WorldWideScience

Sample records for octupole magnetic fields

  1. Plasma Confinement in a Toroidal Octupole Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement of low-density (n = 109 cm-3) collisionless plasmas with Ti ? 40 eV, Te ? 10 eV produced by gun injection or with Te ? 1 eV. Ti -3of the Bohm diffusion coefficient which was not large enough to produce the observed radial loss. Studies were also made to determine the importance of low-frequency fluctuations or convective cells which may have been produced by injection, magnetic field perturbations or azimuthal density variations. The addition of a toroidal magnetic field decreased the lifetime slightly and generated large-scale convective cells in the shearless layer near the plasma surface. Currents parallel to the magnetic field have been observed which must be considered in determining the cause of increased fluctuation with the increase of the toroidal field. The mechanical supports were also guarded with magnetic dipoles in the manner proposed by Lehnert. The plasma flux to one of the supports was reduced for the hot ion plasma by an order of magnitude when there was one ion gyroradius between the mechanical support and the guard field separatrix. However, the plasma flux along the guard field separatrix increased to the value of the original support flux and there was a negligible ( ? 20%) improvement of the lifetime. An inductively excited, magnetically force-free octupole is being assembled with transiently withdrawn supports to eliminate the plasma loss to hoop supports. The device will provide at least 10 msec of experimental time during which only 5% of the magnetic flux diffuses into the internal hoops. 100 eV protons will have 15 gyroradii on each side of the separatrix. (author)

  2. Observation of the Nuclear Magnetic Octupole Moment of 137Ba+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew

    Single trapped ions are ideal systems in which to test atomic physics at high precision, which can in turn be used for searches for violations of fundamental symmetries and physics beyond the standard model, in addition to quantum computation and a number of other applications. The ion is confined in ultra-high vacuum, is laser cooled to mK temperatures, and kept well isolated from the environment which allows these experimental efforts. In this thesis, a few diagnostic techniques will be discussed, covering a method to measure the linewidth of a narrowband laser in the presence of magnetic field noise, as well as a procedure to measure the ion's temperature using such a narrowband laser. This work has led to two precision experiments to measure atomic structure in 138Ba+, and 137Ba+ discussed here. First, employing laser and radio frequency spectroscopy techniques in 138Ba+, we measured the Lande- gJ factor of the 5D5/2 level at the part-per-million level, the highest precision to date. Later, the development of apparatus to efficiently trap and laser cool 137Ba+ has enabled a measurement of the hyperfine splittings of the 5D3/2 manifold, culminating in the observation of the nuclear magnetic octupole moment of 137Ba+.

  3. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. In the calculations presented here, the author has used Mathematica on a NeXT computer to generate the results. Mathematica provides options to write expressions in a form suitable for input to TEX, or in formats that can be inserted into C or FORTRAN programs. The expressions in Appendix A and C are generated and put into TEX form by Mathematica. The organization of the paper is as follows. The basic equations used here are given in Sec. II while the paraxial and third-order solutions are given in Sec. III and IV respectively. Explicit integral expressions for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients are given in Sec. V. In Sec. VI, numerical values for the third- and fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients of a REC quad doublet are given. Finally, some concluding remarks are given in Sec. VII

  4. Specifications of the octupole magnets required for the ATF2 ultra-low ?* lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) aims to test the novel chromaticity correction for higher chromaticity lattices as the one of CLIC. To this end the ATF2 ultra-low ?* lattice is designed to vertically focus the beam at the focal point or usually referred to as interaction point (IP), down to 23 nm. However when the measured multipole components of the ATF2 magnets are considered in the simulations, the evaluated spot sizes at the IP are well above the design value. The designed spot size is effectively recovered by inserting a pair of octupole magnets. In this note we address the technical specifications required for these octupole magnets

  5. Octupole deformation for Ba isotopes in a reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy surfaces of even-even 142-156Ba are investigated in the constrained reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach with parameter set PK1. It is shown that for the ground states, 142Ba is near spherical, 156Ba well quadrupole-deformed, and in between 144-154Ba octupole deformed. In particular, the nuclei 148,150Ba with N=92, 94 have the largest octupole deformations. By including the octupole degree of freedom, energy gaps N = 88, N = 94 and Z = 56 near Fermi surfaces for the single-particle levels in 148Ba with ?2 ? 0.26 and ?3 ? 0.17 are found. Furthermore, the performance of the octupole deformation driving pairs (?2f7/2, ?1i13/2) and (?2d5/2, ?1h11/2) is demonstrated by analyzing the single-particle levels near Fermi surfaces in 148Ba. (authors)

  6. Measuring the full transverse beam matrix using a single octupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, J.; Ruber, R.; Ziemann, V.; Farabolini, W.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a method to fully determine the transverse beam matrix using a simple setup consisting of two steering magnets, an octupole field and a screen. This works in principle for any multipole field, i.e., sextupole, octupole magnet or a radio frequency structure with a multipole field. We have experimentally verified the method at the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility 3 at CERN using a Compact Linear Collider accelerating structure, which has an octupole component of the radio frequency fields. By observing the position shifts of the beam centroid together with changes in transverse beam size on a screen, we determined the full transverse beam matrix, with all correlations.

  7. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  8. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extension of the theory of relaxed plasmas to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the wall is concisely formulated and then applied to the Extrap experiment [J. R. Drake, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 387 (1984)]. It is found that the external octupole field, though not affecting the phenomenon of current saturation, inhibits field reversal at parts of the wall if it is sufficiently strong to generate magnetic x points within the plasma

  9. Ambipolar electric fields and turbulence studies in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of hot ion plasmas (T/sub i/ > T/sub e/) in the poloidal field octupole show that the ambipolar electric field which is perpendicular to the flux surfaces is well explained by the observed properties of the microturbulence structures in the plasma. The turbulence structure has been measured by correlation techniques which are carefully described. In these experiments, signals were studied which are aperiodic in time and space, short lived compared to the decay times of the bulk plasma parameters, short ranged compared to the machine size, and are therefore classified as microturbulence structures. The resulting spatial and temporal correlation functions (CFs) are well fitted to a Gaussian function and the associated correlation lengths or times are the half width at half maximum of the CFs. The correlation length is measured to be the ion gyro radius for the hot hydrogen plasma and somewhat less for the helium plasma

  10. Octupole Ordering Model for the Phase IV of CexLa1-xB6

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, K; Kubo, Katsunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    An octupole ordering model is studied by the mean field theory, and its relevance to the phase IV of CexLa1-xB6 is discussed. The observed lattice distortion along the [111] direction is interpreted in terms of the \\Gamma_{5g}-type ferro-quadrupole moment induced by an antiferro-octupole ordered state with \\Gamma_{5u} symmetry. The octupole model also accounts for the cusp in the magnetization as in the N\\'{e}el transition, and the softening of the elastic constant C_{44} below the ordering temperature. However, the internal magnetic field due to the octupole moment is smaller than the observed one by an order of magnitude. Also discussed is the possibility of a pressure induced antiferromagnetic moment in the octupole-ordered state.

  11. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of superconducting octupole corrector magnets for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 168 MO superconducting octupole corrector magnet assemblies for the LHC. Following a market survey (MS-2594/LHC/LHC) carried out among 39 firms in thirteen Member States, two firms in Japan and one firm in the USA, a call for tenders (IT-2595/LHC/LHC) was sent on 15 February 2000 to 11 firms in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm ANTEC (ES), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 168 MO superconducting octupole corrector magnet assemblies for the LHC for a total amount of 2 075 935 Swiss francs, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2001, with an option for the supply of up to 50 additional MO corrector magnet assemblies, for a total amount of 526 400 Swiss francs, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2001, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 2 602 335 Swiss fra...

  12. Time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy of a magnetic octupole transition in nickel-like xenon, cesium, and barium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A

    2005-11-11

    A microcalorimeter with event mode capability for time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy, and a high-resolution flat-field EUV spectrometer have been employed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap for observations and wavelength measurements of M1, E2, and M3 decays of long-lived levels in the Ni-like ions Xe{sup 26+}, Cs{sup 27+}, and Ba{sup 28+}. Of particular interest is the lowest excited level, 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3}, which can only decay via a magnetic octupole (M3) transition. For this level in Xe an excitation energy of (590.40 {+-} 0.03eV) and a level lifetime of (11.5 {+-} 0.5 ms) have been determined.

  13. The octupoles take pole position

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first preseries octupole magnet was delivered to CERN in December 2001. Hooked up to a main quadrupole magnet, its function will be to correct imperfections in the beams. The LHC will be fitted with about 5000 corrector magnets, whose task it will be to provide maximum precision in beam collisions.

  14. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field observations.

  15. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by elect...

  16. Observation of the nuclear magnetic octupole moment of $^{173}$Yb from precise measurements of hyperfine structure in the ${^3P}_2$ state

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Alok K; Natarajan, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    We measure hyperfine structure in the metastable ${^3P}_2$ state of $^{173}$Yb and extract the nuclear magnetic octupole moment. We populate the state using dipole-allowed transitions through the ${^3P}_1$ and ${^3S}_1$ states. We measure frequencies of hyperfine transitions of the ${^3P}_2 \\rightarrow {^3S}_1$ line at 770 nm using a Rb-stabilized ring cavity resonator with a precision of 200 kHz. Second-order corrections due to perturbations from the nearby ${^3P}_1$ and ${^1P}_1$ states are below 30 kHz. We obtain the hyperfine coefficients as: $A=-742.11(2)$ MHz, $B=1339.2(2)$ MHz, which represent two orders-of-magnitude improvement in precision, and $C=0.54(2)$ MHz. From atomic structure calculations, we obtain the nuclear moments: quadrupole $Q=2.46(12)$ b and octupole $\\Omega=-34.4(21)$ b\\,$\\times \\mu_N$.

  17. Lattice Distortion and Octupole Ordering Model in CexLa1-xB6

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, K; Kubo, Katsunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Possible order parameters of the phase IV in CexLa1-xB6 are discussed with special attention to the lattice distortion recently observed. A \\Gamma_{5u}-type octupole order with finite wave number is proposed as the origin of the distortion along the [111] direction. The \\Gamma_8 crystalline electric field (CEF) level splits into three levels by a mean field with the \\Gamma_{5u} symmetry. The ground and highest singlets have the same quadrupole moment, while the intermediate doublet has an opposite sign. It is shown that any collinear order of \\Gamma_{5u}-type octupole moment accompanies the \\Gamma_{5g}-type ferro-quadrupole order, and the coupling of the quadrupole moment with the lattice induces the distortion. The cusp in the magnetization at the phase transition is reproduced, but the internal magnetic field due to the octupole moment is smaller than the observed one by an order of magnitude.

  18. Magnetic Field Amplification via Protostellar Disc Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Wasserman, Ira

    2015-01-01

    We model the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc using an \\alpha-dynamo and perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of a T Tauri star. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter $\\alpha_d$ the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate ${\\sigma} \\propto {\\Omega}_K \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ , before saturating to a value $\\propto \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ . The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of order $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}/\\rm{yr}$ for T Tauri stars. For large values of $\\alpha_d$ magnetic loops are generated over the entire disc. These quickly come to dominate the disc dynamics and cause the disc to break up due to the magnetic pressure.

  19. The symmetry properties of planetary magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, K.-H.; Ness, N. F.

    1990-03-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of the geometrical structures of the magnetic fields of earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, starting from the traditional multipolar representations of these fields. For earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, the centered dipole, quadrupole, and octupole contributions are included, while at Uranus only the dipole and quadrupole contributions are considered. It is found that there are a number of common features of the magnetic fields of earth and Jupiter. Compared to earth and Jupiter, the Saturnian field exhibits not only a high degree of symmetry about the rotation axis but also a high degree of antisymmetry about the equatorial plane. The Uranian field shows strong deviations from both such symmetries. Nevertheless, there remain features common to all four planets.

  20. Observation of hyperfine mixing in measurements of a magnetic octupole decay in isotopically pure nickel-like 129Xe and 132Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V

    2006-12-21

    We present measurements of high statistical significance of the rate of the magnetic octupole (M3) decay in nickel-like ions of isotopically pure {sup 129}Xe and {sup 132}Xe. On {sup 132}Xe, an isotope with zero nuclear spin and therefore without hyperfine structure, the lifetime of the metastable level was established as (15.06 {+-} 0.24) ms. On {sup 129}Xe, an additional fast (2.7 {+-} 0.1 ms) decay component was established that represents hyperfine mixing with a level that decays by electric quadrupole (E2) radiation.

  1. Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken and we explore two scenarios. Increasing the heat flux through the northern hemisphere of the core-mantle boundary is an obvious choice but is not supported by current models for Mercury's mantle. We find that a combination of internal rather than bottom driving and an increased heat flux through the equatorial region of the core-mantle boundary also promotes the required symmetry breaking and results in very Mercury like fields. The reason is that the imposed heat flux pattern, though being equatorially symmetric, lowers the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of equatorially anti-symmetric convection modes. In both scenarios, a stably stratified layer or a feedback coupling to the magnetospheric field is required for lowering the field strength to Mercury-like values.

  2. Cosmological magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field w...

  3. Cosmological Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of primordial, cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  4. Low-degree Structure in Mercury's Planetary Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Korth, Haje; Winslow, Reka M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Purucker, Michael E.; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; McNutt, Ralph L. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mercury's internal magnetic field has been determined from analysis of orbital Magnetometer measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We identified the magnetic equator on 531 low-altitude and 120 high-altitude equator crossings from the zero in the radial cylindrical magnetic field component, Beta (sub rho). The low-altitude crossings are offset 479 +/- 6 km northward, indicating an offset of the planetary dipole. The tilt of the magnetic pole relative to the planetary spin axis is less than 0.8 deg.. The high-altitude crossings yield a northward offset of the magnetic equator of 486 +/- 74 km. A field with only nonzero dipole and octupole coefficients also matches the low-altitude observations but cannot yield off-equatorial Beta (sub rho) = 0 at radial distances greater than 3520 km. We compared offset dipole and other descriptions of the field with vector field observations below 600 km for 13 longitudinally distributed, magnetically quiet orbits. An offset dipole with southward directed moment of 190 nT-R-cube (sub M) yields root-mean-square (RMS) residuals below 14 nT, whereas a field with only dipole and octupole terms tuned to match the polar field and the low-altitude magnetic equator crossings yields RMS residuals up to 68 nT. Attributing the residuals from the offset-dipole field to axial degree 3 and 4 contributions we estimate that the Gauss coefficient magnitudes for the additional terms are less than 4% and 7%, respectively, relative to the dipole. The axial alignment and prominent quadrupole are consistent with a non-convecting layer above a deep dynamo in Mercury's fluid outer core.

  5. Magnetic fields in cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    Different mechanisms which may possibly explain existence of magnetic fields on astronomically large scales are described. A recently suggested model of magnetic fields generation slightly before hydrogen recombination is discussed in more detail.

  6. The Earth's Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Edda Lína Gunnarsdóttir 1988

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is essential for life on Earth, as we know it, to exist. It forms a magnetic shield around the planet, protecting it from high energy particles and radiation from the Sun, which can cause damage to life, power systems, orbiting satellites, astronauts and spacecrafts. This report contains a general overview of the Earth's magnetic field. The different sources that contribute to the total magnetic field are presented and the diverse variations in the field are describ...

  7. Octupole instability in the heavy barium region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Woods-Saxon-Bogolyubov cranking calculations confirm previous expectations of octupole deformed mean fields at low and medium spins in Xe-Sm nuclei with neutron numbers around N=86. Recent experimental data support theoretical results. 8 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  8. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 109cm-3 to 101parallelcm-3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 109cm-3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = ?T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 1012cm-3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/

  9. Neoclassical currents in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoclassical transport theory predicts the existence of bootstrap current in collisionless plasmas with a significant population of trapped particles. This unidirectional current flows along field lines, and is generated by the balancing of ion-electron friction forces with the viscous forces between trapped and untrapped like particles. The current is driven by gradients in the plasma pressure and temperature. Previous work has identified the existence of bootstrap current in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole, and this discovery of bootstrap current in the octupole naturally leads to the question of why previous experiments were unsuccessful in their endeavors to identify this current. The original motivation for this thesis was to address that question, by investigating the effects on bootstrap current caused by ohmic currents, plasma fluctuations, and rf fields. Ohmic currents, while naturally present in tokamaks, can be introduced in the octupole, independent of the usual operating procedure, and can be adjusted to be of the same order of magnitude as the expected diamagnetic and parallel currents. The interaction, if any, of bootstrap current and ohmic current can thus be determined without the problem of a large ohmic current masking the neoclassical current. Rf fields can be driven in the octupole plasma with little or no plasma heating. Any anomalous effects on the parallel currents, due to the existence of the rf fields, can then be determined. This thesis consists of four parts: the experimental apparatus and the plasma diagnostics used in these studies; the general theory of neoclassical currents (excluding field errors) and how it is applied to the octupole; the experimental results of this investigation; and a brief discussion of the conclusions that can be inferred from the data

  10. Magnetic fields in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized, so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and due to the lack of magnetic monopoles hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in-situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic fie...

  11. The First Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Widrow, Lawrence M; Schleicher, Dominik; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G; Treumann, Rudolf A

    2011-01-01

    We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars is discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early genera...

  12. Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Pino, E. M. Gouveia Dal

    1999-01-01

    Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources and the structuring of the Universe. In this lecture, I will briefly review the importance of the cosmic magnetic fields b...

  13. Magnetic Field Created by Tile Permanent Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaud, Romain; Lemarquand, Guy; Lemarquand, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical calculation of the three components of the magnetic field created by tile permanent magnets whose magnetization is either radial or axial. The calculations are based on the coulombian model of permanent magnets. The magnetic field is directly calculated, without the magnetic potential. Both axial and radial magnetization of the tiles are considered. The expressions obtained give the magnetic field in all the space. Such analytical expressions are very useful...

  14. Primordial magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    The explanation of the observed galactic magnetic fields may require the existence of a primordial magnetic field. Such a field may arise during the early cosmological phase transitions, or because of other particle physics related phenomena in the very early universe reviewed here. The turbulent evolution of the initial, randomly fluctuating microscopic field to a large-scale macroscopic field can be described in terms of a shell model, which provides an approximation to th...

  15. Ground state octupole correlation energy with effective forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, L. M.

    2015-05-01

    The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the latter on theoretical binding energies indicates that octupole correlations do not affect in a significant way the trend and systematic of binding energies and therefore can not improve the performance of theoretical models in this respect. In particular, the too-large ‘shell gaps’ predicted by self-consistent mean field models and relevant in astrophysics scenarios are not altered by the octupole correlations.

  16. Ground state octupole correlation energies with effective forces

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the l...

  17. Magnetic field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  18. Magnetic field on board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, the calculation of the magnetic field on board ships is performed, using matrix calculus, in a similar way as when the magnetic field in matter is studied. Thus the final formulas are written in a more compact form and they are obtained through a simpler way, more suitable for the university education. (Author)

  19. Stability of Magnetic Fluids in Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Arefyev; T.A. Arefyeva

    2014-01-01

    Stability of magnetic fluids in magnetic fields is one of the major factors determining the possibility of their practical use and resource of their exploitation. This paper examines the stability of magnetic fluids based on kerosene in constant and variable magnetic fields. It is shown that the synthesized magnetic fluids are stable during long-term exposure to magnetic fields and can be used as the working fluid in a number of magnetic fluid devices.

  20. Microscopic analysis of quadrupole-octupole shape evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomura Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the quadrupole-octupole collective states based on the microscopic energy density functional framework. By mapping the deformation constrained self-consistent axially symmetric mean-field energy surfaces onto the equivalent Hamiltonian of the sdf interacting boson model (IBM, that is, onto the energy expectation value in the boson coherent state, the Hamiltonian parameters are determined. The resulting IBM Hamiltonian is used to calculate excitation spectra and transition rates for the positive- and negative-parity collective states in large sets of nuclei characteristic for octupole deformation and collectivity. Consistently with the empirical trend, the microscopic calculation based on the systematics of ?2 – ?3 energy maps, the resulting low-lying negative-parity bands and transition rates show evidence of a shape transition between stable octupole deformation and octupole vibrations characteristic for ?3-soft potentials.

  1. Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis addresses the following key issues in the lower hybrid frequency range: 1. What are the importent physics aspects of wave propagation and heating in an experimental situation. 2. How effective is plasma heating in the complex magnetic field configuration of the octupole. Experimental work is accomplished by launching 1-10ms pulses of up to 40kW of radio frequency power at 140MHz corresponding to the hot plasma lower hybrid resonance in the octupole. A diploe antenna which is moveable radially and is also rotatable couples wave power to the plasma. Coupling efficiencies greater than 95% are achieved by proper antenna placement near the edge of the plasma radial density profile

  2. Large ferroquadrupole moment induced in the octupole-ordered Ce0.7La0.3B6 revealed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, T.; Michimura, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Sera, M.; Iga, F.

    2014-07-01

    We carried out a high-resolution x-ray diffraction experiment on Ce0.7La0.3B6 that exhibits staggered order of 4f octupole moments below TO=1.4 K. Theoretically, ferroquadrupole moments that accompany the antiferro-octupole order and a resultant rhombohedral deformation of the cubic lattice were predicted. In contrast, experimentally, no direct evidence of the rhombohedral lattice has been obtained. We observe the splitting of Bragg peaks below TO and find that the unit cell is a rhombohedron being elongated along the [111] axis. The response of rhombohedral domains to magnetic fields also well agrees with theoretical calculations. A particular outcome of this experiment is that the magnitude of the induced quadrupole moments is precisely evaluated from the obtained shear strain. Using this result, the magnitude of the hidden octupole moments is also discussed.

