemical composition of bio-oil was examined by GC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses. Bio-oil produced from pretreated eucalyptus wood exhibited lower contents of ketones and acids, while much higher levoglucosan content than bio-oil produced from original eucalyptus wood, which would help to improve thermal stability of bio-oil and extract levoglucosan from bio-oil. Hydrothermal pretreatment also improved bio-oil fuel quality through lowering water content and enhancing heating value. PMID:23624050

  5. Release of single cells from the colonial oil-producing alga Botryococcus braunii by chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Park, Hyunsun; Okada, Shigeru; Ohama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    We tested for chemical reagents that would be useful in preparing a large number of vital single cells from colonial Botryococcus braunii B-race, variety Showa. Among the 18 reagents assayed, glycerol and erythritol showed the highest potency for releasing single cells. Incubation in medium containing these reagents released 40-50 % single cells in 15 min. Fluorescent staining with Nile red revealed that except for the cap-like structures the released single cells were free of hydrocarbon oils that accumulated in the extracellular matrix where the single cells were embedded. However, to maintain the prepared single cells in vital condition, they must be maintained at a high concentration (>2??10(7) cells/ml); at low concentrations, they rapidly lost chlorophyll and get disrupted. In contrast to the above results obtained using B-race, Showa, single cells prepared from A-race varieties survived even at low cell concentrations. PMID:23943006

  6. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield. PMID:26276535

  7. Seasonal and spatial trends in production and stable isotope signatures of primary producers in Alberta oil sands reclamation wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutsivongsakd, M; Chen, H.; Legg, A.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands processing produces large amounts of waste water that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs). This study investigated the effects of exposure to PAHs and NA in aquatic organisms. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in primary producers using stable isotopes in process-affected and reference wetlands were studied. Plankton and periphytic samples from artificial wetland substrates were collected and analyzed. Periphyton was collected in 14 to 20 day intervals for 5 different time periods in 2007 and 2008 in order to analyze seasonal trends in isotopic composition. Results of the study showed d15N enriched values for some consolidated tailings (CT) at sites in 2008. Other sites with mature fine tailings (MFT) as well as non-MFT sites did not have enriched d15N values. The study suggested that there are variations in ammonia levels in the CTs of different oil sands operators. Differences in the quality of the CT resulted in differences in d15N values of the periphyton-dominated by algae as well as in the periphyton dominated by microbes.

  8. Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Properties of Medium-Density Fibreboard Produced from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.M.K. Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB are readily available residues from palm oil industry and have tremendous potential to be used as fibre raw material for Medium-density Fibreboard (MDF manufacture. However, some of the properties of the MDF produced from EFB have been reported to be relatively inferior to those made from rubberwood, presumably due to presence of residual oil in the fibres. In this study, the effects of EFB fibre treatment (soaking in 2% NaOH, boiling in water, both soaking and boiling on the properties of MDF were investigated. The MDF was manufactured using urea formaldehyde (UF as a binder and bonded at three resin levels: 8, 10 and 12%. The boards were tested according to MS Standards 1787: 2005. The results revealed that the refined EFB fibres were short and relatively hard. It was also observed that these fibres tend to conglomerate and formed a small loosely wrapped fibre lumps. Among the treatments used, boiling in water was able to significantly improve the dimensional stability of the board. Apparently high resin content (at least 12% was required to bond EFB fibres and produce boards of high mechanical properties and great dimensional stability.

  9. Oil-producing flowers within the Iridoideae (Iridaceae): evolutionary trends in the flowers of the New World genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Nadot, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Oil-producing flowers related to oil-bee pollination are a major innovation in Neotropical and Mexican Iridaceae. In this study, phylogenetic relationships were investigated among a wide array of New World genera of the tribes Sisyrinchieae, Trimezieae and Tigridieae (Iridaceae: Iridoideae) and the evolution of floral glandular structures, which are predominantly trichomal elaiophores, was examined in relation to the diversification of New World Iridaceae. Methods Phylogenetic analyses based on seven molecular markers obtained from 97 species were conducted to produce the first extensive phylogeny of the New World tribes of subfamily Iridoideae. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to trace the evolutionary history of glandular structures present in the flowers of numerous species in each tribe. Hypotheses of differential diversification rates among lineages were also investigated using both topological and Binary-State Speciation and Extinction methods. Key Results and Conclusions Floral glandular structures and especially trichomal elaiophores evolved multiple times independently in the American tribes of Iridoideae. The distribution pattern of species displaying glandular trichomes across the phylogeny reveals lability in the pollination system and suggests that these structures may have played a significant role in the diversification of the Iridoideae on the American continent. PMID:22782239