  3. Multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces and non-axial octupole correlations in actinide and transfermium nuclei from relativistic mean field models

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2013-01-01

    We have developed multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFT) for finite nuclei in which the shape degrees of freedom \\beta_{\\lambda\\mu} with even \\mu, e.g., \\beta_{20}, \\beta_{22}, \\beta_{30}, \\beta_{32}, \\beta_{40}, etc., can be described simultaneously. The functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent couplings. For the pp channel, either the BCS approach or the Bogoliubov transformation is implemented. The MDC-CDFTs with the BCS approach for the pairing (in the following labelled as MDC-RMF models with RMF standing for "relativistic mean field") have been applied to investigate multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces and the non-axial octupole $Y_{32}$-correlations in N=150 isotones. In this contribution we present briefly the formalism of MDC-RMF models and some results from these models. The potential energy surfaces with and without triaxial deformatio...

  4. Electric & Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contents Description Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are invisible areas of energy, often referred to as radiation ... Freedom of Information Act Office of Inspector General Web Policies & Notices Contact Us Department of Health & Human ...

  5. Octupole Deformed Nuclei in the Actinide Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Thorsteinsen, T; Rubio barroso, B; Simpson, J; Gulda, K; Sanchez-vega, M; Cocks, J; Nybo, K; Garcia borge, M; Aas, A; Fogelberg, B; Honsi, J; Smith, G; Naumann, R; Grant, I

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the limits of the "island" of octupole deformation in the mass region A=225. It is of particular importance to demonstrate experimentally the sudden disappearance of the stable octupole deformation in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field. \\\\ \\\\In order to establish the upper border line the $\\beta$ -decay chains of $^{227}$Rn $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Ra and $^{231}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ra $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ac were studied at PSB-ISOLDE using advanced fast timing and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy techniques. The lifetimes of the excited states have been measured in the picosecond range using the time-delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method.

  6. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation

  7. Three-magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Tomi S.; Urban, Federico R.

    2011-01-01

    A completely new mechanism to generate the observed amount of large-scale cosmological magnetic fields is introduced in the context of three-form inflation. The amplification of the fields occurs via fourth order dynamics of the vector perturbations and avoids the backreaction problem that plagues most previously introduced mechanisms.

  8. Magnetic field control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention enables PID control to provide high speed response upon conducting feedback control of magnetic fields for confining plasmas of a thermonuclear device. That is, the device of the present invention receives a detection signal VB from a detection coil which is in proportion to a differentiated value of magnetic fields, together with a measured value Bdf for magnetic fields as an input. A signal prepared by intaking VB in the form of negative feedback control to a PI control signal obtained by proportionating/integration of a deviation between the Bdf and an aimed magnetic field value Brf, is defined as a control signal. The control signal is outputted to an electromagnet coil power source. D control, which has not be realized in the existent device, can be attained in the present invention, in addition to PI control. As a result, response speed of the magnetic field device can be improved compared with the prior art. (I.S.)

  9. Octupole Focusing Relativistic Self-Magnetometer Electric Storage Ring "Bottle"

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A method proposed for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of a charged fundamental particle such as the proton, is to measure the spin precession caused by a radial electric bend field $E_r$, acting on the EDMs of frozen spin polarized protons circulating in an all-electric storage ring. The dominant systematic error limiting such a measurement comes from spurious spin precession caused by unintentional and unknown average radial magnetic field $B_r$ acting on the (vastly larger) magnetic dipole moments (MDM) of the protons. Along with taking extreme magnetic shielding measures, the best protection against this systematic error is to use the storage ring itself, as a "self-magnetometer"; the exact magnetic field average $\\langle B_r\\rangle$ that produces systematic EDM error, is nulled to exquisite precision by orbit position control. By using octupole rather than quadrupole focusing the restoring force can be vanishingly small for small amplitude vertical betatron-like motion yet strong enough at larg...

  10. ISR Radial Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 37 (normal) + 3 (special) Radial Field magnets in the ISR to adjust vertically the closed orbit. Gap heights and strengths were 200 mm and .12 Tm in the normal magnets, 220 mm and .18 Tm in the special ones. The core length was 430 mm in both types. Due to their small length as compared to the gap heights the end fringe field errors were very important and had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles. In order to save on cables, as these magnets were located very far from their power supplies, the coils of the normal type magnets were formed by many turns of solid cpper conductor with some interleaved layers of hollow conductor directly cooled by circulating water

  11. Solar Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. O. Stenflo

    2008-03-01

    Since the structuring and variability of the Sun and other stars are governed by magnetic fields, much of present-day stellar physics centers around the measurement and understanding of the magnetic fields and their interactions. The Sun, being a prototypical star, plays a unique role in astrophysics, since its proximity allows the fundamental processes to be explored in detail. The PRL anniversary gives us an opportunity to look back at past milestones and try to identify the main unsolved issues that will be addressed in the future.

  12. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 61, ?. 7 (2010), 66-68. ISSN 1335-3632 Grant ostatní: AV?R(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  13. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  14. High magnetic field MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high field superconducting magnet, 4-5 T in central magnetic field, is required for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) on 31P, essential nuclei for energy metabolism of human body. This paper reviews superconducting magnets for high field MRSI systems. Examples of the cross-sectional image and the spectrum of living animals are shown in the paper. (author)

  15. Primordial magnetic fields at preheating

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Gil, A.; Garcia-Bellido, J; Perez, M. Garcia; Gonzalez-Arroyo, A

    2007-01-01

    Using lattice techniques we investigate the generation of long range cosmological magnetic fields during a cold electroweak transition. We will show how magnetic fields arise, during bubble collisions, in the form of magnetic strings. We conjecture that these magnetic strings originate from the alignment of magnetic dipoles associated with EW sphaleron-like configurations. We also discuss the early thermalisation of photons and the turbulent behaviour of the scalar fields af...

  16. Radial magnetic field in magnetic confinement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Liu, Ming-Hai; Chen, Ming; Rao, Bo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Quan; Xiao, Jin-Shui; Hu, Xi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The intrinsic radial magnetic field (Br) in a tokamak is explored by the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation in axisymmetric configurations through an expansion of the four terms of the magnetic surfaces. It can be inferred from the simulation results that at the core of the device, the tokamak should possess a three-dimensional magnetic field configuration, which could be reduced to a two-dimensional one when the radial position is greater than 0.6a. The radial magnetic field and the amzimuthal magnetic field have the same order of magnitude at the core of the device. These results can offer a reference for the analysis of the plasma instability, the property of the core plasma, and the magnetic field measurement. Project supported by the Special Domestic Program of ITER, China (Grant No. 2009GB105003).

  17. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2015-07-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  18. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  19. The Galactic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-12-01

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength ?20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  20. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength ?20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  1. The Galactic Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Jansson, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than forty thousand extragalactic Faraday Rotation Measures (RMs) and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data calls for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength ~20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  2. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  3. AGS correction quadrupoles and octupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pole-face design is presented for a set of correction quadrupoles and a set of correction octupoles required in the Brookhaven AGS. The pole-face design consists of a circular pole which is terminated by radial lines tangent to the circle. The radius of the circle is chosen to cause the lowest undesired multipole present to vanish. (U.S.)

  4. A Heisenberg Ferromagnet With Biquadratic and Dipol-octupol Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba?k, Z.

    1981-08-01

    A Heisenberg S - 3/2 ferromagnet with isotropic biquadratic exchange and dipole-octupol coupling is discussed. The conditions for the exact ferromagnetic ground state are derived. The thermodynamical behaviour in the molecular field approximation is discussed. Collective excitation spectra and the 1/z correction to the free energy are found.

  5. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wavenumber $k$ evolves, after inflation, according to the values of $k\\eta_e$, $n_{\\mathbf{k}}$, and $\\Omega_k$, where $\\eta_e$ is the conformal time at the end of inflation, $n_{\\mathbf{k}}$ is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and $\\Omega_k$ is the phase difference between the two Bogolubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that $n_{\\mathbf{k}}^{-1} \\ll |k\\eta_e| \\ll 1$, and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: ($i$) $|\\Omega_k \\mp \\pi| = \\mathcal{O}(1)$, in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum $B_k(\\eta)$ is adiabatic, $a^2B_k(\\eta) = \\mbox{const}$, with $a$ being the expansion parameter; ($ii$) $|\\Omega_k \\mp \\pi| \\ll |k\\eta_e|$,...

  6. Optimization of a harmonic coil for the field measurement of sextupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic field of sextupole magnets used in the Ultra-low Emittance Storage Ring (UESR) for synchrotron radiation sources is very strong compared with the conventional one. The absolute values of higher harmonics of such a high gradient magnet become large in proportion to the main field. Moreover, the pole pieces of the magnet are saturated and stronger higher harmonics are generated. As the sextupole magnets control the dynamic aperture and the dynamic aperture of the UESR is very small due to the strong sextupole magnets, we need to measure the higher harmonics precisely as well as the main field. The optimum coil arrangement of radial harmonic coil to suppress the spurious higher harmonics of the sextupole magnets was studied by the simulation. Assuming the two coils, we determined the coil positions of two coils that have no sensitivities to quadrupole and sextupole fields and have maximum sensitivities to octupole and decapole fields. We also studied the coil position for the measurement of main field. To reduce the spurious main field, the coils are arranged to have no sensitivity to quadrupole field and maximum sensitivity to sextupole fields. (author)

  7. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Owens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

  8. SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES, CORONAL POTENTIAL FIELD MODELS AND ERUPTION RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the evolution of the observed photospheric magnetic field and the modeled global coronal magnetic field during the past 3 1/2 solar activity cycles observed since the mid-1970s. We use synoptic magnetograms and extrapolated potential-field models based on longitudinal full-disk photospheric magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory's three magnetographs at Kitt Peak, the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun vector spectro-magnetograph, the spectro-magnetograph and the 512-channel magnetograph instruments, and from Stanford University's Wilcox Solar Observatory. The associated multipole field components are used to study the dominant length scales and symmetries of the coronal field. Polar field changes are found to be well correlated with active fields over most of the period studied, except between 2003 and 2006 when the active fields did not produce significant polar field changes. Of the axisymmetric multipoles, only the dipole and octupole follow the poles whereas the higher orders follow the activity cycle. All non-axisymmetric multipole strengths are well correlated with the activity cycle. The tilt of the solar dipole is therefore almost entirely due to active-region fields. The axial dipole and octupole are the largest contributors to the global field except while the polar fields are reversing. This influence of the polar fields extends to modulating eruption rates. According to the Computer Aided CME Tracking, Solar Eruptive Event Detection System, and Nobeyama radioheliograph prominence eruption catalogs, the rate of solar eruptions is found to be systematically higher for active years between 2003 and 2012 than for those between 1997 and 2002. This behavior appears to be connected with the weakness of the late-cycle 23 polar fields as suggested by Luhmann. We see evidence that the process of cycle 24 field reversal is well advanced at both poles.

  9. Experiment and theory of a drift wave in the levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very coherent 30 kHz drift wave is observed in the Levitated Toroidal Octupole at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The density and floating potential fluctuations have a well-defined spatial structure in the poloidal magnetic field. Radially the wave has a standing wave structure with amplitude peaked in regions of locally bad magnetic curvature. Poloidally the wave has a standing wave structure with odd symmetry; nodes are located in the regions of locally good magnetic curvature. The wave propagates toroidally in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with a wavelength of 20 centimeters. No changes occur in the wave structure as the plasma is varied over three orders of magnitude in density and beta

  10. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  11. Magnetic fields in massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Hubrig, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although indirect evidence for the presence of magnetic fields in high-mass stars is regularly reported in the literature, the detection of these fields remains an extremely challenging observational problem. We review the recent discoveries of magnetic fields in different types of massive stars and briefly discuss strategies for spectropolarimetric observations to be carried out in the future.

  12. Cryogenically cooled octupole ion trap for spectroscopy of biomolecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarkin, Oleg V., E-mail: oleg.boiarkin@epfl.ch; Kopysov, Vladimir [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL SB ISIC LCPM, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    We present here the design of a linear octupole ion trap, suitable for collisional cryogenic cooling and spectroscopy of large ions. The performance of this trap has been assessed using ultraviolet (UV) photofragmentation spectroscopy of protonated dipeptides. At the trap temperature of 6.1 K, the vibrational temperature of the ions reaches 9.1 K, although their estimated translational temperature is ?150 K. This observation suggests that, despite the significant translational heating by radio-frequency electrical field, vibrational cooling of heavy ions in the octupole is at least as efficient as in the 22-pole ion traps previously used in our laboratory. In contrast to the 22-pole traps, excellent radial confinement of ions in the octupole makes it convenient for laser spectroscopy and boosts the dissociation yield of the stored ions to 30%. Overlap of the entire ion cloud by the laser beam in the octupole also allows for efficient UV depletion spectroscopy of ion–He clusters. The measured electronic spectra of the dipeptides and the clusters differ drastically, complicating a use of UV tagging spectroscopy for structural determination of large species.

  13. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

    2014-01-01

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to a simple example of a spherically-symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space, the pattern of lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

  14. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  16. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  17. Non-spot magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: general, polar and large-scale magnetic fields; sector structure; unipolar magnetic region; magnetic puka; network field; magnetic hills; magnetic element or fluxule; magnetic rope; magnetic filament; magnetic microturbulence; crossover effect; magnetograph; Stokesmeter; and lambdameter or recording Doppler comparator. (B.R.H.)

  18. Measurement of tune spread in the Tevatron versus octupole strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A experiment was performed in the Tevatron to measure the tune spread versus octupole strength. The experiment is sensitive to the relationship between octupole strength and current in the T:OZF circuit and to the octupole (and other non-linear focusing fields) in the Tevatron. The major motivation for the experiment was to determine the value of octupole excitation that minimizes the tune spread: this value is an estimate of the value required to obtain ''zero'' total octupole excitation in the extraction process. The experiment was performed using the strip-line kickers at A17 and the resonant Schottky pickups. The horizontal proton kicker was excited with a sine-wave from a vector signal analyzer (HP-89440A) and the horizontal proton signal was received. The gating circuitry normally used to select proton or antiproton bunches was by-passed. The response function was measured and recorded on a floppy disk. Measurements were initially made with a 200 Hz span (0.250 Hz frequency bins) and later with a 100 Hz span (0.125 Hz frequency bins). The data was all obtained at flattop (800 GeV) with Q39S and Q39C set to correct the 1/2 integer stop band and QXR (the extraction regulation system) turned off. No attempt was made to examine sensitivity to closed orbit, chromaticity, or any other machine parameters other than the zero harmonic octupoles. The tune varied slightly (presumably because of feed-down effects from the octupoles), but was approximately constant at 19.472 (only the fractional part was measured). The beam emittance was not measured because the flying wires were not working when these data were taken. The analysis of the data was accomplished by replotting the data from the floppy disk. The peak amplitude and the full width at 25% of the peak height were measured. Figures 1-7 show some of the data that was obtained. The vertical scales in figures 1-7 are adjusted so that the data span 80% of the full height of the screen. The hardware requires the markers to be measured points, so the width measured is not exactly at 25% of full height

  19. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Magnetic fields in O stars

    OpenAIRE

    Nazé, Yaël

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, large-scale, organized (generally dipolar) magnetic fields with a strength between 0.1 and 20 kG were detected in dozens of OB stars. This contribution reviews the impact of such magnetic fields on the stellar winds of O-stars, with emphasis on variability and X-ray emission.

  1. Magnetic fields in nearby galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Observations of synchrotron radiation and the Faraday rotation of its polarized component allow us to investigate the magnetic properties of the diffuse interstellar medium in nearby galaxies, on scales down to roughly one hundred parsecs. All disc galaxies seem to have a mean, or regular, magnetic field component that is ordered on length scales comparable to the size of the galaxy as well as a random magnetic field of comparable or greater strength. I present an overview o...

  2. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-06-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  3. First Atomic Electric Dipole Moment Limit Derived from an Octupole-Deformed Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Bishof, Michael; Kalita, Mukut; Lemke, Nathan; Dietrich, Matt; Bailey, Kevin; Greene, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, T. P.; Singh, Jaideep

    2015-05-01

    Ra-225 (half-life = 15 d, nuclear spin = 1/2) is a promising isotope for a measurement of the EDM of a diamagnetic atom. Due to its large nuclear octupole deformation and high atomic mass, the EDM sensitivity of Ra-225 is expected to be 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of Hg-199. We demonstrate an efficient multiple-stage apparatus in which radium atoms are first loaded into a MOT, then transferred into a movable optical-dipole trap (ODT) that carries the atoms over 1 m to a magnetically-shielded science chamber, loaded into a standing-wave ODT, polarized, and then allowed to precess in magnetic and electric fields. We will discuss our first measurement of the EDM of Ra-225, as well as plans for future improvements. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics (DE-AC02-06CH11357).

  4. Octupole collectivity in the Sm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic models suggest the occurrence of strong octupole correlations in nuclei with N?88. To examine the signatures of octupole correlations in this region, the spdf interacting boson approximation model is applied to Sm isotopes with N=86-92. The effects of including multiple negative-parity bosons in this basis are compared with more standard one negative-parity boson calculations and are analyzed in terms of signatures for strong octupole correlations. It is found that multiple negative-parity bosons are needed to describe properties at medium spin. Bands with strong octupole correlations (multiple negative-parity bosons) become yrast at medium spin in 148,150Sm. This region shares some similarities with the light actinides, where strong octupole correlations were also found at medium spin

  5. New circumstellar magnetic field diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsieck, K. H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss new magnetic field diagnostics and instrumentation for an area of astrophysics where magnetic field observations have been difficult - circumstellar material. Such diagnostics would be particularly relevant to star formation and evolution. Stellar photosphere diagnostics include the Zeeman effect and atomic scattering diagnostics like the Hanle Effect and atomic alignment. The Zeeman Effect is in general not sensitive enough for the field strengt...

  6. Venus magnetic field and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic field investigations have been conducted in the distance of 1500-3000 km and 1-6Rsub(?) from the Venus, where Rsub(?) - is the Venus radius. Magnetic field complex topology, observed at the Venus night side form ''Venera-9,10'' satellites is explained by the Venus having its own weak magnetic field and the action of outer source fields. There is a magnetic stub on the planet night side, in which 2 bunches of lines of force, devided by neutral layer, are directed from the planet (to the north of equator) and to the planet (to the south of equator). The magnetic stub narrows at approaching to the planet and is located inside the planet geometric shade near the planet. The planet magnetic field effects but slightly the character of the planet flow-around by the sun wind. The stub topology depends on the polarity mark and force of field in the planet transfer zone. The ''overuniting'' processes of magnetospheric field and fields of outer sources present permanent process in the Venus magnetosphere. Notwithstanding the weakness of the Venus field, it is similar to geomagnetic one in a model way, provided the planet rotation peculiarities are taken into account

  7. Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pothérat, Alban

    2015-01-01

    More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...

  8. Solenoid magnet with homogeneous magnet field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is preferably used in NMR imaging. It includes several attached coils, preferably Bitter coils, and some parameters such as coil length, coil spire thickness and outer diameter are chosen to get the field homogeneity and to optimize the product power-mass of the magnet

  9. Magnetic Field Generation in Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Lilia; Melatos, Andrew; Zrake, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Enormous progress has been made on observing stellar magnetism in stars from the main sequence (particularly thanks to the MiMeS, MAGORI and BOB surveys) through to compact objects. Recent data have thrown into sharper relief the vexed question of the origin of stellar magnetic fields, which remains one of the main unanswered questions in astrophysics. In this chapter we review recent work in this area of research. In particular, we look at the fossil field hypothesis which links magnetism in compact stars to magnetism in main sequence and pre-main sequence stars and we consider why its feasibility has now been questioned particularly in the context of highly magnetic white dwarfs. We also review the fossil versus dynamo debate in the context of neutron stars and the roles played by key physical processes such as buoyancy, helicity, and superfluid turbulence, in the generation and stability of neutron star fields.

  10. LOCAL MAGNETIC FIELD DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ostroumov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the methodology for estimation of the Earth’s magnetic field characteristics for a particular area. It is proposed to use a group of sensors inside of a tablet or a cell phone as a measurement device. We used typical sensors raw data like pitch, roll, yaw (from gyros; components of magnetic field intensity vectors (from magnetometers; latitude, longitude, altitude (from global positioning sensor. We represent the result of intensity vector components estimation for particular area. It is stated that the most important characteristics of magnetic fieldare horizontal and vertical components of intensity vector and inclination and declination angles. In addition, we compared the received results with magnetic field forecast, according to the world magnetic model.

  11. Neutron scattering in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic fields in neutron scattering experimentation is reviewed briefly. Two general areas of application can be distinguished. In one the field acts to change the properties of the scattering sample; in the second the field acts on the neutron itself. Several examples are discussed. Precautions necessary for high precision polarized beam measurements are reviewed. 33 references

  12. Magnetic fields in neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Vigano?, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetos...

  13. N-flationary magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Anber, M M; Anber, Mohamed M.; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role played by pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) in the construction of string-inspired models of inflation. In these models the inflaton is expected to be coupled to gauge fields, and will lead to the generation of magnetic fields that can be of cosmological interest. We study the production of such fields mainly focusing on the model of N-flation, where the collective effect of several pNGBs drives inflation. Because the produced fields are maximally helical, inverse cascade processes in the primordial plasma increase significantly their coherence length. We discuss under what conditions inflation driven by pNGBs can account for the observed cosmological magnetic fields. A constraint on the parameters of this class of inflationary scenarios is also derived by requiring that the magnetic field does not backreact on the inflating background.

  14. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The Split-Field-Magnet at the ISR with arrays of multiwire proportional chambers installed in its large aperture. The detection system is now in full action for experiments and the first results have been reported.

  15. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  16. Transport in ergodic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution of a 3D problem based on a numerical treatment of macroscopic fluid equations is shown to be necessary to describe a stochastic scrape-off layer in the framework of the theory of transport in an ergodic magnetic field. The transport of a stochastic magnetic field within the bulk plasma is also considered. Here the drift kinetic equation is solved with the ansatz for the distribution function to deviate only a little from the Maxwellian. A local fluctuating stochastic magnetic field and electric field are considered and transport is found by averaging over the unperturbed magnetic surfaces. Due to collisions the diffusion coefficient is much larger than given by the Rosenbluth, Rechester formula

  17. Black Holes and Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hejda, Filip; Bi?ák, Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    We briefly summarise the basic properties of spacetimes representing rotating, charged black holes in strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We concentrate on extremal cases, for which the horizon surface gravity vanishes. We investigate their properties by finding simpler spacetimes that exhibit their geometries near degenerate horizons. Employing the simpler geometries obtained by near-horizon limiting description we analyse the Meissner effect of magnetic field expulsion fr...

  18. Black Holes and Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hejda, Filip

    2015-01-01

    We briefly summarise the basic properties of spacetimes representing rotating, charged black holes in strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We concentrate on extremal cases, for which the horizon surface gravity vanishes. We investigate their properties by finding simpler spacetimes that exhibit their geometries near degenerate horizons. Employing the simpler geometries obtained by near-horizon limiting description we analyse the Meissner effect of magnetic field expulsion from extremal black holes.

  19. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    to that of a magnet, as if there is a powerful bar magnet at the center of the Earth aligned close to the axis of rotation of the Earth with lines of force passing between northern and southern hemispheres. However, this magnet is not aligned exactly... along the axis of rotation but is presently tilted by 11.5° with respect to the axis of rotation, and so the magnetic north as given by a compass, generally differs from geographic or ‘true north’. The places where the axis of the geomagnetic field...

  20. Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Radio synchrotron emission is a powerful tool to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30\\mu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100\\mu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbule...

  1. Magnetic field effect on hemin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Balanda, Maria; Skrzypek, Danuta; Drzazga, Zofia

    2001-12-01

    Magnetic behaviour of hemin has been investigated by means of magnetostatic methods, AC-susceptibility measurements and EPR spectroscopy. The measurements were made using polycrystalline and oriented samples of hemin in the temperature range 2.3-292 K and in magnetic fields up to 6 T. In the paramagnetic region, the susceptibility obeys the Curie-Weiss law with positive Curie-Weiss temperature. At low temperature, a rapid increase of the susceptibility is noticed but up to 2 K no long-range correlations are observed. The studies show that the iron ion in hemin exists in two spin states ( S= {5}/{2} and {1}/{2}). The applied magnetic field increases the occupation of the low-spin state. Hemin shows high-field-induced magnetic anisotropy which, similar to the susceptibility, increases with decreasing temperature.

  2. Magnetic Field System of PERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The beam station PERC (Proton Electron Radiation Channel) is a new kind of spectrometer for neutron beta decay experiments, aiming to achieve precise measurements of energy spectra of electrons and protons (e-/p+) from free neutron decay, as well as various angular correlation coefficients that represent the properties of the weak and strong interactions. The main instrument of PERC provides a static magnetic eld supported by a series of superconducting magnets, to collect and guide the charged decay e-/p+ particles from the decay to the detection area. To obtain high efficiencies and suppressed error levels, the strengths of the magnetic eld have a functional distribution, with which the e-/p+ can be selected and defined due to their emission angles. In order to realize precise measurements, the decay e-/p+ are required to be transported with distortion of the observables below 10-4. Hence the functional magnetic fields must be well defined and homogeneous. To fulfill the requirements of systematics and physics, the magnet system of PERC is delicately designed with a dromedary geometry. The properties of the magnetic fields, the e-/p+ behaviors and the systematic effects are well studied in the simulations. Additionally, the practical and experimental factors are considered in the design of PERC, including the manufacture requirements, the tolerances of the field functions due to external influences, the properties of superconducting wire, and the magnetic forces and torques on the components. (author)

  3. Magnetic Field Generation in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, Lilia; Zrake, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made on observing stellar magnetism in stars from the main sequence through to compact objects. Recent data have thrown into sharper relief the vexed question of the origin of stellar magnetic fields, which remains one of the main unanswered questions in astrophysics. In this chapter we review recent work in this area of research. In particular, we look at the fossil field hypothesis which links magnetism in compact stars to magnetism in main sequence and pre-main sequence stars and we consider why its feasibility has now been questioned particularly in the context of highly magnetic white dwarfs. We also review the fossil versus dynamo debate in the context of neutron stars and the roles played by key physical processes such as buoyancy, helicity, and superfluid turbulence,in the generation and stability of neutron star fields. Independent information on the internal magnetic field of neutron stars will come from future gravitational wave detections. Thus we maybe at the dawn of a ...

  4. Octupole Vibrations at High Angular Momenta

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsukasa, takashi

    1995-01-01

    Properties of octupole vibrations in rapidly rotating nuclei are discussed. Microscopic RPA calculations based on the cranked shell model are performed to investigate the interplay between rotation and vibrations. The ability of this model to describe the properties of collective vibrations built on the ground bands in rare-earth and actinide nuclei is demonstrated at high angular momentum. The octupole vibrational states in even-even superdeformed Hg nuclei are also predict...

  5. Transformation Optics for Controlling DC Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell’s equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theoryof transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinatetransformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. rescaling magnets,cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Ourresearch will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

  6. MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED ACCRETION FLOWS ONTO YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accretion from disks onto young stars is thought to follow magnetic field lines from the inner disk edge to the stellar surface. The accretion flow thus depends on the geometry of the magnetic field. This paper extends previous work by constructing a collection of orthogonal coordinate systems, including the corresponding differential operators, where one coordinate traces the magnetic field lines. This formalism allows for an (essentially) analytic description of the geometry and the conditions required for the flow to pass through sonic points. Using this approach, we revisit the problem of magnetically controlled accretion flow in a dipole geometry, and then generalize the treatment to consider magnetic fields with multiple components, including dipole, octupole, and split monopole contributions. This approach can be generalized further to consider more complex magnetic field configurations. Observations indicate that accreting young stars have substantial dipole and octupole components, and that accretion flow is transonic. If the effective equation of state for the fluid is too stiff, however, the flow cannot pass smoothly through the sonic points in steady state. For a multipole field of order l, we derive a general constraint on the polytropic index, n > l + 3/2, required for steady transonic flow to reach free-fall velocities. For octupole fields, inferred on surfaces of T Tauri stars, the index n > 9/2, so that the flow must be close to isothermal. The inclusion of octupole field components produces higher densities at the stellar surface and smaller areas for the hot spots, which occur at higher latitudes; the magnetic truncation radius is smaller (larger) for octupole components that are aligned (anti-aligned) with the stellar dipole. This contribution thus increases our understanding of magnetically controlled accretion for young stellar objects and can be applied to a variety of additional astrophysical problems.

  7. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

  8. Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Radio synchrotron emission is a powerful tool to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30\\mu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100\\mu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15\\mu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the interg...

  9. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  10. The Protogalactic Origin for Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kulsrud, R M; Ostriker, J P; Ryu, D; Kulsrud, Russell M.; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1996-01-01

    It is demonstrated that strong magnetic fields are produced from a zero initial magnetic field during the pregalactic era, when galaxies are first forming. Their development proceeds in three phases. In the first phase, weak magnetic fields are created by the Biermann battery mechanism, acting in shocked parts of the intergalactic medium where caustics form and intersect. In the second phase, these weak magnetic fields are amplified to strong magnetic fields by the Kolmogoroff turbulence endemic to gravitational structure formation of galaxies. During this second phase, the magnetic fields reach saturation with the turbulent power, but they are coherent only on the scale of the smallest eddy. In the third phase, the magnetic field strength increases to equipartition with the turbulent energy, and the coherence length of the magnetic fields increases to the scale of the largest turbulent eddy, comparable to the scale of the entire galaxy. The resulting magnetic field represents a galactic magnetic field of pri...

  11. Magnetic Field Limits on SGRs

    CERN Document Server

    Rothschild, R E; Lingenfelter, R E

    1999-01-01

    We measure the period and spin-down rate for SGR 1900+14 during the quiescient period two years before the recent interval of renewed burst activity. We find that the spin-down rate doubled during the burst activity which is inconsistent with both mangetic dipole driven spin down and a magnetic field energy source for the bursts. We also show that SGRs 1900+14 and 1806-20 have braking indices of $\\sim$1 which indicate that the spin-down is due to wind torques and not magnetic dipole radiation. We further show that a combination of dipole radiation, and wind luminosity, coupled with estimated ages and present spin parameters, imply that the magnetic fields of SGRs 1900+14 and 1806-20 are less than the critical field of 4$\\times10^{13}$ G and that the efficiency for conversion of wind luminosity to x-ray luminosity is <2%.

  12. Design of an electrostatic octupole for micro-beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electrostatic deflection of focused ion and electron beams, a homogeneous field should be maintained within the deflector to reduce aberrations. The geometrical and voltage conditions are investigated to produce an electric field as homogeneous as possible within an octupole deflector. If the eight electrodes are equally shaped into a triangular cross section and are directed as one edge of each electrode with an angle of 3600/8 showing to the center of the device, then the adjacent electrode faces form parallel plate capacitors and the resulting field is the best fit to the ideal cosine potential distribution at the inner circle of the electrodes. (author)

  13. Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Labros Spiridon

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil have been presented. Also, the design of a self-shielded cylindrical gradient coil with a restricted length has been presented. In order to generate gradient coils adequate for head imaging without including the human shoulders in the design, asymmetric cylindrical coils in which the gradient center is shifted axially towards the end of a finite cylinder have been introduced and theoretical as well as experimental results have been presented. In order to eliminate eddy current effects in the design of the non-shielded asymmetric gradient coils, the self-shielded asymmetric cylindrical gradient coil geometry has been introduced. Continuing the development of novel geometries for the gradient coils, the complete set of self-shielded cylindrical gradient coils, which are designed such that the x component of the magnetic field varies linearly along the three traditional gradient axes, has been presented. In order to understand the behavior of the rf field inside a dielectric object, a mathematical model is briefly presented. Although specific methods can provide an indication of the rf behavior inside a loosely dielectric object, finite element methodology is the ultimate approach for modeling the human torso and generating an accurate picture for the shape of the rf field inside this dielectric object. For this purpose we have developed a 3D finite element model, using the Coulomb gauge condition as a constraint. Agreement with the heterogeneous multilayer planar model has been established, while agreement with theoretical results from the spherical model and experimental results from the cylindrical model at 170 M H z is very good and provides an encouraging sign for using this finite element approach for modeling the rf inside the human body. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  14. Solar magnetic activity cycles, coronal potential field models and eruption rates

    CERN Document Server

    Petrie, G J D

    2013-01-01

    We study the evolution of the observed photospheric magnetic field and the modeled global coronal magnetic field during the past 3 1/2 solar activity cycles observed since the mid-1970s. We use synoptic magnetograms and extrapolated potential-field models based on longitudinal full-disk photospheric magnetograms from the NSO's three magnetographs at Kitt Peak, the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) vector spectro-magnetograph (VSM), the spectro-magnetograph and the 512-channel magnetograph instruments, and from the U. Stanford's Wilcox Solar Observatory. The associated multipole field components are used to study the dominant length scales and symmetries of the coronal field. Polar field changes are found to be well correlated with active fields over most of the period studied, except between 2003-6 when the active fields did not produce significant polar field changes. Of the axisymmetric multipoles, only the dipole and octupole follow the poles whereas the higher orders follow the ...

  15. Generation of helical magnetic fields from inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Durrer, Ruth; Hollenstein, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    The generation of helical magnetic fields during single field inflation due to an axial coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton is discussed. We find that such a coupling always leads to a blue spectrum of magnetic fields during slow roll inflation. Though the helical magnetic fields further evolve during the inverse cascade in the radiation era after inflation, we conclude that the magnetic fields generated by such an axial coupling can not lead to observed fi...

  16. Chiral transition with magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses, taken as functions of the order parameter, can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling const...

  17. Instability of ferrofluid magnetic drops under magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Bacri, J.C.; Salin, D.

    1982-01-01

    We have followed the evolution of the shape of ferrofluid magnetic drops in presence of a magnetic field. The prolate ellipsoid shape of the drop becomes unstable for a certain magnetic field threshold : the drop jumps from a slightly elongated shape to a much more elongated shape. When decreasing the magnetic field the same feature occurs for a smaller threshold. This instability is simply understood from a balance between magnetic energy and interfacial tension energy.

  18. Contribution of the background magnetic field and magnetic fields of active regions and sunspots to the solar mean magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the background magnetic fields, magnetic fields of active regions and sunspots on the solar general fields is studied. The mean field has been measured by the small tower solar telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory for the period from 6.06.74 to 15.09.74. The background and magnetic field of active regions data are oftained from literature sources. By means of the correlation analysis correlation coefficients of general field intensity with background fields magnetic flux 0,87+-0,027 with resultant magnetic flux from active regions 0,75+-0,075 and with resultant spot magnetic flux 0,11+-0,097 Background fields of the central solar zone make the main contribution to the general field. Magnetic fluxes from active regions and spots make a substantial contribution to the general field, in case the background field flux being small

  19. Magnetic fields in the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  20. Magnetic fields in the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although only a small part of available energy in the universe is invested in magnetic fields, they are responsible for most of the continual violent activity in the cosmos. There is a single, generic explanation for the ability of bodies as different as a dense, cold planet and a tenuous hot galactic disk to generate a magnetic field. The explanation, first worked out for the earth, comes from the discipline of magnetohydrodynamics. The cosmos is filled with fluids capable of carrying electric currents. The magnetic fields entrained in these fluids are stretched and folded by the fluid motion, gaining energy in the process. In other words, the turbulent fluids function as dynamos. However, the dynamo mechanism by itself cannot account for the exceptionally strong field of some stars. Because of such gaps in information, the rival hypothesis that there are primordial fields cannot be disproved. The balance of evidence, however, indicates that the planets, sun, most stars and the galaxy function as colossal dynamos. (SC)

  1. Primordial Generation of Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We reexamine generation of the primordial magnetic fields, at temperature $T>80$TeV, by applying a consistent kinetic theory framework which is suitably modified to take the quantum anomaly into account. The modified kinetic equation can reproduce the known quantum field theoretic results upto the leading orders. We show that our results qualitatively matches with the earlier results obtained using heuristic arguments. The modified kinetic theory can give the instabilities responsible for generation of the magnetic field due to chiral imbalance in two distinct regimes: a) when the collisions play a dominant role and b) when the primordial plasma can be regarded as collisionless. We argue that the instability developing in the collisional regime can dominate over the instability in the collisionless regime.

  2. N-flationary magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role played by pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) in the construction of string-inspired models of inflation. In these models the inflaton is expected to be coupled to gauge fields, and will lead to the generation of magnetic fields that can be of cosmological interest. We study the production of such fields mainly focusing on the model of N-flation, where the collective effect of several pNGBs drives inflation. Because the produced fie...

  3. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  4. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible.In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later c

  5. Magnetic fields of accreting pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Accreting pulsars are rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars in binary systems which emit pulsed X-rays. This emission is powered by the gravitational energy of the plasma accreted from a non degenerate companion funneled onto the polar caps of the neutron star by the magnetic field, and thermalized to X-rays either in the impact with the surface of the neutron star, or in the so-called accretion column. Although discovered more than forty years ago many aspects of the emission form accret...

  6. Magnetic field tomography, helical magnetic fields and Faraday depolarization

    OpenAIRE

    Horellou, Cathy; Fletcher, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Wide-band radio polarization observations offer the possibility to recover information about the magnetic fields in synchrotron sources, such as details of their three-dimensional configuration, that has previously been inaccessible. The key physical process involved is the Faraday rotation of the polarized emission in the source (and elsewhere along the wave's propagation path to the observer). In order to proceed, reliable methods are required for inverting the signals obs...

  7. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed to be spatially constant and equal to the applied field, thus neglecting the demagnetizing field. Furthermore, the experimental magnetocaloric properties used (adiabatic temperature change, isothermal entrop...

  8. A Vorticity-Magnetic Field Dynamo Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Eric G; Chou, Tom

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the mean field magnetic dynamo to include local evolution of the mean vorticity in addition to the mean magnetic field. The coupled equations exhibit a general mean field dynamo instability that enables the transfer of turbulent energy to the magnetic field and vorticity on larger scales. The growth of the vorticity and magnetic field both require helical turbulence which can be supplied by an underlying global rotation. The dynamo coefficients are derived incl...

  9. RESICALC: Magnetic field modeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RESICALC, Version 1.0, is a Microsoft Windows application that describes the magnetic field environment produced by user-defined arrays of transmission lines, distribution lines, and custom conductors. These arrays simulate specific situations that may be encountered in real-world community settings. RESICALC allows the user to define an area or ''world'' that contains the transmission and/or distribution lines, user-defined conductors, and locations of residences. The world contains a ''reference grid'' within which RESICALC analyzes the magnetic field environment due to all conductors within the world. Unique physical parameters (e.g., conductor height and spacing) and operating characteristics can be assigned to all electrical conductors. RESICALC's output is available for the x, y, z axis separately, the resultant (the three axes added in quadrature), and the major axis, each in three possible formats: a three-dimensional map of the magnetic field, two dimensional-contours, and as a table with statistical values. All formats may be printed, accompanied by a three-dimensional view of the world the user has drawn. The view of the world and the corresponding three-dimensional field map may be adjusted to the elevation and rotation angle of the user's preference

  10. Superposition of DC magnetic fields by cascading multiple magnets in magnetic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2015-09-01

    A novel method that can effectively collect the DC magnetic field produced by multiple separated magnets is proposed. With the proposed idea of a magnetic loop, the DC magnetic field produced by these separated magnets can be effectively superimposed together. The separated magnets can be cascaded in series or in parallel. A novel nested magnetic loop is also proposed to achieve a higher DC magnetic field in the common air region without increasing the DC magnetic field in each magnetic loop. The magnetic loop can be made by a magnetic hose, which is designed by transformation optics and can be realized by the combination of super-conductors and ferromagnetic materials.

  11. Statistics of Magnetic Fields for OB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kholtygin, A F; Drake, N A; Bychkov, V D; Bychkova, L V; Chountonov, G A; Burlakova, T E; Valyavin, G G

    2010-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the catalog of magnetic fields, we have investigated the statistical properties of the mean magnetic fields for OB stars. We show that the mean effective magnetic field ${\\cal B}$ of a star can be used as a statistically significant characteristic of its magnetic field. No correlation has been found between the mean magnetic field strength ${\\cal B}$ and projected rotational velocity of OB stars, which is consistent with the hypothesis about a fossil origin of the magnetic field. We have constructed the magnetic field distribution function for B stars, $F({\\cal B})$, that has a power-law dependence on ${\\cal B}$ with an exponent of $\\approx -1.82$. We have found a sharp decrease in the function $F({\\cal B})$F for ${\\cal B}\\lem 400 G$ that may be related to rapid dissipation of weak stellar surface magnetic fields.

  12. Evolution of magnetic field in interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Drzazga, Robert T; Jurusik, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Not much is currently known about how galaxy interactions affect an evolution of galactic magnetic fields. Here, for the first time, we explore a global evolution of magnetic fields with the advance of interaction process.

  13. Passive Magnetic Shielding in Gradient Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bidinosti, C P

    2013-01-01

    The effect of passive magnetic shielding on dc magnetic field gradients imposed by both external and internal sources is studied. It is found that for concentric cylindrical or spherical shells of high permeability material, higher order multipoles in the magnetic field are shielded progressively better, by a factor related to the order of the multipole. In regard to the design of internal coil systems for the generation of uniform internal fields, we show how one can take advantage of the coupling of the coils to the innermost magnetic shield to further optimize the uniformity of the field. These results demonstrate quantitatively a phenomenon that was previously well-known qualitatively: that the resultant magnetic field within a passively magnetically shielded region can be much more uniform than the applied magnetic field itself. Furthermore we provide formulae relevant to active magnetic compensation systems which attempt to stabilize the interior fields by sensing and cancelling the exterior fields clos...

  14. What Are Electric and Magnetic Fields? (EMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnetic fields? Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are invisible lines of force that surround any electrical device. ... Kids Fun & Games Parents & Teachers Stories Little Kids Web Policies NIEHS Staff: Update This Page Office of ...