  10. Seasonal and spatial trends in production and stable isotope signatures of primary producers in Alberta oil sands reclamation wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands processing produces large amounts of waste water that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs). This study investigated the effects of exposure to PAHs and NA in aquatic organisms. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in primary producers using stable isotopes in process-affected and reference wetlands were studied. Plankton and periphytic samples from artificial wetland substrates were collected and analyzed. Periphyton was collected in 14 to 20 day intervals for 5 different time periods in 2007 and 2008 in order to analyze seasonal trends in isotopic composition. Results of the study showed d15N enriched values for some consolidated tailings (CT) at sites in 2008. Other sites with mature fine tailings (MFT) as well as non-MFT sites did not have enriched d15N values. The study suggested that there are variations in ammonia levels in the CTs of different oil sands operators. Differences in the quality of the CT resulted in differences in d15N values of the periphyton-dominated by algae as well as in the periphyton dominated by microbes.

  11. Fuel Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Groundnut Oil (Arachis hypogea and its Blend with Petroleum Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Ezeugwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to produce biodiesel from methyl esters of groundnut (Arachis hypogea oil and blend with Petrol diesel. The fuel quality of the biodiesel and its blend (B10 was assessed and compared with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standards. The groundnut oil was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, moisture content, ash content, acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value, refractive index and flash point. The biodiesel produced was analyzed for the same parameters including calorific value. The results obtained for the biodiesel showed that while the moisture and ash content were satisfactorily found in trace quantities, the other parameters also had satisfactory results within the specification of 0.88 (specific gravity, 5.16 mm2 sec-1 (kinematic viscosity, 4.96 mg KOH g-1 (acid value, 2.49% (free fatty acid, 244.74 mg KOH g-1 (saponification value, 52.45 mg KOH g-1 (iodine value, 3.23 mEq kg-1 (peroxide value, 1.463 (refractive index, 202C (flash point and 39,114.29 J g-1 (calorific value. However, the acid value was found to be higher than the maximum permissible level of 0.8 mg KOH g-1. There was obviously very little change in the parameters of the biodiesel when it was blended except for the flash point which was only slightly below the recommended minimum ASTM value of 130C. This indicates that the biodiesel produced could be blended with petrodiesel (B10 to give satisfactory fuel with properties not too different from the biodiesel produced.

  12. Characterisation of Gas-Liquid Interfaces related to Offshore Produced Water Treatment. : The Influence of Crude Oil Composition and different Brines with various pH.

    OpenAIRE

    Klcker, Kaja Neeb

    2013-01-01

    Produced water is an environmental toxic and complex mixture, which is co-produced during gas and oil production. The aim of this study is to investigate the surface tension of the produced water with a bubble pressure tensiometer, BP100. The influence of the pH of the brine and the brine composition were studied together with the effect of the crude oil composition. The results were supposed to be related to flotation, which is a common separation technique regarding produced water treatment...

  13. The oil price crisis of 1998: OIES paper: SP10

    OpenAIRE

    Mabro, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Oil prices have fallen since the end of November 1997 well below a level of $18 per barrel for dated Brent which petroleum-exporting countries and oil companies have been recently inclined to consider as a kind of acceptable norm. The fall in price has elicited rather speedily a producers response which involved both OPEC and non-OPEC countries.

  14. Viscoelastic properties of a bio-hydrogel produced from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogels are a class of viscoelastic materials that have many biomedical utilization potentials, such as drug delivery, wound care product, breast implant materials, and tissue engineering, etc. Hydrogels produced from biopolymers and/or natural sources have particular advantages in vivo applicati...