  15. Sliding Phases via Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sondhi, S L; Yang, Kun

    2001-01-01

    We show that three dimensional "sliding" analogs of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase, in stacked classical two-dimensional XY models and quantum systems of coupled Luttinger Liquids, can be enlarged by the application of a parallel magnetic field, which has the effect of increasing the scaling dimensions of the most relevant operators that can perturb the critical sliding phases. Within our renormalization group analysis, we also find that for the case of coupled Luttinger liquids, this effect is interleaved with the onset of the integer quantum Hall effect for weak interactions and fields. We comment on experimental implications for a conjectured smectic metal phase in the cuprates.

  16. Simulations of magnetic fields in filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggen, M; Ruszkowski, M.; Simionescu, A.; Hoeft, M; Vecchia, C. Dalla

    2005-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field within filaments should be less polluted by magnetised outflows from active galaxies than magnetic fields in clusters. Therefore, filaments may be a better laboratory to study magnetic field amplification by structure formation than galaxy clusters which typically host many more active galaxies. We present highly resolved cosmological AMR simulations of magnetic fields in the cosmos and make predictions about the evolution and structure of ma...

  17. Solenoid magnet with homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This resistive magnet is used noticeably for NMR imaging. It includes many coils, preferably Bitter coils; and some parameters as coil length, distances between coils, their outer diameter are chosen to optimize the product power-mass of the magnet

  18. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  19. Pulsed magnetic field distribution near conducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements and calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the vicinity of stainless steel rings immersed in a pulsed magnetic field are compared. The computer code TRIDIF is found to produce results in good agreement with the measurements. The perturbations in magnetic field due to the rings are found to be considerably less than one would expect from one-dimensional skin depth considerations

  20. Ferromagnetic Domain Wall and Primeval Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Iwazaki, Aiichi

    1996-01-01

    We show that coherent magnetic field is generated spontaneously when a large domain wall is created in the early universe. It is caused by two dimensional massless fermions bounded to the domain wall soliton. We point out that the magnetic field is a candidate of primordial magnetic field.

  1. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. H...

  2. Hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact stars with strong magnetic fields (magnetars) have been observationally determined to have surface magnetic fields of order of 1014–1015 G, the implied internal field strength being several orders larger. We study the equation of state and composition of dense hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic fields in a range expected in the interiors of magnetars. Within the non-linear Boguta–Bodmer–Walecka model we find that the magnetic field has sizable influence on the properties of matter for central magnetic field B?1017 G, in particular the matter properties become anisotropic. Moreover, for the central fields B?1018 G, the magnetized hypernuclear matter shows instability, which is signalled by the negative sign of the derivative of the pressure parallel to the field with respect to the density, and leads to vanishing parallel pressure at the critical value Bcr?1019 G. This limits the range of admissible homogeneously distributed fields in magnetars to fields below the critical value Bcr

  3. Magnetic characteristics of magnetic compound fluid (MCF) under DC and AC magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally investigated the magnetic permeability of three intelligent fluids-magnetic fluid (MF), magneto-rheological fluid (MRF), and magnetic compound fluid (MCF)-under an AC magnetic field and their magnetization under a DC magnetic field. MCF is a magnetically responsive fluid composed of MF and MRF, as developed by Shimada in 2001. With the increase in the number of nm-sized magnetite or ?m-sized iron particles, the magnetic permeability of the fluids under an AC magnetic field and magnetization under a DC magnetic field increases. These results can be considered to depend on the particle cluster in a solvent. Therefore, we observed the formation of the clusters extracted from the fluids by using the technique proposed by Shimada. When the magnetic permeability under an AC magnetic field and magnetization under a DC magnetic field increase, the size of the clusters becomes smaller and the density of the clusters in the solvent becomes larger

  4. Jupiter's magnetic field and magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. J.; Davis, L., Jr.; Jones, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    The Jovian magnetosphere is described on the basis of observations made by vector helium magnetometers aboard Pioneers 10 and 11. The results obtained from the two encounters are combined without emphasizing details peculiar to either of them. It is shown that near the planet, Jupiter's field is that of an eccentric tilted dipole with some admixture of higher-order terms; in this respect, it is similar to the earth's field, although it is 10 times as strong and has the opposite polarity. The magnetic field measurements reveal the existence of 3 distinct regions within the magnetosphere: outer magnetosphere, inner magnetosphere, and middle magnetosphere. The properties of these three regions are discussed, with observations being explained in terms of plausible physical causes. The observations are compared with several large-scale models of the entire magnetosphere. These observations do not favor models based on the continual outflow or convection of plasma from the Jovian magnetosphere in the vicinity of the equator.

  5. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence Rudnick

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomogeneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ageing, which I will illustrate with some current work on cluster relics. I also briefly re-examine the old issue of how inhomogeneous fields affect particle lifetimes; perhaps not surprisingly, the next generation of radio telescopes are unlikely to find many sources that can extend their lifetimes from putting relativistic electrons into a low-field ‘freezer’. Finally, I preview some new EVLA results on the complex relic in Abell 2256, with implications for the interspersing of its relativistic and thermal plasmas.

  6. Magnetic fields of Sun-like stars

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role at all stages of stellar evolution. In Sun-like stars, they are generated in the outer convective layers. Studying the large-scale magnetic fields of these stars enlightens our understanding of the field properties and gives us observational constraints for the field generation models. In this review, I summarise the current observational picture of the large-scale magnetic fields of Sun-like stars, in particular solar-twins and planet-...

  7. Electroweak Origin of Cosmological Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tornkvist, Ola

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields may have been generated in the electroweak phase transition through spontaneous symmetry breaking or through the subsequent dynamical evolution of semiclassical field configurations. Here I demonstrate explicitly how magnetic fields emerge spontaneously in the phase transition also when no gradients of the Higgs field are present. Using a simple model, I show that no magnetic fields are generated, at least initially, from classical two-bubble collisions in a ...

  8. Magnetic fields in the early universe

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-01-01

    The observed galactic magnetic fields may have a primordial origin. I briefly review the observations, their interpretation in terms of the dynamo theory, and the current limits on cosmological magnetic fields. Several possible mechanisms for generating a primordial magnetic field are then discussed. Turbulence and the evolution of the microscopic fields to macroscopic fields is described in terms of a shell model, which provides an approximation to the full magnetohydrodyna...

  9. The magnetic field gradients generation for magnetic resonance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain three-dimensional images in the computerized tomography a gradient of magnetic field should be generated. In this paper the analytical as well as computerized calculations of magnetic coils for such purposes are presented

  10. Magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joonyeon [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr; Yi, Hyunjung [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheol Koo, Hyun [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mironov, V.L. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603950, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gribkov, B.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603950, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Fraerman, A.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603950, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gusev, S.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603950, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vdovichev, S.N. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603950, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2007-02-15

    We investigated remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the tip of magnetic force microscope (MFM) in both theoretical and empirical ways. Systematic MFM observations were carried out on arrays of submicron-sized elliptical ferromagnetic particles of Co and FeCr with different sizes and periods. It clearly reveals the distribution of remanent magnetization and processes of local remagnetization of individual ferromagnetic particles. Modeling of remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field induced by MFM probe was performed on the base of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for magnetization. MFM-induced inhomogeneous magnetic field is very effective to control the magnetic state of individual ferromagnetic nanoparticles as well as to create different distribution of magnetic field in array of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the tip of magnetic force microscope (MFM) in both theoretical and empirical ways. Systematic MFM observations were carried out on arrays of submicron-sized elliptical ferromagnetic particles of Co and FeCr with different sizes and periods. It clearly reveals the distribution of remanent magnetization and processes of local remagnetization of individual ferromagnetic particles. Modeling of remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field induced by MFM probe was performed on the base of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for magnetization. MFM-induced inhomogeneous magnetic field is very effective to control the magnetic state of individual ferromagnetic nanoparticles as well as to create different distribution of magnetic field in array of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

  12. Aligned electric and magnetic Weyl fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, Joan Josep Ferrando Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the spacetimes admitting a direction for which the relative electric and magnetic Weyl fields are aligned. We give an invariant characterization of these metrics and study the properties of its Debever null vectors. The directions 'observing' aligned electric and magnetic Weyl fields are obtained for every Petrov type. The results on the no existence of purely magnetic solutions are extended to the wider class having homothetic electric and magnetic Weyl fields.

  13. Cluster Magnetic Fields from Galactic Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Donnert, J.; Dolag, K.; Lesch, H.; Müller, E

    2008-01-01

    We performed cosmological, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields are galactic outflows during the star-burst phase of galactic evolution. To do this we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by \\citet{2006MNRAS.370..319B} to our cosmological simulation. We find that the strength and structure of magnetic fields ...

  14. Black holes and magnetic fields.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bi?ák, J.; Karas, Vladimír; Ledvinka, T.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007 - (Karas, V.; Matt, G.), s. 139-144 ISBN 978-0-521-86347-6. ISSN 1743-9213. - (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. S238). [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /238./. Praha (CZ), 21.08.2006-25.08.2006] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/06/0041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Magnetic Fields from the Electroweak Phase Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Tornkvist, Ola

    1998-01-01

    I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.

  16. Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

  17. Spin dephasing in a magnetic dipole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziener, C. H.; Kampf, T.; Reents, G.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Bauer, W. R.

    2012-05-01

    Transverse relaxation by dephasing in an inhomogeneous field is a general mechanism in physics, for example, in semiconductor physics, muon spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance. In magnetic resonance imaging the transverse relaxation provides information on the properties of several biological tissues. Since the dipole field is the most important part of the multipole expansion of the local inhomogeneous field, dephasing in a dipole field is highly important in relaxation theory. However, there have been no analytical solutions which describe the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field. In this work we give a complete analytical solution for the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field which is valid over the whole dynamic range.

  18. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  19. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  20. Magnetic fields in the Venus ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative analysis of non-stationary plasma and magnetic field convection in the daytime Venus atmosphere and comparison of various hypothesis of large-scale field and magnetic force line cords in ionosphere on the base of plasma convection picture are conducted. It is shown that the observed large-scale field or the magnetic belt in the Venus daytime inosphere appears to be a result of evolution of solar wind magnetic field pressed through ionosphere; the magnetic field upper boundary runs in the vicinity of the phtochemical equilibrium area upper boundary. With regard to plasma convection and results of investigation into the venus ionopause stability, the destruction of interplanetary magnetic field pressed through ionosphere under high dynamic solar wind pressure appears to be the most probable source of magnetic cords in the lower ionosphere of Venus

  1. Superconducting strip in an oblique magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mikitik, G P; Indenbom, M V

    2004-01-01

    As an example for a seemingly simple but actually intricate problem, the Bean critical state is studied in a superconducting strip of finite thickness d and width 2w >> d placed in an oblique magnetic field. The analytical solution is obtained to leading order in the small parameter d/w. The critical state depends on how the applied magnetic field is switched on, e.g., at constant tilt angle, or first the perpendicular and then the parallel field component. For these two basic scenarios the distributions of current density and magnetic field are obtained in the critical states. In particular, we find the shapes of the flux-free core and of the lines separating regions with opposite direction of the critical currents, the detailed magnetic field lines (along the vortex lines), and both components of the magnetic moment. The component of the magnetic moment parallel to the strip plane is a nonmonotonic function of the applied magnetic field.

  2. Physics of semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortenberg, M von [Chair for Magnetotransport in Solids, Institute of Physics of the Humboldt University at Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    A review of experiments on semiconductors in high magnetic fields is presented with special emphasis on transient megagauss fields generated by the singleturn coil and explosive flux-compression. Both, techniques of field generation and the special consequences of transient magnetic fields on the sample system will be discussed thoroughly. In detail several magneto-transmission experiments using 10.6 im wavelength radiation on bulk and nanostructured semiconductors will be presented in addition to special features of magnetization behavior.

  3. Wide field polarimetry and cosmic magnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The SKA and its precursors will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields and help to understand their origin. In the SKADS polarization simulation project, maps of polarized intensity and RM of the Milky Way, galaxies and halos of galaxy clusters were constructed, and the possibilities to measure the evolution of magnetic fields in these objects were investigated. The SKA will map interstellar magnetic fields in nearby galaxies and intracluster fields in n...

  4. Atoms in extreme strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of extremly strong magnetic fields up to 109T in compact cosmic objects is responsible for a new chapter in quantum mechanics: ''Matter in extremly strong magnetic fields''. In the presence of such fields the Coulomb-binding-force is dominated by the Lorentz-force, the atoms are strongly deformed to nearly one-dimensional objects, and all properties are anisotropic. The dramatic influence of the magnetic field is demonstrated for the hydrogen atom. (orig.)

  5. The Origin of Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tornkvist, Ola

    2000-01-01

    In this talk, I review a number of particle-physics models that lead to the creation of magnetic fields in the early universe and address the complex problem of evolving such primordial magnetic fields into the fields observed today. Implications for future observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) are discussed. Focussing on first-order phase transitions in the early universe, I describe how magnetic fields arise in the collision of expanding true-vacuum bubbles...

  6. The Origin of Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Rafael S; R. Opher

    2009-01-01

    Microgauss magnetic fields are observed in all galaxies at low and high redshifts. The origin of these intense magnetic fields is a challenging question in astrophysics. We show here that the natural plasma fluctuations in the primordial universe (assumed to be random), predicted by the Fluctuation-Dissipation-Theorem, predicts $\\sim 0.034 \\mu G$ fields over $\\sim 0.3$ kpc regions in galaxies. If the dipole magnetic fields predicted by the Fluctuation-Dissipation-Theore...

  7. Generation of Magnetic Fields in Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of generation of magnetic fields in the early universe which could seed the present-day large scale galactic magnetic fields, are briefly reviewed. Three possible ways to create large scale magnetic fields are discussed: breaking of conformal invariance of electromagnetic interactions and inflationary stretching of the field wave length, first order cosmological phase transitions, and chaotic electric currents generated by turbulent flows in the primeval plasma.

  8. Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    RAU, M.; COSTANDACHE, D.; BALTAG, O.; IFTEMIE, A.; Rau, I.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields) and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applica...

  9. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  10. Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAU, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.

  11. Neutron star deformation due to arbitrary-order multipolar magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrano, Alpha; Melatos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Certain multi-wavelength observations of neutron stars, such as intermittent radio emissions from rotation-powered pulsars beyond the pair-cascade death line, the pulse profile of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 after its 1998 August 27 giant flare, and X-ray spectral features of PSR J0821-4300 and SGR 0418+5729, suggest that the magnetic fields of non-accreting neutron stars are not purely dipolar and may contain higher-order multipoles. Here, we calculate the ellipticity of a non-barotropic neutron star with (i) a quadrupole poloidal-toroidal field, and (ii) a purely poloidal field containing arbitrary multipoles, deriving the relation between the ellipticity and the multipole amplitudes. We present, as a worked example, a purely poloidal field comprising dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components. We show the correlation between field energy and ellipticity for each multipole, that the l=4 multipole has the lowest energy, and that l=5 has the lowest ellipticity. We show how a mixed multipolar field creates an ob...

  12. Field free line magnetic particle imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Erbe, Marlitt

    2014-01-01

    Marlitt Erbe provides a detailed introduction into the young research field of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) and field free line (FFL) imaging in particular. She derives a mathematical description of magnetic field generation for FFL imaging in MPI. To substantiate the simulation studies on magnetic FFL generation with a proof-of-concept, the author introduces the FFL field demonstrator, which provides the world's first experimentally generated rotated and translated magnetic FFL field complying with the requirements for FFL reconstruction. Furthermore, she proposes a scanner design of consi

  13. Magnetic fields in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to two aspects of magnetic fields in the early universe. We first focus on how to formulate electrodynamics in curved space time, defining appropriate magnetic and electric fields and writing Maxwell equations in terms of these fields. We then specialize to the case of magnetohydrodynamics in the expanding universe. We emphasize the usefulness of tetrads in this context. We then review the generation of magnetic fields during the inflationary era, deriving in detail the predicted magnetic and electric spectra for some models. We discuss potential problems arising from back reaction effects and from the large variation of the coupling constants required for such field generation.

  14. Quarks and gluons in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The quark gap equation under the rainbow truncation, with two versions of a phenomenological one-gluon exchange interaction and in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is considered. It is argued that in order to describe the quark condensate in the limit of vanishing magnetic fields, one must sum over the Landau levels. The resulting chiral quark condensate rises quadratically for small magnetic fields and linearly for large fields, in qualitative agreement with various recent lattice results. It is observed that when discussing quarks, the magnitude of the magnetic field must be considered relative to the scale of the strong interaction.

  15. Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)

  16. Magnetic fields in young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yu-Qing

    1994-06-01

    Magnetic field strengths in several young Type I supernova remnants (SNRs), such as those associated with SN 1572, 1604, 1006, have been previously inferred from radio synchrotron observations to be of the order of approximately 10-4 - 10-3 G, which greatly exceeds the typical magnetic field strength of several microgauss in ambient interstellar media (ISM). Existing radio polarization studies indicate that projected large-scale magnetic fields tend to orient in the radial direction with several percent in excess within shells of these SNRs. We propose in this Letter that magnetic fields in these young SNRs could mainly originate from magnetized envelopes or magnetospheres of their presupernova progenitors, presumably magnetic white dwarfs, and that magnetic fields entrained in stellar ejecta roughly scale as approximately r-1. The inferred excess of radial alignment for magnetic fields in these young SNRs could result from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and/or the presence of large-scale random helices of magnetic field lines with their axes meandering through the SNR shell. Molecular clouds and clumps of stellar materials surrounding the presupernova progenitor could also produce radial magnetic fields from transverse fields as the SNR expands into the ISM.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle sensing: decoupling the magnetization from the excitation field

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of magnetic nanoparticles has exciting applications for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and molecular detection. We introduce, simulate, and experimentally demonstrate an innovation---a sensing coil that is geometrically decoupled from the excitation field---for magnetic nanoparticle spectroscopy that increases the flexibility and capabilities of remote detection. The decoupling enhances the sensitivity absolutely; to small amounts of nanoparticles, and rel...

  18. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  19. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  20. Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generati...

  1. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  2. FLINESH computer code for magnetic fields calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the 'FLINESH' computer code for magnetic fields calculation developed for the simulation of field configurations in plasma magnetic confinement devices. The expressions for the poloidal field and flux, the program structure and the input parameters description are presented, and also the analysis of the graphic output possibilities. (L.C.J.A.). 12 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Cosmic Magnetic Fields from Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Tornkvist, Ola

    2000-01-01

    I review a number of particle-physics models that lead to the creation of magnetic fields in the early universe and address the complex problem of evolving such primordial magnetic fields into the fields observed today. Implications for future observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) are briefly discussed.

  4. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R5(SixGe1-x)4: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF

  5. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  6. EIT waves and coronal magnetic field diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P F

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field in the solar lower atmosphere can be measured by the use of the Zeeman and Hanle effects. In contrast, the coronal magnetic field well above the solar surface, which directly controls various eruptive phenomena, can not be precisely measureed with the traditional techniques. Several attempts are being made to probe the coronal magnetic field, such as force-free extrapolation based on the photospheric magnetograms, gyroresonance radio emissions, and coronal sei...

  7. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris; Constable, C. G.; Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks have quietly recorded much of its history. The usefulness of magnetic field charts for navigation and the dedication of a few individuals have also led to the patient construction of some of the longest s...

  8. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Altarev, I; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Nießen, B; Petzoldt, G; Reisner, M; Stuiber, S; Sturm, M; Singh, J T; Taubenheim, B; Rohrer, H K; Schläpfer, U

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a linear improvement in the systematic reach and a 40 % improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  9. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  10. Five years of magnetic field management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive publicity of epidemiological studies inferring correlation between 60 Hz magnetic fields and childhood leukemia prompted world wide research programs that have as a goal to determine if low frequency magnetic fields represent any risk for the general population, children or utility workers. While supporting this research effort through EPRI, Con Edison embarked on a technical research program aimed to: characterize magnetic fields as to intensity and variation in time; and investigate practical means to manage these magnetic fields through currently known methods. The final goal of these research projects is to establish viable methods to reduce magnetic field intensity to desired values at reasonable distances from the sources. This goal was pursued step by step, starting with an inventory of the main sources of magnetic fields in substations, distribution and transmission facilities and generating plants. The characterization of the sources helped to identify typical cases and select specific cases, far practical applications. The next step was to analyze the specific cases and develop design criteria for managing the magnetic fields in new installations. These criteria included physical arrangement of equipment based oil calculation of magnetic fields, cancellation effect, desired maximum field intensity at specific points and shielding with high magnetic permeability metals (mu-metal and steel). This paper summarizes the authors' experiences and shows the results of the specific projects completed in recent years

  11. Origin of magnetic fields and overdense cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the origin of galactic magnetic fields is investigated. The investigation is carried out in the framework of V.A. Ambartsumian's overdense cosmology conceptions. The hypothesis has been discussed that the observable at the present time galactic magnetic fields are shown to be the remnants of the dipole magnetic fields of protogalaxies-superhadrons. It is concluded that the detailed development of the problem on the origin of galactic magnetic fields is related to the general problems of galactic evolution and to the necessity of plotting the basic theory of superhadrons

  12. Magnetotransport in a spatially modulated magnetic field

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.M., Gusev; A. A., Quivy; J.R., Leite; A. A., Bykov; N.T., Moshegov; V.M., Kudryashev; A.I., Toropov; Yu.V., Nastaushev.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) oscillations of a nonplanar two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) fabricated by overgrowth of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction on a pre-patterned substrate. When placed in a uniform external magnetic field B, the field normal to the nonplanar 2DEG is spatially [...] modulated, and electrons experience a nonuniform magnetic field. In a tilted magnetic field, the SdH oscillations are much more strongly damped than in a field perpendicular to the substrate. We consider several mechanisms and conclude that the electron scattering by the magnetic field spatial uctuations plays a main role in the transport properties of a nonplanar 2DEG at low magnetic field.

  13. Studies of a poloidal divertor reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several attempts have been made to form a reversed field pinch (RFP) in a four-node, poloidal divertor configuration which positions the plasma far from a conducting wall. In this configuration, the plasma is localized within a magnetic separatrix formed by the combination of toroidal currents in the plasma and four, internal, conducting rings. These experiments were conducted on three devices: Tokapole II, the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole, and the modified Octupole with smaller conducting rings. Transient, RFP-like equilibria were obtained on Tokapole II and the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. RFP-like equilibria with field reversal duration /approximately/1 msec were obtained in the small ring Octupole. None of these plasmas was sustained against resistive magnetic diffusion. Local, internal measurements of the magnetic field in Tokapole II plasmas indicated the plasma current and density were mostly confined to the region inside the magnetic separatrix. The sharp drop in plasma pressure near the separatrix generated a large diamagnetic current in that region. Large magnetic perturbations observed in the startup phase of these plasmas. On the small ring Octupole, the perturbation was measured to have a dominant poloidal mode number of m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n /approximately/ /minus/5, i.e., internally resonant or nonresonant modes. This perturbation was stationary and was phase-locked to a magnetic field error. If the tenuous plasma region outside the separatrix is ''vacuum-like,'' then this behavior might represent current-driven instability owing to the lack of nearly, stabilizing boundary. Such instability is consistent with linear magnetohydrodynamic stability calculations and nonlinear simulations of a cylindrical REP plasma bounded by a large vacuum region and a distant conducting wall. 53 refs., 48 figs

  14. High concentration ferronematics in low magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated experimentally the magneto-optical and dielectric properties of magnetic-nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals (ferronematics). Our studies focus on the effect of the very small orienting bias magnetic field Bbias, and that of the nematic director pretilt at the boundary surfaces in our systems sensitive to low magnetic fields. Based on the results we assert that Bbias is not necessarily required for a detectable response to low magnetic fields, and that the initial pretilt, as well as the aggregation of the nanoparticles play an important (though not yet explored enough) role. - Highlights: • Response to low magnetic fields was detected in high concentration ferronematics. • The role of the orienting bias magnetic field is discussed. • The influence of the pretilt angle and that of the aggregation is described. • Doping the liquid crystal with nanoparticles does not change the birefringence. • The phase transition temperature of the nematic does not change with doping

  15. Principles of power frequency magnetic field management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the most general level, magnetic field management is the creation, elimination, or modification of sources in order to alter the spatial distribution of magnetic fields over some region of space. The two main options for magnetic field management are source modification (elimination or modification of original sources) and cancellation (creation of new sources). Source modification includes any changes in the layout or location of field sources, elimination of ground paths, or any options that increase the distance between sources and regions of interest. Cancellation involves the creation of new magnetic field sources, passive and/or active that produce magnetic fields that are opposite to the original fields in the region of interest. Shielding using materials of high conductivity and/or high permeability falls under the cancellation option. Strategies for magnetic field management, whether they are source modification or cancellation, typically vary on a case to case basis depending on the regions of interest, the types of sources and resulting complexity of the field structure, the field levels, and the attenuation requirements. This paper gives an overview of magnetic field management based on fundamental concepts. Low field design principles are described, followed by a structured discussion of cancellation and shielding. The two basic material shielding mechanisms, induced current shielding, and flux-shunting are discussed

  16. Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegelmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents (leading to potential fields or the currents are co-aligned with the magnetic field lines. First we discuss a mathematically simpler approach that the magnetic field and currents are proportional with one global constant, the so-called linear force-free field approximation. In the generic case, however, the relation between magnetic fields and electric currents is nonlinear and analytic solutions have been only found for special cases, like 1D or 2D configurations. For constructing realistic nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field models in 3D, sophisticated numerical computations are required and boundary conditions must be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field vector in the solar photosphere. This approach is currently of large interests, as accurate measurements of the photospheric field become available from ground-based (for example SOLIS and space-born (for example Hinode and SDO instruments. If we can obtain accurate force-free coronal magnetic field models we can calculate the free magnetic energy in the corona, a quantity which is important for the prediction of flares and coronal mass ejections. Knowledge of the 3D structure of magnetic field lines also help us to interpret other coronal observations, e.g., EUV images of the radiating coronal plasma.

  17. Strangelets under strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fune, E Lopez

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis is studied three of the fundamental properties of clusters of matter made of quarks u, d and s called strangelets: the energy per baryon, the radius and the electric charge, all in the presence of intense magnetic fields and finite temperature. Two cases will take our attention: unpaired phase strangelets, where there is no restriction to the number of flavors of quarks, and a particular case of the color superconducting phase, where exists a restriction to the quark numbers and an additional energy gap. We study the stability of strangelets, measured by the energy per baryon, to compare later with that of the 56Fe : the most stable isotope known in nature. We employ the Liquid Drop formalism of the Bag Model MIT to describe the interaction between quarks. We conclude that the field effects tend to decrease the energy per baryon of strangelets and temperature produces the opposite effect. It is also shown that strangelets in the color superconducting phase are more stable than those in the unpa...

  18. Comment on "Magnetic Relaxations of Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Magnetic Fields"

    CERN Document Server

    Barco, E; Hernández, J M; Tejada, J

    2002-01-01

    We have carried out in ferritin the Field-Cooling method and data analysis proposed by Mamiya et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 67202 (2002) at T = 5 K in order to check the time magnetic relaxation of these antiferromagnetic nanoparticles as a function of the magnetic field. We found that relaxation at T = 5 K in ferritin is faster in the absence of magnetic field, in good agreement with the zero-field Resonant Spin Quantum Tunneling observed previously in ferritin (Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1754 (1997).

  19. The Physics of Attraction and Repulsion: Magnetism and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakotte, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    The development of new materials with improved magnetic properties completely changed the modern world in the past decades. Recent progress is predominantly due to a better understanding of magnetism that has gone far beyond compass needles rotating in a magnetic field and bar magnets attracting or repelling each other. New magnetic materials are used to build smaller and smaller read/write heads and hard disks with increased storage capacity, developments that are responsible the revolution in the computer industry. Another example is the field of magnetic levitation that became feasible for commercial applications with the discovery of new superconducting materials, and a prototype train is under development in Japan. In medicine, the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an alternative to other (destructive) radiation techniques.

  20. Tracing magnetic fields with ground state alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observational studies of magnetic fields are vital as magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g. transport of heat), and cosmic rays. The existing ways of magnetic field studies have their limitations. Therefore, it is important to explore new effects that can bring information about magnetic field. We identified a process “ground state alignment” as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion, while the magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1G?B?10-15G). Compared to the upper level Hanle effect, atomic realignment is most suitable for the studies of magnetic field in the diffuse medium, where magnetic field is relatively weak. The corresponding physics of alignment is based on solid foundations of quantum electrodynamics and in a different physical regime the alignment has become a part of solar spectroscopy. In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment, including the realignment in magnetic field, were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. It is very encouraging that a variety of atoms with fine or hyperfine splitting of the ground or metastable states exhibit the alignment and the resulting polarization degree in some cases exceeds 20%. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this paper, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields, including those in the early universe.

  1. Control of magnetism by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  2. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H

    2001-01-01

    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  3. Magnetic Field Structure from Synchrotron Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Total magnetic fields in spiral galaxies, as observed through their total synchrotron emission, are strongest (up to \\simeq 30\\mu G) in the spiral arms. The degree of radio polarization is low; the field in the arms must be mostly turbulent or tangled. Polarized synchrotron emission shows that the resolved regular fields are generally strongest in the interarm regions (up to \\simeq 15\\mu G), sometimes forming 'magnetic arms' parallel to the optical arms. The field structure ...

  4. Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Ledbetter, Micah; Theis, Thomas; Blanchard, John; Ring, Hattie; Ganssle, Paul; Appelt, Stephan; Bluemich, Bernhard; Pines, Alex; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near-zero-field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J-coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high field case, where heteronuclear J-couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure...

  5. Magnetic field generation in Higgs inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Moumita; Mohanty, Subhendra(Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 380009, India)

    2010-01-01

    We study the generation of magnetic field in Higgs-inflation models where the Standard Model Higgs boson has a large coupling to the Ricci scalar. We couple the Higgs field to the Electromagnetic fields via a non- renormalizable dimension six operator suppressed by the Planck scale in the Jordan frame. We show that during Higgs inflation magnetic fields with present value $10^{-6}$ Gauss and comoving coherence length of $100 kpc$ can be generated in the Einstein frame. The p...

  6. Chiral thermodynamics in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The QCD phase structure in magnetic field H at low temperature T is studied. The hadronic phase free energy in a constant homogeneous magnetic field is calculated in one-loop approximation of the chiral perturbation theory. The dependence of the quark and gluon condensates upon the temperature and field strength is found. It is shown that the chiral phase transition order parameter remains constant provided field strength and temperature are related via H = const · T2

  7. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviews the current status of the theoretical models of the evolution of the magnetic fields of neutron stars other than magnetars. It appears that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay significantly only if they are in binary systems. Three major physical models for this, namely spindown-induced flux expulsion, ohmic evolution of crustal field and diamagnetic screening of the field by accreted plasma, are reviewed.

  8. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.

  9. Superposition of DC magnetic fields by cascading multiple magnets in magnetic loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that can effectively collect the DC magnetic field produced by multiple separated magnets is proposed. With the proposed idea of a magnetic loop, the DC magnetic field produced by these separated magnets can be effectively superimposed together. The separated magnets can be cascaded in series or in parallel. A novel nested magnetic loop is also proposed to achieve a higher DC magnetic field in the common air region without increasing the DC magnetic field in each magnetic loop. The magnetic loop can be made by a magnetic hose, which is designed by transformation optics and can be realized by the combination of super-conductors and ferromagnetic materials.

  10. Two-axis magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.

  11. Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtovoi, V. L.; Nikulov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment.

  12. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M.; Lacerda, A.; Takano, Y.; Boebinger, G. S.

    2006-11-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, established in 1990 with support from the National Science Foundation, the State of Florida, and the US Department of Energy, is a facility open to external users around the world. The experimental capabilities are distributed in three campuses. In Tallahassee, Florida, continuous magnetic fields are produced by means of superconducting and resistive magnets reaching fields of up to 33T (resistive), and 45T (hybrid). EMR, ICR, and a 900MHz wide bore NMR magnet are also available. The facility in Gainesville, Florida, is devoted to generating extremely low temperatures in the presence of external magnetic fields (15T, down to 0.4mK), and large MRI imaging capabilities. In Los Alamos, New Mexico, a 9 kV-capable capacitor bank and a number of different liquid Nitrogen-cooled resistive magnets produce repetitive pulses up to 75 T and now a single-shot pulsed up to 300T.

  13. Lepton Asymmetry with Primordial Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the neutrino are Majorana particles, the neutrino spin flavor precession induced ?L = 2 processes which could be relevant for leptogenesis depending on the strength of neutrino magnetic moments and magnetic fields. Although the extra galactic magnetic fields is extremely weak at present time (about 10?9 Gauss), the primordial magnetic field at the electroweak scale could be strong (of order 1017 Gauss). Therefore, at this scale, the effects of the spin flavor precession could not be negligible. Using present limit on neutrino magnetic moments, we show that the lepton asymmetry may be reduced by 50% due to the spin flavor precession induced by strong primordial magnetic fields. In addition, the leptogenesis will have different feature from the standard scenario of leptogenesis, where the lepton asymmetry continues to oscillate even after the electroweak phase transition

  14. Electromagnetic radiation in a helical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic radiation spectrum is studied in a helical magnetic field since such magnetic field configurations may be present in cosmic objects. It is shown that, by a proper choice of the spatial period of the magnetic field, one could get large amounts of power over a wide region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The peak in the radiation spectrum shifts toward higher frequencies as the spatial period of the magnetic helix is reduced. As an illustration, this mechanism is applied to the Crab Nebula pulsar NP 0532. 18 references

  15. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (?) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low ? and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field

  16. Magnetic Field Line Stickiness in Tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Caroline G L; Caldas, I L

    2013-01-01

    We present simulated figures of the diverted magnetic field lines of the tokamak ITER, obtained by numerically integrating a Hamiltonian model with electrical currents in five wire loops and control coils. We show evidences of a sticky island embedded in the chaotic region near the divertor plates, which traps magnetic field lines for many toroidal turns increasing their connection lengths to these plates.

  17. Two experiments with rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel)

    2001-09-01

    Two student experiments involving a rotating magnetic field are described. The first experiment consists of measurements of the rotational speed of an induction motor versus its load. The second is a determination of the torque on a conductor as a function of the frequency of rotation of the magnetic field. The experiments may become a useful addition to those published earlier. (author)

  18. Programming the control of magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a short review concerning the new NMR probe measurement control system. Then it presents the new program 'CYCLOCHAMP' attached to the magnetic field measurement which also allows to cycle the magnetic field inside the cyclotrons and to equilibrate it among the SSC sectors. (authors)

  19. Duality between magnetic field and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that in 5D Kaluza-Klein theory there are everywhere regular wormhole-like solutions in which the magnetic field at the center is the origin of a rotation on the peripheral part of these solutions. The time on the peripheral part is topologically non-trivial and magnetic field is suppressed in comparison with the electric one

  20. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  1. Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiko, D A

    2009-10-01

    The body-centered-cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic-field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields B > or approximately equal 10(14) G ). The effect of the magnetic field on ion displacements in a strongly magnetized neutron star crust can suppress the nuclear reaction rates and make them extremely sensitive to the magnetic-field direction. PMID:19905459

  2. Helical Magnetic Fields in AGN Jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. J. Chen; G.-Y. Zhao; Z.-Q. Shen

    2014-09-01

    We establish a simple model to describe the helical magnetic fields in AGN jets projected on the sky plane and the line-of-sight. This kind of profile has been detected in the polarimetric VLBI observation of many blazar objects, suggesting the existence of helical magnetic fields in these sources.

  3. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  4. Control of chaotic magnetic fields in tokamaks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. L., Caldas; R. L., Viana; M. S. T., Araujo; A., Vannucci; E. C. da, Silva; K., Ullmann; M. V. A. P., Heller.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic magnetic field lines play an important role in plasma confinement by tokamaks. They can either be generated in the plasma as a result of natural instabilities or artifficially produced by external conductors, like resonant helical windings and ergodic magnetic limiters. This is a review of w [...] orks carried out at the Universidade de São Paulo and Universidade Federal do Paraná on theoretical and experimental aspects of generation and control of chaotic magnetic field lines in tokamaks.

  5. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod mangle. The concentric Halbach cylinder design is found to be the best performing design, i.e. the design that provides the most magnetic flux density using the least amount of magnet material. A concentric Halbach cylinder has been constructed and the magnetic flux density, the homogeneity and the direction of the magnetic field are measured and compared with numerical simulation and a good agrement is found.

  6. Reionization constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Sethi, Shiv K.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    We study the impact of the extra density fluctuations induced by primordial magnetic fields on the reionization history in the redshift range: 6 Monte Carlo (MCMC) physical analysis allowing the variation of parameters related to primordial magnetic fields (strength, B0, and power-spectrum index n_{B}), reionization and ? cold dark matter cosmological model. We find that magnetic field strengths in the range: B0 ? 0.05-0.3 nG (for nearly scale-free power spectra) can significantly alter the reionization history in the above redshift range and can relieve the tension between the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and quasar absorption spectra data. Our analysis puts upper limits on the magnetic field strength B0 magnetic field constraints among those available from other cosmological observables.

  7. Chaotic magnetic fields: Particle motion and energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Brahmananda [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Ram, Abhay K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Li, Xiaocan [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2014-02-11

    Magnetic field line equations correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system, so the features of a Hamiltonian systems can easily be adopted for discussing some essential features of magnetic field lines. The integrability of the magnetic field line equations are discussed by various authors and it can be shown that these equations are, in general, not integrable. We demonstrate several examples of realistic chaotic magnetic fields, produced by asymmetric current configurations. Particular examples of chaotic force-free field and non force-free fields are shown. We have studied, for the first time, the motion of a charged particle in chaotic magnetic fields. It is found that the motion of a charged particle in a chaotic magnetic field is not necessarily chaotic. We also showed that charged particles moving in a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field are energized. Such energization processes could play a dominant role in particle energization in several astrophysical environments including solar corona, solar flares and cosmic ray propagation in space.

  8. Pulsed field magnetization characteristics of a holed superconducting bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, K.; Igarashi, R.; Togasaki, R.; Oka, T.

    2015-11-01

    We have proposed a holed superconducting bulk magnet to trap the magnetic field efficiently in the high-performance material excited by pulsed field magnetization. Previously, a single pulsed field was applied with varying amplitudes of the magnetic fields and temperatures to a GdBCO bulk material with four 2-mm-diameter holes, and the time responses of flux density on the bulk surface and trapped field distributions were measured. The experimental results suggested that the number of holes was too high because a large distortion appeared in the trapped field distributions. In this paper, we processed only a single hole with a different hole size and investigated the magnetization characteristics. After estimating the trapped field performance by applying a single pulsed field with varying its amplitude and temperature in the original material, a 1-mm-diameter hole was drilled; then the hole was extended to 2 mm in diameter, and the same experiments were carried out in each sample. A total magnetic flux of both 1-mm-diameter hole and 2-mm-diameter hole samples was about 10 percent higher than that of a four-hole sample at a low temperature. On the other hand, the value of a 2-mm-diameter hole sample was the same as that of a four-hole sample at a high temperature. The experimental results suggested that about 1 mm in diameter was proper for the hole size.

  9. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, Heidi Helena; Schoeller, M.; Savanov, I.; Arlt, R.; Castelli, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Briquet, M.; Dall, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be...

  10. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales, which rises the possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger proper time method.

  11. Physics in Very Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a number of astrophysics problems related to strong magnetic fields. The first part deals with issues related to atoms, condensed matter and high-energy processes in very strong magnetic fields, and how these issues influence various aspects of neutron star astrophysics. The second part deals with classical astrophysical effects of magnetic fields: Even relatively "weak" fields can play a strong role in various astrophysical problems, ranging from stars, accretion disks and outflows, to the formation and merger of compact objects.

  12. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method

  13. The magnetic field of ? Orionis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2015-10-01

    Context. ? Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in ? Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field. Methods: Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the least-squares deconvolution technique to extract the magnetic information. Results: We confirm that ? Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component ? Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a period of 6.829 d. This is the only magnetic O supergiant known as of today. With an oblique dipole field model of the Stokes V profiles, we show that the polar field strength is ~140 G. Because the magnetic field is weak and the stellar wind is strong, ? Ori Aa does not host a centrifugally supported magnetosphere. It may host a dynamical magnetosphere. Its companion ? Ori Ab does not show any magnetic signature, with an upper limit on the undetected field of ~300 G. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices. PMID:23364687

  15. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  16. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6?dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8?nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200?nm?×?200?nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3?dB is achieved for 30??l magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30?nm iron oxide particles, 1?mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  17. Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Béché, A; Van Tendeloo, G; Verbeeck, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic monopoles have provided a rich field of study, leading to a wide area of research in particle physics, solid state physics, ultra-cold gases, superconductors, cosmology, and gauge theory. So far, no true magnetic monopoles were found experimentally. Using the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the central results of quantum physics, shows however, that an effective monopole field can be produced. Understanding the effects of such a monopole field on its surroundings is crucial to its observation and provides a better grasp of fundamental physical theory. We realize the diffraction of fast electrons at a magnetic monopole field generated by a nanoscopic magnetized ferromagnetic needle. Previous studies have been limited to theoretical semiclassical optical calculations of the motion of electrons in such a monopole field. Solid state systems like the recently studied 'spin ice' provide a constrained system to study similar fields, but make it impossible to separate the monopole from the material. Free space ...

  18. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O' Grady, K. E-mail: kog1@york.ac.uk; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P

    2003-10-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements.

  19. Skyrmion in a uniform magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the skyrmion properties in a uniform magnetic field. Based on the symmetry of the system, we propose an axially symmetric ansatz of a soliton for studying the skyrmion properties. We show the baryon number is always conserved even in a nonzero magnetic background. We find that with increasing magnetic field strength, the static mass of the skyrmion first decreases and then increases as the dominant role shifts from the linear term of the magnetic field to the quadratic term of the magnetic field. On the other hand, the soliton size first increases and then decreases as the magnetic field strength increases. We find that the distribution of the baryon number density and energy density is anisotropic in a uniform magnetic background. Furthermore, the x- and z-axis projection of the radius of the baryon number density is strongly dependent on the increase of the magnetic field, while the energy density does not have this dependency. Finally, in the core part of the magnetar, the equation of state ...