  15. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Nio, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cnovas, David; Mellado, Encarnacin

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

  16. Characterization of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate produced from olive oil deodorizer distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Arajo, Diana; Alves, Vtor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil deodorizer distillate (OODD) was used for the first time as the sole substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by the bacterium Pseudomonas resinovorans in bioreactor cultivation. A PHA content in the biomass of 360.8wt% was attained within 19h of cultivation. A final polymer concentration of 4.70.3gL(-1) was reached, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 5.90.2gL(-1)day(-1). The PHA was composed of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (48.37.3mol%), 3-hydroxydecanoate (31.62.6mol%), 3-hydroxyhexanoate (12.11.1mol%) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (8.00.7mol%) and it had a glue-like consistency that did not solidify at room temperature. The polymer was highly amorphous, as shown by its low crystallinity of 60.2%, with low melting and glass transition temperatures of 361.2 and -160.8C, respectively. The polymer exhibited a shear thinning behavior and a mechanical spectrum with a predominant viscous contribution. Its shear bond strength for wood (679.4kPa) and glass (657.3kPa) suggests it may be used for the development of biobased glues. PMID:26484598

  17. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW. PMID:17537573

  18. Ethics and the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many countries public opinions are more and more sensitive to ethical issues linked to the manner in which industries and particularly oil companies behave. Oil companies are frequently unpopular, among the public both in producing and consuming countries. After a brief analysis of the reasons for this unpopularity, the author attempts to show both the ambiguities surrounding the question of ethics, and its complexity. This is especially true when oil companies have to work in countries which are destabilized, and in which disturbances - or even civil wars - may be fuelled by the important revenue streams resulting from the oil production. The various ethical issues are reviewed, from human rights to political interference, without omitting global or local environmental problems. Despite the very deep roots of the various issues the author believe some progress is achievable and advocates that the oil industry lead the way in this difficult domain. (author)

  19. Treatment of produced water: targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

    2009-06-15

    High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the produced water generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produced water require reducing the input into the sea of oil and other substances resulting from produced water from offshore installations. The ultimate aim is to eliminate pollution from those sources and ensure that effort is made to give priority to actions related to the most harmful components of produced water. The goal of this study is to acquire further knowledge and technology to attain the 'Zero Harmful Discharge' policy initiated by the Norwegian authorities. The ambition is to study a treatment method to meet the requirements of the future performance standards for the removal of harmful dissolved organic compounds. The dissolved compounds can be removed by physical/chemical methods such as stripping, oxidation, membrane technology, extraction, sorption as well as biological treatment. Required process size is a key factor limiting the application of several of the alternatives described above, especially if very low effluent concentrations must be achieved. Handling of the 'waste' stream that could be spent sorption media, off-gas that requires further treatment or concentrate from a membrane process, is another common limitation. The scope of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a treatment concept that combines selective in-line sorption of selected dissolved compounds (BTX) coupled with biological regeneration of the spent media in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR). The research work was focused on the following issues: selective sorption of dissolved aromatic compounds but not of organic acids from produced water, assessment of the efficiency of the bio regeneration process and feasibility of the treatment concept based on sorption and biological regeneration in a continuous process. BTEX were selected to be used in the tests because they are found by far in the highest concentration in produced water among the dissolved aromatic compounds, while acetic acid was chosen for the same reason as the representative of the organic acids group. In the first instance, the sorption properties of several different types of sorption media were investigated. Focus was made on sorbents, which seemed to be promising for this application based on reports found during the literature review. This included also an assessment of sorption kinetics of the selected media. After identifying the most appropriate sorbent, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation of the sorbed compounds by the microorganisms grown on the sorbent granules. Finally, a laboratory-scale experimental setup was built and operated in order to study and determine the feasibility and potentials of the treatment concept. Results indicated that selective sorption of BTX compounds from wastewater was achieved by using an organo clay. This sorbent showed good affinity for BTX compounds and at the same time retained only to a low extent acetic acid from wastewater. Off-line biological regeneration of the organo clay was shown to be feasible under the studied conditions. Operating conditions depended on wastewater quality, therefore FBR operation had to be tuned first to sorb the entire amount of BTX compounds from produced water and then completely biodegrade the previously sorbed compounds in order for the organo clay bed to recover its entire sorption capacity. Long time off-line bio regeneration experiments indicated that the organo clay bed lost a part of its sorption capacity over time. Possible causes for this phenomenon could be: accumulation of organic compounds and minerals, particle attrition, desorption and biodegradation o

  20. 77 FR 21391 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 5385). This rule further revises the quantity of Scotch spearmint oil that handlers may... spearmint oil have already eclipsed that estimate, and the industry expects that market activity will... involved in the international trading of essential oils and the products of essential oils. In...