  20. Poloidal Magnetic Fields In Superconducting Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, K. T.; Wasserman, I.

    2012-01-01

    We develop the formalism for computing the magnetic field within an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong Type II superconductor core surrounded by a normal conductor. The formalism takes full account of the constraints imposed by hydrostatic equilibrium with a barotropic equation of state. We specialize to purely poloidal magnetic fields and develop the "most dipolar case" for which we find that the surface field strength is $\\simeq H_b\\epsilon_b/3\\simeq 3\\times 10^{12}$ ...

  1. On the magnetic fields on the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed local (? 100 km) magnetic fields ? 10-4 Gs on the moon and the rather large field ? 1 Gs at the initial stage of the Moon evolution, are explained as due to the temperature and compositional nonuniformity of the inner lunar regions. It is shown that the similar nonuniformity at the Earth core-mantle boundary may give a contribution to the terrestrial magnetic field

  2. Debye relaxation in high magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, J. S.; R. Vasic; Kismarahardja, A.; Steven, E.; Tokumoto, T.; Schlottmann, P.; Kelly, S.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation is universal in characterizing polar liquids and solids, insulators, and semiconductors, and the theoretical models are well developed. However, in high magnetic fields, previously unknown aspects of dielectric relaxation can be revealed and exploited. Here, we report low temperature dielectric relaxation measurements in lightly doped silicon in high dc magnetic fields B both parallel and perpendicular to the applied ac electric field E. For B//E, we ob...

  3. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

  4. Particle Transport in Therapeutic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Ganguly, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, in ferrofluids or as magnetic microspheres, offer magnetic maneuverability, biochemical surface functionalization, and magnetic relaxation under the influence of an alternating field. The use of these properties for clinical applications requires an understanding of particles, forces, and scalar transport at various length scales. This review explains the behavior of magnetic nano- and microparticles during magnetic drug targeting and magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and the microfluidic transport of these particles in bioMEMS (biomedical microelectromechanical systems) devices for ex vivo therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Magnetic particle transport, the momentum interaction of these particles with a host fluid in a flow, and thermal transport in a particle-infused tissue are characterized through the governing electrodynamic, hydrodynamic, and scalar transport equations.

  5. Earth-directed ICME magnetic field configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Vourlidas, Angelos; Szabo, Adam; Savani, Neel; Mays, M. Leila; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Wenyuan, Yu

    2015-04-01

    It is known that the geoeffectiveness of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) depends on their magnetic field configuration. However, it remains unclear how the ICME interactions with the solar wind or other solar transient structures affect their magnetic configuration through, say, distortion of their cross-section, or deformation of their front. Obviously, precise space weather forecasting is depended on precise understanding of the evolution of the ICME internal magnetic topology.The goal of this study is to identify the ambient solar wind parameters that affect the flux-rope geometry and magnetic field configuration.

  6. Modeling magnetic fields around magnetic clouds of different geometries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandas, Marek; Romashets, E. P.; Watari, S.

    Noordwijk : ESA Publication division, 2003 - ( Wilson , A.), s. 583-586 - (ESA Special publication.. 535). [International solar cycle studies symposium 2003. Tatranská Lomnica (SK), 23.06.2003-28.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/03/0953; GA MŠk ME 501; GA AV ?R IBS1003006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : magnetic clouds * interplanetary magnetic field * field draping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  7. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed to be spatially constant and equal to the applied field, thus neglecting the demagnetizing field. Furthermore, the experimental magnetocaloric properties used (adiabatic temperature change, isothermal entropy change and specific heat) are often not corrected for demagnetization. The demagnetizing field in an AMR is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also temperature dependent. We propose a relatively straightforward method to correct sufficiently for the demagnetizing field in AMR models. We discuss how the demagnetizing field behaves in regenerators made of packed spheres under realistic operation conditions.

  8. Spintronic Oscillator Based on Magnetic Field Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, D.; KONISHI, K; Tomy, C. V.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a circuit design of a spintronic oscillator based on magnetic tunnel junction. In this design, a dc current is passed through a magnetic tunnel junction which is connected to a feed-back wire below it. Any fluctuation in the magnetization direction of the free layer of MTJ, drives a fluctuating current through the feed-back wire, which exerts a magnetic field on the free layer. This in turn can amplify the magnetization fluctuations of the free layer. If the dc cu...

  9. Scattering in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Carey

    2002-08-19

    The fixed target program at Fermilab has come to an end. New projects are in the planning stage. Among them is a muon storage ring. Up to the present, all storage rings in high-energy physics have carried stable particles, namely the electron and proton and their antiparticles. The muon is unstable and decays with a mean lifetime of 2.0 x 10{sup -6} sec. Two types of cooling have been used in the past. One is stochastic cooling where an electrode is used to detect the positions of the particles and send a signal to another position across the ring. Through successive applications of this technique, the phase space is ultimately greatly reduced and beams can be made to collide with a useful event rate. The second type of cooling is electron cooling. Here protons and electrons are made to travel together for a short distance. Equipartition causes transfer of transverse energy of the protons to that of the electrons. Neither of these methods is fast enough to allow acceleration of a sufficient number of muons up to maximum energy before they decay. A new method known as ionization cooling has been proposed.[1] The muons are cooled by passing them through a container of liquid hydrogen. The energy loss reduces both transverse and longitudinal momentum. The longitudinal momentum is restored with RF cavities. The net result is to maintain the longitudinal momentum while cooling the transverse momentum. To minimize the total travel distance of the muons the liquid hydrogen is placed inside the focusing solenoids. The question arises as to whether the presence of the solenoids influences the phase space occupied by the muons. After the muon scatters it has transverse momentum. In a constant longitudinal magnetic field the trajectory wraps around the field lines and coincides in momentum and position with a particle which scatters one cycle later. Here we calculate the change in emittance for both a drift space and a solenoid. We find that the presence of the solenoid does cause a reduction in phase space. Shown below are both a derivation of the behavior of the muon phase space and a plot showing the strength of the effect described.

  10. Diffusion in electronegative discharges with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David E.

    1993-12-01

    Electronegative plasmas are important in a variety of electric discharge applications, such as plasma reactors, negative ion sources, and even electropositive discharges when contaminated with an electronegative impurity. The need for an understanding of the processes and phenomena associated with these electronegative discharges has spurred the development of numerical simulations and models. While many of the devices incorporate various configurations of external magnetic fields, specific attention to the influence of the magnetic field on the discharge operating point, structure, and stability is lacking. To address this deficiency, a collisional model for diffusion in three-component plasmas with an applied magnetic field is developed; it is an extension of Schottky theory allowing for negative ions and a magnetic field. This study analyzes the effect of magnetic fields on diffusion in three-component plasmas; provides an analytic solution for the collisional model in a magnetic field; evaluates the validity of effective diffusion coefficients through an analysis of the afterglow; and provides a regime of validity for the model in terms of magnetic field strength by looking at the onset of anomalous diffusion.

  11. Magnetic field measurements on ISABELLE storage ring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleser, E.; Dahl, P.; Gardner, D.; Kaugerts, J.; McInturff, A.; Robins, K.; Sampson, W.; Schewe, P.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978 the magnetic field shapes of six ISABELLE prototype dipole magnets were measured in detail. All the harmonic terms that are forbidden by symmetry in dipole magnets are found to have values that are zero to within the allowed tolerances. This result indicates that the random errors in conductor placement are within tolerances and that the assembly techniques are satisfactory in this regard. However, the first allowed error term in a dipole magnet, the sextupole term, is much too large, and varies greatly from magnet to magnet resulting in field errors at the edge of the desired good field region that are 10/sup -3/ of the central field value, whereas the tolerable field errors are of the order of 10/sup -4/ of the central field value. This large sextupole term has been traced to assembly errors which yield a coil assembly which instead of being circular in cross section is racetrack shaped, with the vertical axis being 10 to 20 thousandths of an inch greater than the horizontal axis. This problem will be corrected in the future production series.

  12. Effect of magnetic field curvature on penetration of the magnetic field into the plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of a magnetic field into a cylindrical plasma, in the time scale that is much longer than electron cyclotron period, is studied. A linear wave analysis is shown that the magnetic field penetrates rapidly into the plasma in radii smaller than the ion skin depth. Due to the axial symmetry, the problem reduces to a two-dimensional problem. The magnetic field evolution is numerically calculated. The ion density is also calculated. It is shown that during the penetration of the magnetic field, a gap appears between cathode and plasma. At the early times, at the plasma boundary, electrons move radially, and coupling of the electron velocity and the electric field induces the magnetic field. Electrons then gain a drift due to the field curvature that results in fast penetration of the magnetic field into the plasma. (author)

  13. Magnetic fields in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find a solution to 4D Einstein–Maxwell theory coupled to a massless dilaton field, for all values of the dilaton coupling, describing a Melvin magnetic field in an expanding universe with ‘stiff matter’ equation of state parameter w = +1. As the universe expands, magnetic flux becomes more concentrated around the symmetry axis for dilaton coupling a<1/?3 and more dispersed for a>1/?3. An electric field circulates around the symmetry axis in the direction determined by Lenz's law. For a = 0 the magnetic flux through a disc of fixed comoving radius is proportional to the proper area of the disc. This result disagrees with the usual expectation based on a test magnetic field that this flux should be constant, and we show why this difference arises. We also find a Melvin solution in an accelerating universe with w = ?7/9 for a dilaton field with a certain exponential potential. (paper)

  14. How are static magnetic fields detected biologically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that life, from bacteria to birds to bats, detects magnetic fields, using the fields for orientation or navigation. Indeed there are recent reports (based on Google Earth imagery) that cattle and deer align themselves with the earth's magnetic field. [1]. The development of frog and insect eggs are changed by high magnetic fields, probably through known physical mechanisms. However, the mechanisms for eukaryotic navigation and alignment are not clear. Persuasive published models will be discussed. Evidence, that static magnetic fields might produce therapeutic effects, will be updated [2]. [4pt] [1] S. Begall, et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105:13451 (2008). [0pt] [2] L. Finegold and B.L. Flamm, BMJ, 332:4 (2006).

  15. Dynamo Activity In Imposed DC Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A widely accepted mechanism for the spontaneous appearance of large-scale magnetic fields in magnetofluids is the turbulent inverse cascade of magnetic helicity. The evidence for the effect is largely computational, and has been acquired by using spectral-method codes and imposing three-dimensional (3D) rectangular periodic boundary conditions. We report here similar investigations of the phenomenon that result when a uniform external dc magnetic field is present. With no imposed dc magnetic field, the 1981 results of Meneguzzi et al are recovered, but by adding an externally-imposed dc magnetic field, we find that it is possible to suppress entirely the inverse magnetic helicity cascade phenomenon. This is a somewhat puzzling result, and we attribute it not to any fundamental change in the physical processes involved as much as to the inconsistency of 3D rectangular periodic boundary conditions (which permit no net current through the basic computational box). These boundary conditions seem inadequate as a representation of the nonlinear dynamics of helically-driven MHD in the presence of a dc magnetic field (which encourage such a dc net current to flow). We believe that if the turbulent computations were to be repeated with more realistic geometry and boundary conditions (e.g., toroids, disks, or periodic cylinders), the inverse magnetic helicity cascade phenomenon would reappear. But at the moment, this must be regarded as an open question

  16. Ultracold atoms in strong synthetic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The Harper Hofstadter Hamiltonian describes charged particles in the lowest band of a lattice at high magnetic fields. This Hamiltonian can be realized with ultracold atoms using laser assisted tunneling which imprints the same phase into the wavefunction of neutral atoms as a magnetic field dose for electrons. I will describe our observation of a bosonic superfluid in a magnetic field with half a flux quantum per lattice unit cell, and discuss new possibilities for implementing spin-orbit coupling. Work done in collaboration with C.J. Kennedy, G.A. Siviloglou, H. Miyake, W.C. Burton, and Woo Chang Chung.

  17. The magnetic field in the Coma cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Feretti, L; Dallacasa, D.; Giovannini, G; Tagliani, A.

    1995-01-01

    The polarization data of the radio galaxy NGC4869, belonging to the Coma cluster and located in its central region, allow us to obtain information on the structure of magnetic field associated with the cluster itself. A magnetic field of $\\sim$ 8.5 $\\mu$G, tangled on scales of the order of less than 1 kpc, is required to explain the observed fluctuations of the rotation measure. This magnetic field is more than one order of magnitude stronger than the equipartition value obt...

  18. Magnetic field of the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationship between the geoefficiency of the solar flares as well as of the active regions passing the central meridian of the Sun and the configuration of the large scale solar magnetic field is studied. It is shown that if the tangential component of the large scale magnetic field at the active region or at the flare region is directed southwards, that region and that flare produce geomagnetic storm. In the case when the tangential magnetic field is directed northward, the active region and the flares occurring at that region do not cause any geomagnetic disturbance. An index of the geoefficiency of the solar flares and of the active regions is proposed. (Auth.)

  19. New superconductor stands up to magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high-temperature superconductors (HTS), magnetic fields have been the equivalent of kryptonite. HTS materials are capable of carrying huge electrical currents without resistance, but when they are put in powerful magnetic fields their current-carrying ability plummets. At a Materials Research Society meeting, researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory reported making a flexible superconducting tape that stands up to high magnetic fields at 77K. However, it is not clear it will stand up to industrial levels. This article discusses this and other research from Oak Ridge, as yet unpublished, in this area of superconductors

  20. New superconductor stands up to magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Service, R.F.

    1995-05-05

    For high-temperature superconductors (HTS), magnetic fields have been the equivalent of kryptonite. HTS materials are capable of carrying huge electrical currents without resistance, but when they are put in powerful magnetic fields their current-carrying ability plummets. At a Materials Research Society meeting, researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory reported making a flexible superconducting tape that stands up to high magnetic fields at 77K. However, it is not clear it will stand up to industrial levels. This article discusses this and other research from Oak Ridge, as yet unpublished, in this area of superconductors.

  1. Magnetic field quality analysis using ANSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Orco, D.; Chen, Y.

    1991-03-01

    The design of superconducting magnets for particles accelerators requires a high quality of the magnetic field. This paper presents an ANSYS 4.4A Post 1 macro that computes the field quality performing a Fourier analysis of the magnetic field. The results show that the ANSYS solution converges toward the analytical solution and that the error on the multipole coefficients depends linearly on the square of the mesh size. This shows the good accuracy of ANSYS in computing the multipole coefficients. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Magnetic field quality analysis using ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of superconducting magnets for particles accelerators requires a high quality of the magnetic field. This paper presents an ANSYS 4.4A Post 1 macro that computes the field quality performing a Fourier analysis of the magnetic field. The results show that the ANSYS solution converges toward the analytical solution and that the error on the multipole coefficients depends linearly on the square of the mesh size. This shows the good accuracy of ANSYS in computing the multipole coefficients. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB?m2?? 0.02 GeV2 at the RHIC and eB? 15m2?? 0.3 GeV2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B0 and D0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  4. Space applications of superconductivity - High field magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickett, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses developments in superconducting magnets and their applications in space technology. Superconducting magnets are characterized by high fields (to 15T and higher) and high current densities combined with low mass and small size. The superconducting materials and coil design are being improved and new high-strength composites are being used for magnet structural components. Such problems as maintaining low cooling temperatures (near 4 K) for long periods of time and degradation of existing high-field superconductors at low strain levels can be remedied by research and engineering. Some of the proposed space applications of superconducting magnets include: cosmic ray analysis with magnetic spectrometers, energy storage and conversion, energy generation by magnetohydrodynamic and thermonuclear fusion techniques, and propulsion. Several operational superconducting magnet systems are detailed.

  5. The origin of large scale magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    K.Subramanian

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic fields correlated on several kiloparsec scales are seen in spiral galaxies. Their origin could be due to the winding up of a primordial cosmological field or due to amplification of a small seed field by a turbulent galactic dynamo. Both options have difficulties: There is no known battery mechanism for producing the required primordial field. Equally the turbulent dynamo may self destruct before being able to produce the large scale field, due to excess generation ...

  6. Review: Magnetic fields of O stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A

    2014-01-01

    Since 2002, strong, organized magnetic fields have been firmly detected at the surfaces of about 10 Galactic O-type stars. In this paper I will review the characteristics of the inferred fields of individual stars, as well as the overall population. I will discuss the extension of the 'magnetic desert', first inferred among the A-type stars, to O stars up to 60 solar masses. I will discuss the interaction of the winds of the magnetic stars with the fields above their surfaces, generating complex 'dynamical magnetosphere' structures detected in optical and UV lines, and in X-ray lines and continuum. Finally, I will discuss the detection of a small number of variable O stars in the LMC and SMC that exhibit spectral characteristics analogous to the known Galactic magnetic stars, and that almost certainly represent the first known examples of extra-Galactic magnetic stars.

  7. Emittance growth in rippled solenoidal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emittance growth results due to accelerating gaps, and magnetic field gaps in induction accelerators. The analytic technique previously used to study electric field induced emittance growth for immersed source beams is extended to include solenoid fringing field effects in the present work. These results have application to industrial induction accelerators and to high brightness Free Electron Laser drivers. 1 ref., 2 figs

  8. Emittance growth in rippled solenoidal magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Emittance growth results due to accelerating gaps, and magnetic field gaps in induction accelerators. The analytic technique previously used to study electric field induced emittance growth for immersed source beams is extended to include solenoid fringing field effects in the present work. These results have application to industrial induction accelerators and to high brightness Free Electron Laser drivers. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  9. Calculation of magnetic fields for engineering devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonias, J.S.

    1976-06-01

    The methodology of magnet technology and its application to various engineering devices are discussed. Magnet technology has experienced a rigid growth in the past few years as a result of the advances made in superconductivity, numerical methods and computational techniques. Included are discussions on: (1) mathematical models for solving magnetic field problems; (2) the applicability, usefulness, and limitations of computer programs that utilize these models; (3) examples of application in various engineering disciplines; and (4) areas where further contributions are needed.

  10. High Field Pulse Magnets with New Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Lesch, B.; Cochran, V. G.; Eyssa, Y.; Tozer, S.; Mielke, C. H.; Rickel, D.; van Sciver, S. W.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

    2004-11-01

    High performance pulse magnets using the combination of CuNb conductor and Zylon fiber composite reinforcement with bore sizes of 24, 15 and 10 mm have been designed, manufactured and tested to destruction. The magnets successfully reached the peak fields of 64, 70 and 77.8 T respectively with no destruction. Failures occurred near the end flanges at the layer. The magnet design, manufacturing and testing, and the mode of the failure are described and analyzed.

  11. Observations of magnetic fields in hot stars

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, V.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of magnetic fields at the surfaces of many massive stars has been suspected for decades, to explain the observed properties and activity of OB stars. However, very few genuine high-mass stars had been identified as magnetic before the advent of a new generation of powerful spectropolarimeters that has resulted in a rapid burst of precise information about the magnetic properties of massive stars. During this talk, I will briefly review modern methods used to dia...

  12. Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-12-28

    The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems. PMID:23166376

  13. Working in the magnetic field of ultrahigh field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device technology continues to increase the static magnetic flux densities applied and consequently leads to considerably increased occupational exposure. This has already made it necessary to review limits of occupational exposure and to postpone European legal regulations for occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. This raises the question whether and if so which adverse health effects and health risks might be associated with occupational exposure to MRI ultra-high static magnetic fields. Based on a survey on interaction mechanisms recommendations and safety rules are presented to help minimize adverse health effects of emerging ultra-high field MRI. (orig.)

  14. Tracing Magnetic Fields by Atomic Alignment in Extended Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Heshou; Dong, Le

    2014-01-01

    Tracing magnetic fields is crucial as magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical processes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Ground State Alignment (GSA) is a unique way to detect weak magnetic fields (1G> B> 1exp(-15)G) in diffuse media, they consider the situation when the pumping source is a point source, which applies when the star is very far away from the diffuse media. In this paper, we explore the GSA in the presence of extended radiation fields. For the radiation fields with a clear geometric structure, we consider the alignment in circumstellar medium, binary systems, disc, and Local Interstellar Medium (LISM). For the radiation fields with unidentified pumping sources, we apply the method of multipole expansion and discuss the GSA induced by each component. We demonstrate that for general radiation fields, it is adequate to consider the contribution from dipole and quadrupole radiation components. We find that in general polarization of absorption arizing from GSA coincides ...

  15. On the helicity of open magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reconsider the topological interpretation of magnetic helicity for magnetic fields in open domains, and relate this to the relative helicity. Specifically, our domains stretch between two parallel planes, and each of these ends may be magnetically open. It is demonstrated that, while the magnetic helicity is gauge-dependent, its value in any gauge may be physically interpreted as the average winding number among all pairs of field lines with respect to some orthonormal frame field. In fact, the choice of gauge is equivalent to the choice of reference field in the relative helicity, meaning that the magnetic helicity is no less physically meaningful. We prove that a particular gauge always measures the winding with respect to a fixed frame, and propose that this is normally the best choice. For periodic fields, this choice is equivalent to measuring relative helicity with respect to a potential reference field. However, for aperiodic fields, we show that the potential field can be twisted. We prove by construction that there always exists a possible untwisted reference field.

  16. Theory of Passive Magnetic Field Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovay, K

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, our knowledge of photospheric magnetic fields went through a thorough transformation--nearly unnoticed by dynamo theorists. It is now practically certain that the overwhelming majority of the unsigned magnetic flux crossing the solar surface is in turbulent form (intranetwork and hidden fields). Furthermore, there are now observational indications (supported by theoretical arguments discussed in this paper) that the net polarity imbalance of the turbulent field may give a significant or even dominant contribution to the weak large-scale background magnetic fields outside unipolar network areas. This turbulent magnetic field consists of flux tubes with magnetic fluxes below $10^{10}$ Wb ($10^{18}$ Mx). The motion of these thin tubes is dominated by the drag of the surrounding flows, so the transport of this component of the solar magnetic field must fully be determined by the kinematics of the turbulence (i.e. it is "passive"), and it can be described by a one-fluid model like mean-field theor...

  17. The magnetic field of zeta Orionis A

    CERN Document Server

    Blazère, A; Tkachenko, A; Bouret, J -C; Rivinius, Th

    2015-01-01

    Zeta Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in zeta Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field.Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract the magnetic information. We confirm that zeta Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component zeta Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a per...

  18. Semiclassical Analysis with Vanishing Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Dombrowski, Nicolas; Raymond, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the 2D magnetic Laplacian in the semiclassical limit in the case when the magnetic field vanishes along a smooth curve. In particular, we prove local and micro-local estimates for the eigenfunctions and a complete asymptotic expansion of the eigenpairs.

  19. Bloch electrons in electric and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kunold, Alejandro; Torres, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    We investigate Bloch electrons in two dimensions subject to constant electric and magnetic fields. The model that results from our pursuit is governed by a finite difference equation with a quasienergy spectrum that interpolates between a butterfly-like structure and a Stark ladder structure. These findings ensued from the use of electric and magnetic translation operators.

  20. Magnetic field diagnostic from translational Stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of magnetic field determination using translational Stark effect and Zeeman effect is outlined. An approximation, valid for relatively high probe atom velocities is developed in detail and its applicability is put in evidence. (author). 3 refs

  1. Discontinuities in the Magnetic Field near Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S.; Saur, J.; van Treeck, S.; Kriegel, H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The plasma interaction of Saturn's icy moon Enceladus generates a hemisphere coupling current system that directly connects the giant planet's northern and southern polar magnetosphere. Based on Cassini magnetometer observations from all 20 targeted Enceladus flybys between 2004 and 2014, we study the magnetic field discontinuities associated with these hemisphere coupling currents. We identify a total number of 11 events during which the magnetic field was discontinuous at the surface of the Enceladus fluxtube (defined by the bundle of magnetic field lines tangential to the solid body of the moon). A Minimum Variance Analysis is applied to calculate the surface normals of these discontinuities. In agreement with theoretical expectations, the normals are found to be perpendicular to the surface of the Enceladus fluxtube. The variation of the hemisphere coupling currents with Enceladean longitude leaves a clear imprint in the strengths of the observed magnetic field jumps as well.

  2. Conformal anomaly and primordial magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The conformal symmetry of the quantized electromagnetic field breaks down in curved space-time. We point out that this conformal anomaly is able to generate a sizable magnetic field during a phase of slow-roll inflation. Such primordial magnetism is characterized by the expectation value of the squared of the magnetic field for comoving observers, which at leading order in slow-roll takes the value $\\ =\\frac{8}{15(4\\pi)^2}\\, H^4\\epsilon$, where $\\epsilon$ is the standard slow-roll parameter. This result is insensitive to the intrinsic ambiguities of renormalization in curved space-times. The information in the quantum state gets diluted during inflation and does not affect the prediction. A primordial field of this strength is able to seed the observed cosmic magnetism.

  3. Moving strations in a longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on striation oscillations of a Neon-discharge plasma in a longitudinal homogeneous magnetic field are presented. It is known that any abrupt change in the particle concentration leads to the formation of striae. The decrease of the striation frequency and the increase of length are due to a retardation of the magnetic field deflection of the charge carriers towards the wall. For magnetic fields B=Bsub(k) helical oscillations appear in the discharge. Their amplitude is approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the striation oscillation amplitude, and their frequency is f approximately equal to 10 kHz. With increasing magnetic field the amplitudes of the helical oscillations first increase, pass a maximum and then decrease. Both types of oscillations (striation and helical) are observed simultaneously in the discharge

  4. Heat Capacity Measurements in Pulsed Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaime, M.; Movshovich, R.; Sarrao, J.L.; Kim, J.; Stewart, G.; Beyermann, W.P.; Canfield, P.C.

    1998-10-23

    The new NHMFL 60T quasi-continuous magnet produces a flat-top field for a period of 100 ms at 60 Tesla, and for longer time at lower fields, e.g. 0.5 s at 45 Tesla. We have developed for the first time the capability to measure heat capacity at very high magnetic fields in the NHMFL 60T quasi-continuous magnet at LANL, using a probe built out of various plastic materials. The field plateau allows us to utilize a heat-pulse method to obtain heat capacity data. Proof-of-principle heat capacity experiments were performed on a variety of correlated electron systems. Both magnet performance characteristics and physical properties of various materials studied hold out a promise of wide application of this new tool.

  5. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 109G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 109 and 1011G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author)

  6. Local Magnetic Field Role in Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Ho, Paul T P; Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M; Chen, Huei-Ru V; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Hua-bai; Li, Zhi-Yun; Liu, Hau-Yu B; Padovani, Marco; Qiu, Keping; Rao, Ramprasad; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Frau, Pau; Chen, How-Huan; Ching, Tao-Chung

    2015-01-01

    We highlight distinct and systematic observational features of magnetic field morphologies in polarized submm dust continuum. We illustrate this with specific examples and show statistical trends from a sample of 50 star-forming regions.

  7. A Topology for the Penumbral Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    We describe a scenario for the topology of the magnetic field in penumbrae that accounts for recent observations showing upflows, downflows, and reverse magnetic polarities. According to our conjecture, short narrow magnetic loops fill the penumbral photosphere. Flows along these arched field lines are responsible for both the Evershed effect and the convective transport. This scenario seems to be qualitatively consistent with most existing observations, including the dark cores in penumbral filaments reported by Scharmer et al. Each bright filament with dark core would be a system of two paired convective rolls with the dark core tracing the common lane where the plasma sinks down. The magnetic loops would have a hot footpoint in one of the bright filament and a cold footpoint in the dark core. The scenario fits in most of our theoretical prejudices (siphon flows along field lines, presence of overturning convection, drag of field lines by downdrafts, etc). If the conjecture turns out to be correct, the mild...

  8. Tubular discharge in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasev, V.Yu.; Semenov, R.I.; Chaika, M.P. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    Visual observations of Xe discharge glow in an axial magnetic field are described. Tubular discharge is detected in a narrow range of the parameters p, I, and H. A qualitative explanation of this effect is proposed.

  9. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  10. Magnetic Field Amplification in Young Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Klessen, Ralf S

    2013-01-01

    The Universe at present is highly magnetized, with fields of the order of a few 10^-5 G and coherence lengths larger than 10 kpc in typical galaxies like the Milky Way. We propose that the magnetic field was amplified to this values already during the formation and the early evolution of the galaxies. Turbulence in young galaxies is driven by accretion as well as by supernova (SN) explosions of the first generation of stars. The small-scale dynamo can convert the turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy and amplify very weak primordial magnetic seed fields on short timescales. The amplification takes place in two phases: in the kinematic phase the magnetic field grows exponentially, with the largest growth on the smallest non-resistive scale. In the following non-linear phase the magnetic energy is shifted towards larger scales until the dynamo saturates on the turbulent forcing scale. To describe the amplification of the magnetic field quantitatively we model the microphysics in the interstellar medium ...

  11. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  12. High magnetic field ?SR instrument scientific case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain more insight into the specific behavior of materials, it is often necessary to perform measurements as a function of different external parameters. Despite its high sensitivity to internal fields, this simple observation also applies for the ?SR technique. The most common parameter which can be tuned during an experiment is the sample temperature. By using a range of cryostats, temperatures between 0.02 and 900 K can be covered at the PSI ?SR Facility. On the other hand, and by using high-energy muons, pressures as high as 10'000 bars can nowadays be reached during ?SR experiments. As will be demonstrated in the following Sections, the magnetic field is an additional external parameter playing a fundamental role when studying the ground state properties of materials in condensed matter physics and chemistry. However, the availability of high magnetic fields for ?SR experiments is still rather limited. Hence, if on one hand the high value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the muon provides the high magnetic sensitivity of the method, on the other hand it can lead to very high muon-spin precession frequencies when performing measurements in applied fields (the muon-spin precession frequency in a field of 1 Tesla s 135.5 MHz). Consequently, the use of ultra-fast detectors and electronics is mandatory when measuring in magnetic fields exceeding 1 Tesla. If such fields are very intense when compared to the Earth magnetic field -4 Tesla), the energy associated with them is still modest in view of the thermal energy. Hence, the Zeeman energy splitting of a free electron in a magnetic field of 1 Tesla corresponds to a thermal energy as low as 0.67 Kelvin. It is worth mentioning that nowadays magnetic fields of the order of 10 to 15 Tesla are quite common in condensed matter laboratories and have opened up vast new exciting experimental possibilities. (author)

  13. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ?}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 ?m obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ?0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (? 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  14. Stability of Matter in Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Elliott

    1996-01-01

    The proof of the stability of matter is three decades old, but the question of stability when arbitrarily large magnetic fields are taken into account was settled only recently. Even more recent is the solution to the question of the stability of relativistic matter when the electron motion is governed by the Dirac operator (together with Dirac's prescription of filling the ``negative energy sea"). When magnetic fields are included the question arises whether it is better to...

  15. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    OpenAIRE

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, H.; Schoeller, M.; Savanov, I.; Arlt, R.; CASTELLI, F.; Curto, G. Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars...

  16. Anomalous Global Strings and Primordial Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Zhang, Xinmin

    1998-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for the generation of primordial magnetic fields, making use of the magnetic fields which are induced by anomalous global strings which couple to electromagnetism via Wess-Zumino type interactions. This mechanism can be realized in QCD by utilizing pion strings, global vortices which appear in the linear sigma model which describes physics below the QCD confinement scale. During the chiral symmetry breaking phase transition, pion strings can be pro...

  17. Magnetic fields of the W4 superbubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. Y.; Reich, W.; Reich, P.; Han, J. L.; Kothes, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Superbubbles and supershells are the channels for transferring mass and energy from the Galactic disk to the halo. Magnetic fields are believed to play a vital role in their evolution. Aims: We study the radio continuum and polarized emission properties of the W4 superbubble to determine its magnetic field strength. Methods: New sensitive radio continuum observations were made at ?6 cm, ?11 cm, and ?21 cm. The total intensity measurements were used to derive the radio spectrum of the W4 superbubble. The linear polarization data were analysed to determine the magnetic field properties within the bubble shells. Results: The observations show a multi-shell structure of the W4 superbubble. A flat radio continuum spectrum that stems from optically thin thermal emission is derived from 1.4 GHz to 4.8 GHz. By fitting a passive Faraday screen model and considering the filling factor fne, we obtain the thermal electron density ne = 1,0/??ne (±5%) cm-3 and the strength of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field B// = 5,0/??ne (±10%) ?G (i.e. pointing away from us) within the western shell of the W4 superbubble. When the known tilted geometry of the W4 superbubble is considered, the total magnetic field Btot in its western shell is greater than 12 ?G. The electron density and the magnetic field are lower and weaker in the high-latitude parts of the superbubble. The rotation measure is found to be positive in the eastern shell but negative in the western shell of the W4 superbubble, which is consistent with the case where the magnetic field in the Perseus arm is lifted up from the plane towards high latitudes. Conclusions: The magnetic field strength and the electron density we derived for the W4 superbubble are important parameters for evolution models of superbubbles breaking out of the Galactic plane.

  18. Fast ignition studies and magnetic field generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments, theory and simulation have been carried out to describe intense, relativistic short pulse laser interaction with dense plasmas. Magnetic fields of up to 0.7 GGauss have been measured through polarization measurements of high order laser harmonics. Simulation and analytic theory show that these fields are associated with photon momentum deposition. The same mechanism can cause weaker fields in the speckle of long pulse laser in underdense plasmas, leading to termination of SBS. Other magnetic fields in gas-filled hohlraums lead to steep temperature gradients in regions where linear transport fails. A Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code has been developed to study these effects more accurately. (author)

  19. Research of weak pulsed magnetic field system derived from the time, displacement, and static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus.

  20. Research of weak pulsed magnetic field system derived from the time, displacement, and static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus. PMID:26520987

  1. Magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Yudin, R V

    2004-01-01

    Herbig Ae stars are young A-type stars in the pre-main sequence evolutionary phase with masses of ~1.5-3 M_o. They show rather intense surface activity (Dunkin et al. 1997) and infrared excess related to the presence of circumstellar disks. Because of their youth, primordial magnetic fields inherited from the parent molecular cloud may be expected, but no direct evidence for the presence of magnetic fields on their surface, except in one case (Donati et al. 1997), has been found until now. Here we report observations of optical circular polarization with FORS 1 at the VLT in the three Herbig Ae stars HD 139614, HD 144432 and HD 144668. A definite longitudinal magnetic field at 4.8 sigma level, =-450+-93 G, has been detected in the Herbig Ae star HD 139614. This is the largest magnetic field ever diagnosed for a Herbig Ae star. A hint of a weak magnetic field is found in the other two Herbig Ae stars, HD 144432 and HD 144668, for which magnetic fields are measured at the ~1.6 sigma and ~2.5 sigma level respect...

  2. Fully relativistic self-consistent field under a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Ryan D; Shiozaki, Toru

    2015-06-14

    We present a gauge-invariant implementation of the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method for simulating the electronic structure of heavy element complexes in magnetic fields. The additional cost associated with the magnetic field is shown to be only 10-13% of that at zero field. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function is constructed from gauge-including atomic orbitals. The so-called restricted magnetic balance is used to generate 2-spinor basis functions for the small component. The molecular integrals for the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions are computed using density fitting. Our efficient, parallel implementation allows for simulating the electronic structure of molecules containing more than 100 atoms with a few heavy elements under magnetic fields. PMID:25310527

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization properties of asymmetric nuclear matter under a strong magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Rabhi, A.; Pérez-García, M.A.; Providência, C.; Vidaña, I

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same...

  4. Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field center

    OpenAIRE

    Liang LI; PENG, TAO; Ding, Honfa; Han, Xiaotao; Ding, Tonghai; Chen, Jin; Wang, Junfeng; Xie, Jianfeng; Wang, Shaoliang; Duan, Xianzhong; Wang, Cheng; Herlach, Fritz; Vanacken, Johan; Pan, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field facility is under development. Magnets of bore sizes from 12 to 34 mm with the peak field in the range of 50 to 80 T have been designed. The pulsed power supplies consists of a 12 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank and a 100 MVA/100 MJ flywheel pulse generator. A prototype 1 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank is under construction. Five magnets wound with CuNb wire and copper wire reinforced internally with Zylon fiber composites and externally with stainless steel shells have be...

  5. Neumann system, spherical pendulum and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study a certain magnetic-like perturbation of the Neumann system. We prove the integrability of this system and show how its solutions are related to the solutions of a charged spherical pendulum influenced by the topologically nontrivial magnetic field Bd(q)=q/vertical bar q vertical bar3 of the Dirac monopole. In the case when the quadratic potential of the Neumann system has a suitable axial symmetry, our system describes the motion of a charged particle under the influence of the potential and the homogeneous magnetic field Bh(q)=(1, 0, 0). (author)

  6. Evolution of primordial magnetic fields in mean-field approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli, LeonardoDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, 70126, Bari, Italy

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of phase-transition-generated cosmic magnetic fields coupled to the primeval cosmic plasma in the turbulent and viscous free-streaming regimes. The evolution laws for the magnetic energy density and the correlation length, both in the helical and the non-helical cases, are found by solving the autoinduction and Navier–Stokes equations in the mean-field approximation. Analytical results are derived in Minkowski spacetime and then extended to the case of a Friedmann unive...

  7. Magnetic Fields in Stellar Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Uzdensky, Dmitri; Ji, Hantao; Townsend, Richard; Yamada, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    This is a white paper submitted to the Stars and Stellar Evolution (SSE) Science Frontier Panel (SFP) of the NRC's 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. The white paper is endorsed by the NSF Physics Frontier Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (CMSO).

  8. Charged Particles in Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Recalde, C. L.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Dasgupta, B.

    2013-12-01

    As new questions arise as of how particles travel through space, new methods of answering these questions can be implemented. By using chaotic streamlines in the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows, particles can be set in motion at any point on an imaginary 2? x 2? x 2? cube. Trough computer codes written to track the different paths these particles can take, the paths can be observed. A chaotic magnetic field is recreated and introduced through a computer code as well as the magnetic field that has a determined start and end position. Histograms and Poincaré sections are created to record the information. The purpose of this experiment is to observe the charged particles on the chaotic magnetic field and on the constant magnetic field. Through tracking the distances the particle traveled during an allocated time the diffusion of particles in magnetic fields can be further understood, however, not completely. Furthermore these fields can widely occur in nature, in astrophysical environments, such as solar fares, solar corona, solar wind, and also in laboratory plasmas, thus, with further studies these fields can help understand them. Figure 1. Six principal vortexes Figure 2. Poincare Section of Vortexes

  9. Electrical properties of chain microstructure magnetic emulsions in magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Zakinyan, Arthur; Dikansky, Yury; Bedzhanyan, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with the experimental study of the emulsion whose dispersion medium is a magnetic fluid while the disperse phase is formed by a glycerin-water mixture. It is demonstrated that under effect of a magnetic field chain aggregates form from the disperse phase drops. Such emulsion microstructure change affects its macroscopic properties. The emulsion dielectric permeability and specific electrical conductivity have been measured. It is demonstrated that under the ef...

  10. The Magnetic Field of Solar Spicules

    CERN Document Server

    Centeno, R; Ramos, A Asensio

    2009-01-01

    Determining the magnetic field of solar spicules is vital for developing adequate models of these plasma jets, which are thought to play a key role in the thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure of the chromosphere. Here we report on magnetic spicule properties in a very quiet region of the off-limb solar atmosphere, as inferred from new spectropolarimetric observations in the HeI 10830 A triplet. We have used a novel inversion code for Stokes profiles caused by the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects (HAZEL) to interpret the observations. Magnetic fields as strong as 40G were unambiguously detected in a very localized area of the slit, which may represent a possible lower value of the field strength of organized network spicules.

  11. Variable-field permanent magnet dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Meyer, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole (VFPMD) has been designed, fabricated, and tested at Los Alamos. The VFPMD is a C-shaped sector magnet with iron poles separated by a large block of magnet material (SmCo). The central field can be continuously varied from 0.07 T to 0.3 T by moving an iron shunt closer or further away from the back of the magnet. The shunt is specially shaped to make the dependence of the dipole field strength on the shunt position as linear as possible. The dipole has a 2.8 cm high by 8 cm wide aperture with {approximately}10 cm long poles.

  12. Magnetizing a complex plasma without a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kählert, H; Bonitz, M; Löwen, H; Greiner, F; Piel, A

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a concept that mimics the magnetization of the heavy dust particles in a complex plasma while leaving the properties of the light species practically unaffected. It makes use of the frictional coupling between a complex plasma and the neutral gas, which allows to transfer angular momentum from a rotating gas column to a well-controlled rotation of the dust cloud. This induces a Coriolis force that acts exactly as the Lorentz force in a magnetic field. Experimental normal mode measurements for a small dust cluster with four particles show excellent agreement with theoretical predictions for a magnetized plasma.

  13. Small-scale solar magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed properties of small-scale solar magnetic fields are reviewed. Most of the magnetic flux in the photosphere is in the form of strong fields of about 100-200 mT (1-2kG), which have remarkably similar properties regardless of whether they occur in active or quite regions. These fields are associated with strong atmospheric heating. Flux concentrations decay at a rate of about 107Wbs-1, independent of the amount of flux in the decaying structure. The decay occurs by smaller flux fragments breaking loose from the larger ones i.e. a transfer of magnetic flux from smaller to larger Fourier wave numbers, into the wave-number regime where ohmic diffusion becomes significant. This takes place in a time-scale much shorter than the length of the solar cycle. The field amplification occurs mainly below the solar surface, since very little magnetic flux appears in diffuse form in the photosphere, and the life-time of the smallest flux elements is very short. The observations further suggest that most of the magnetic flux in quiet regions is supplied directly from below the solar surface rather than being the result of turbulent diffusion of active-region magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

    2010-12-15

    Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

  15. Simultaneous quadrupole and octupole shape phase transitions in Thorium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z P; Yao, J M; Vretenar, D; Meng, J

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of quadrupole and octupole shapes in Th isotopes is studied in a fully microscopic framework based on nuclear Density Functional Theory. The constrained potential energy maps and observables calculated with microscopic collective Hamiltonians, indicate the occurrence of a simultaneous quantum shape phase transition between spherical and quadrupole-deformed prolate shapes, and between non-octupole and octupole-deformed shapes, as functions of the nucleon number. $^{224}$Th is predicted closest to the critical point of the double phase transition. A microscopic mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed in terms of the evolution of single-nucleon orbitals with deformation.

  16. Spectroscopy of quadrupole and octupole states in rare-earth nuclei from a Gogny force

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, K; Robledo, L M

    2015-01-01

    Collective quadrupole and octupole states are described in a series of Sm and Gd isotopes within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM), whose Hamiltonian parameters are deduced from mean field calculations with the Gogny energy density functional. The link between both frameworks is the ($\\beta_2\\beta_3$) potential energy surface computed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework in the case of the Gogny force. The diagonalization of the IBM Hamiltonian provides excitation energies and transition strengths of an assorted set of states including both positive and negative parity states. The resultant spectroscopic properties are compared with the available experimental data and also with the results of the configuration mixing calculations with the Gogny force within the generator coordinate method (GCM). The structure of excited $0^{+}$ states and its connection with double octupole phonons is also addressed. The model is shown to describe the empirical trend of the low-energy quadrupole and o...

  17. Martensitic transformation in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the isothermal martensitic transformation in Fe--29.6 Ni and Fe--22.5 Ni--4 Mn alloys were investigated as a function of constant magnetic fields, ranging up to 140 KOe (11 x 106 ampere/m). The principal role of the applied magnetic field is to increase the free-energy difference between the product and parent phases in these iron-based alloys, and so the transformational driving force for a given composition can be varied even at a fixed temperature. In the Fe--Ni alloy, the isothermal transformation rate is increased by raising the magnetic field as well as by lowering the temperature, leading in either case to the entre of burst characteristics. The Fe--Ni--Mn alloy does not transform perceptibly without an applied field, but exhibits isothermal C-curve kinetics in fields above 60 KOe (4.8 x 106 ampere/m). The average volume per martensitic plate ad the average plate orientation are found to be insensitive to the strength and direction of the magnetic field, undoubtedly indicating the dominance of autocatalytic nucleation during the course of the isothermal transformation. However, there is some tendency for the morphology to become less lath-like and more plate-like with increasing field strength at a given transformation temperature, and likewise with increasing temperature at a given driving force. Evidently, the prevailing view that martensite becomes more plate-like with decreasing transformation temperature is a consequence of the attendant increase in driving force rather than a pure thermal effect. Nucleation rate measurements have also been carried out as a function of temperature and magnetic-field strength. In testing nucleation models against these results, it is necessary to take into account the effects of magnetic field, as well as of temperature, on the elastic constants

  18. Galactic magnetic fields and hierarchical galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L. F. S.; Shukurov, A.; Fletcher, A.; Baugh, C. M.

    2015-07-01

    A framework is introduced for coupling the evolution of galactic magnetic fields sustained by the mean-field dynamo with the formation and evolution of galaxies in cold dark matter cosmology. Estimates of the steady-state strength of the large-scale and turbulent magnetic fields from mean-field and fluctuation dynamo models are used together with galaxy properties predicted by semi-analytic models of galaxy formation for a population of spiral galaxies. We find that the field strength is mostly controlled by the evolving gas content of the galaxies. Thus, because of the differences in the implementation of the star formation law, feedback from supernovae and ram-pressure stripping, each of the galaxy formation models considered predicts a distribution of field strengths with unique features. The most prominent of them is the difference in typical magnetic field strengths obtained for the satellite and central galaxy populations as well as the typical strength of the large-scale magnetic field in galaxies of different mass.

  19. Quantum processes in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.

    1975-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical processes that occur in a piece of matter embedded in a magnetic field with a strength of the order of 10 to the 13th power G are described which either are entirely due to the presence of the field or become modified because of it. The conversion of rotational energy into electromagnetic energy in pulsars is analyzed as a mechanism for producing such a field, and it is shown that a strong magnetic field is not sufficient for quantum effects to play a significant role; in addition, the density must be adjusted to be as low as possible. The pressure and energy density of a free electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are evaluated, neutron beta-decay in the presence of a strong field is examined, and the effect of such a field on neutrino reactions is discussed. The thermal history of a neutron star is studied, and it is concluded that a strong magnetic field helps to increase the cooling rate of the star by producing new channels through which neutrinos can carry away energy.

  20. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to ??B, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  1. Hydrogen atoms in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a variational scheme for calculating the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the hydrogen atom in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Numerical calculations were performed for several of the lowest states, and for the wavelengths of some allowed transitions. We discuss briefly the equivalence of the problems related with solid-state physics and astrophysics, and compare our results with previous calculations. Because the suggested scheme converges very fast for fields up to approximately 109 G this is a convenient manner in which to treat problems where the interest is concentrated in the range of variation of the magnetic field from zero up to approximately 109 G

  2. Measuring vector magnetic fields in solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Suárez, D Orozco; Bueno, J Trujillo

    2012-01-01

    We present spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet of a quiescent, hedgerow solar prominence. The data were taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The observed He I circular and linear polarization signals are dominated by the Zeeman effect and by atomic level polarization and the Hanle effect, respectively. These observables are sensitive to the strength and orientation of the magnetic field vector at each spatial point of the field of view. We determine the magnetic field vector of the prominence by applying the HAZEL inversion code to the observed Stokes profiles. We briefly discuss the retrieved magnetic field vector configuration.

  3. Poloidal Magnetic Fields In Superconducting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksson, K T

    2012-01-01

    We develop the formalism for computing the magnetic field within an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong Type II superconductor core surrounded by a normal conductor. The formalism takes full account of the constraints imposed by hydrostatic equilibrium with a barotropic equation of state. We specialize to purely poloidal magnetic fields and develop the "most dipolar case" for which we find that the surface field strength is $\\simeq H_b\\epsilon_b/3\\simeq 3\\times 10^{12}$ G, where $H_b$ is the magnetic field at the outer edge of the core and $\\epsilon_b R$ is the thickness of the normal shell. This value only depends on the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also find that the quadrupolar distortion of the star is $\\sim 10^{-9}$.

  4. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew J; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relativ...

  5. A holographic bound on cosmic magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark–gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (?3.6×1018gauss at the hadronization temperature in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.

  6. Measurements of Photospheric and Chromospheric Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lagg, Andreas; Harvey, Jack; Gosain, Sanjay; Centeno, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is replete with magnetic fields, with sunspots, pores and plage regions being their most prominent representatives on the solar surface. But even far away from these active regions, magnetic fields are ubiquitous. To a large extent, their importance for the thermodynamics in the solar photosphere is determined by the total magnetic flux. Whereas in low-flux quiet Sun regions, magnetic structures are shuffled around by the motion of granules, the high-flux areas like sunspots or pores effectively suppress convection, leading to a temperature decrease of up to 3000 K. The importance of magnetic fields to the conditions in higher atmospheric layers, the chromosphere and corona, is indisputable. Magnetic fields in both active and quiet regions are the main coupling agent between the outer layers of the solar atmosphere, and are therefore not only involved in the structuring of these layers, but also for the transport of energy from the solar surface through the corona to the interplanetary space. Conseque...

  7. Magnetic field structure in Monoceros R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Novak, G.; Xie, T.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out polarimetric observations to investigate the geometry of the magnetic field in the giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2. This study is based upon deep R-band charge coupled device (CCD) polarimetry, covering a total area of 0.5 deg(exp 2) of the giant molecular cloud. The data were calibrated using a new technique that relies on obtaining broad-band photometry of stars simultaneously with polarimetric photometry of the Mon R2 fields, thus providing an accurate means of measuring the electric vectors of starlight which is polarized by the fore-ground dust grains aligned by the magnetic field in the Mon R2 GMC. In this work, (1) we were able to continuously trace magnetic field lines from the largest scales in Mon R2 to the detailed structure of the field in the dense core, as determined from infrared polarimetry; and (2) we have found that the ambient field is apparently modified by a large-scale structure in the Mon R2 cloud. The mean angle of polarization for the complete sample we measured is 158 deg, which is roughly coincident with the local Galactic magnetic field (155 deg). The dispersion in the angle of polarization is 33 deg, similar to that found in the Orion GMC. The dispersion in angle of polarization for stars located along the western side of the three CCD fields is 22 deg. The CCD fields are bisected by a dense ridge of gas defining the boundary of an expanding gas shell that recent observational results at millimeter wavelengths now reveal dominates the Mon R2 GMC. Our results suggest th at the expanding shell has distorted the magnetic field lines extending from the core to the northern gas structure comprising Mon R2.

  8. Magnetic fields in gaps surrounding giant protoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Keith, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Giant protoplanets evacuate a gap in their host protoplanetary disc, which gas must cross before it can be accreted. A magnetic field is likely carried into the gap, potentially influencing the flow. Gap crossing has been simulated with varying degrees of attention to field evolution (pure hydrodynamical, ideal, and resistive MHD), but as yet there has been no detailed assessment of the role of the field accounting for all three key non-ideal MHD effects: Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, and Hall drift. We present a detailed investigation of gap magnetic field structure as determined by non-ideal effects. We assess susceptibility to turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability, and angular momentum loss from large-scale fields. As full non-ideal simulations are computationally expensive, we take an a posteriori approach, estimating MHD quantities from the pure hydrodynamical gap crossing simulation by Tanigawa et al. (2012). We calculate the ionisation fraction and estimate field strength an...

  9. Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barba, Paolo Di; Wiak, S

    2008-01-01

    Covering the development of field computation in the past forty years, Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism intends to be a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to field models in electricity and magnetism, ranging from basic theory to numerical applications. The approach assumed throughout the whole book is to solve field problems directly from partial differential equations in terms of vector quantities. Theoretical issues are illustrated by practical examples. In particular, a single example is solved by different methods so that, by comparison of results, limitations and advantages of the various methods are made clear. The subjects of the synthesis of fields and of the optimal design of devices, which are growing in research and so far have not been adequately covered in textbooks, are developed in addition to more classical subjects of analysis. Topics covered include: vector fields: electrostatics, magnetostatics, steady conduction; analytical methods for solving boundary-value probl...

  10. Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Ledbetter, Micah; Blanchard, John; Ring, Hattie; Ganssle, Paul; Appelt, Stephan; Bluemich, Bernhard; Pines, Alex; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near-zero-field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J-coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high field case, where heteronuclear J-couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectra. Experimental results are in good agreement with first-order perturbation theory and with full numerical simulation when perturbation theory breaks down. We present simple rules for understanding the splitting patterns in near-zero-field NMR, which can be applied to molecules with non-trivial spectra.

  11. Magnetic Field Strengths in Photodissociation Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Balser, Dana S; Jeyakumar, S; Bania, T M; Montet, Benjamin T; Shitanishi, J A

    2015-01-01

    We measure carbon radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 5.3 GHz toward four HII regions with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to determine the magnetic field strength in the photodissociation region (PDR) that surrounds the ionized gas. Roshi (2007) suggests that the non-thermal line widths of carbon RRLs from PDRs are predominantly due to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves, thus allowing the magnetic field strength to be derived. We model the PDR with a simple geometry and perform the non-LTE radiative transfer of the carbon RRL emission to solve for the PDR physical properties. Using the PDR mass density from these models and the carbon RRL non-thermal line width we estimate total magnetic field strengths of B ~ 100-300 micro Gauss in W3 and NGC6334A. Our results for W49 and NGC6334D are less well constrained with total magnetic field strengths between B ~ 200-1000 micro Gauss. HI and OH Zeeman measurements of the line-of-sight magnetic field strength (B_los), taken from the literature, are between a facto...

  12. Magnetic Fields and Massive Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M; Hauyu,; Liu,; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M; Li, Zhi-Yun; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T P; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Frau, Pau; Chen, How-Huan; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain; Csengeri, Timea; Juarez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars ($M > 8$ \\msun) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 $\\mu$m obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of $\\lsim$ 0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within $40^\\circ$ of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the ...

  13. Magnetic fields of non-degenerate stars

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, JF

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic fields are present in a wide variety of stars throughout the HR diagram and play a role at basically all evolutionary stages, from very-low-mass dwarfs to very massive stars, and from young star-forming molecular clouds and protostellar accretion discs to evolved giants/supergiants and magnetic white dwarfs/neutron stars. These fields range from a few microG (e.g., in molecular clouds) to TeraG and more (e.g., in magnetic neutron stars); in non-degenerate stars in particular, they feature large-scale topologies varying from simple nearly-axisymmetric dipoles to complex non-axsymmetric structures, and from mainly poloidal to mainly toroidal topology. After recalling the main techniques of detecting and modelling stellar magnetic fields, we review the existing properties of magnetic fields reported in cool, hot and young non-degenerate stars and protostars, and discuss our understanding of the origin of these fields and their impact on the birth and life of stars.

  14. Reionization constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Kanhaiya L; Sethi, Shiv K; Ferrara, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of the extra density fluctuations induced by primordial magnetic fields on the reionization history in the redshift range: $6 < z < 10$. We perform a comprehensive MCMC physical analysis allowing the variation of parameters related to primordial magnetic fields (strength, $B_0$, and power-spectrum index $n_{\\scriptscriptstyle \\rm B}$), reionization, and $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. We find that magnetic field strengths in the range: $B_0 \\simeq 0.05{-}0.3$ nG (for nearly scale-free power spectra) can significantly alter the reionization history in the above redshift range and can relieve the tension between the WMAP and quasar absorption spectra data. Our analysis puts upper-limits on the magnetic field strength $B_0 < 0.362, 0.116, 0.057$ nG (95 % c.l.) for $n_{\\scriptscriptstyle \\rm B} = -2.95, -2.9, -2.85$, respectively. These represent the strongest magnetic field constraints among those available from other cosmological observables.

  15. Magnetic field of heliotron and mirror-type magnetic system combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In numerical calculations for the model of combined magnetic system a possibility of existence of closed magnetic surfaces is shown. The model comprises the magnetic system of l=2 torsatron without additional toroidal magnetic field coils (heliotron) with a single current-carrying turn as an element of the mirror-type magnetic system. The turn encircles the heliotron closed magnetic surface region and produces a magnetic field of opposite direction to the heliotron magnetic field.

  16. Magnetic field properties in a birdcage coil

    OpenAIRE

    Boissoles, Patrice; Caloz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency magnetic fields used in MRI experiments have to satisfy specific properties. First, they need to be as homogeneous as possible to excite uniformly the nuclei. Secondly, as the nuclei, these fields need to have a precession movement at Larmor frequency. In this paper we present a numerical study of these properties in the case of the birdcage coil. We derive analytic expression of the RF field through an equivalent circuit model. Properties are validated through numerical simula...

  17. Mechanism of magnetic field effect in cryptochrome

    CERN Document Server

    Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2011-01-01

    Creatures as varied as mammals, fish, insects, reptiles, and migratory birds have an intriguing `sixth' sense that allows them to distinguish north from south by using the Earth's intrinsic magnetic field. Yet despite decades of study, the physical basis of this magnetic sense remains elusive. A likely mechanism is furnished by magnetically sensitive radical pair reactions occurring in the retina, the light-sensitive part of the eyes. A photoreceptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to endow birds with magnetoreceptive abilities as the protein has been shown to exhibit the biophysical properties required for an animal magnetoreceptor to operate properly. Here, we propose a concrete light-driven reaction cycle in cryptochrome that lets a magnetic field influence the signaling state of the photoreceptor. The reaction cycle ties together transient absorption and electron-spin-resonance observations with known facts on avian magnetoreception. Our analysis establishes the feasibility of cryptochrome to act as a g...

  18. Nuclear dynamical octupole deformation in heavy-ion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Jin, Xin; Wang, Nan; Zhao, En-Guang

    2015-10-01

    Within the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model, the dynamical octupole deformation is studied as a function of the central distance between the projectile and target in the approaching process of heavy-ion fusion reactions. The dependence of the maximum dynamical octupole deformations on the incident energies is also investigated. The dynamical octupole deformations can be observed during the approaching process, and the maximum dynamical octupole deformations become more significant with decreasing incident energies. The distributions of the proton and neutron centers in the projectile and target are also investigated, respectively. In the approaching process of heavy-ion fusion reactions, the separation between proton centers for two nuclei is larger than that between neutron centers because of the strong Coulomb potential.

  19. High magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, John (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gail (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Jaramillo, Roger (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for high magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact treatment of conductive materials in a high magnetic field. A method includes applying a high magnetic field to at least a portion of a conductive material; and applying an inductive magnetic field to at least a fraction of the conductive material to induce a surface current within the fraction of the conductive material, the surface current generating a substantially bi-directional force that defines a vibration. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, the fraction of the conductive material is located within the portion of the conductive material and ohmic heating from the surface current is ohmically decoupled from the vibration. An apparatus includes a high magnetic field coil defining an applied high magnetic field; an inductive magnetic field coil coupled to the high magnetic field coil, the inductive magnetic field coil defining an applied inductive magnetic field; and a processing zone located within both the applied high magnetic field and the applied inductive magnetic field. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, and ohmic heating of a conductive material located in the processing zone is ohmically decoupled from a vibration of the conductive material.

  20. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Fridjonsson, Einar Orn

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth\\'s magnetic field system.

  1. Effect of magnetic field in malaria diagnosis using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Yuen, Clement

    2011-07-01

    The current gold standard method of Malaria diagnosis relies on the blood smears examination. The method is laborintensive, time consuming and requires the expertise for data interpretation. In contrast, Raman scattering from a metabolic byproduct of the malaria parasite (Hemozoin) shows the possibility of rapid and objective diagnosis of malaria. However, hemozoin concentration is usually extremely low especially at the early stage of malaria infection, rendering weak Raman signal. In this work, we propose the sensitive detection of enriched ?-hematin, whose spectroscopic properties are equivalent to hemozoin, based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by using magnetic nanoparticles. A few orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal of ?-hematin can be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field on SERS enhancement is investigated. Our result demonstrates the potential of SERS using magnetic nanoparticles in the effective detection of hemozoin for malaria diagnosis.

  2. Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, F.; Shebalin, J.; Girimaji, S.; Staack, D.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we will discuss our numerical studies of plasma jets and loops, of basic interest for plasma propulsion and plasma astrophysics. Space plasma propulsion systems require strong guiding magnetic fields known as magnetic nozzles to control plasma flow and produce thrust. Propulsion methods currently being developed that require magnetic nozzles include the VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) [1] and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Magnetic nozzles are functionally similar to de Laval nozzles, but are inherently more complex due to electromagnetic field interactions. The two crucial physical phenomenon are thrust production and plasma detachment. Thrust production encompasses the energy conversion within the nozzle and momentum transfer to a spacecraft. Plasma detachment through magnetic reconnection addresses the problem of the fluid separating efficiently from the magnetic field lines to produce maximum thrust. Plasma jets similar to those of VASIMR will be studied with particular interest in dual jet configurations, which begin as a plasma loops between two nozzles. This research strives to fulfill a need for computational study of these systems and should culminate with a greater understanding of the crucial physics of magnetic nozzles with dual jet plasma thrusters, as well as astrophysics problems such as magnetic reconnection and dynamics of coronal loops.[2] To study this problem a novel, hybrid kinetic theory and single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver known as the Magneto-Gas Kinetic Method is used.[3] The solver is comprised of a "hydrodynamic" portion based on the Gas Kinetic Method and a "magnetic" portion that accounts for the electromagnetic behaviour of the fluid through source terms based on the resistive MHD equations. This method is being further developed to include additional physics such as the Hall effect. Here, we will discuss the current level of code development, as well as numerical simulation results

  3. Photon Redshift in a Magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, H Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Previous results from the authors concerning the arising a tiny photon anomalous paramagnetic moment are also interpreted as a red-shift in analogy to the gravitational known effect. It is due to the photon interaction with the magnetized virtual electron-positron background which withdraw transverse momentum from photons and is polarization-dependent. If the photon frequency red-shift implies a change in time, a clock would go faster for increasing magnetic field intensity.

  4. Stray magnetic field distributed around a PMSM

    OpenAIRE

    ADAM, Ali Ahmed; GÜLEZ, Kayhan; KÖRO?LU, Selim

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the low frequency electromagnetic emission from permanent magnet synchronous motors is studied. The main objective is to provide a safety region for humans in the vicinity of these motors, especially as these motors are now being used widely in inhabited areas, where high flux densities are expected. In this study, a new proposed equivalent magnetic circuit is used to estimate the stray fields at the surface of the motor. The analysis showed that the emission of the st...

  5. Interpretation of Solar Magnetic Field Strength Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, R. K.; Bertello, L.; Boyden, J. E.; Webster, L

    2008-01-01

    This study based on longitudinal Zeeman effect magnetograms and spectral line scans investigates the dependence of solar surface magnetic fields on the spectral line used and the way the line is sampled in order to estimate the magnetic flux emerging above the solar atmosphere and penetrating to the corona from magnetograms of the Mt. Wilson 150-foot tower synoptic program (MWO). We have compared the synoptic program \\lambda5250\\AA line of Fe I to the line of Fe I at \\lambda...

  6. Reduced Order modeling of high magnetic field magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Daversin, Cécile; Prud'Homme, Christophe; Trophime, Christophe; Veys, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    We present applications of the reduced basis method (RBM) to large-scale non-linear multi-physics problems connected to real industrial applications arising from the High Field Resistive Magnets development at the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses.

  7. Near-field aperture-probe as a magnetic dipole source and optical magnetic field detector

    CERN Document Server

    Denkova, Denitza; Silhanek, Alejandro V; Van Dorpe, Pol; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2014-01-01

    Scanning near-field field optical microscopy (SNOM) is a technique, which allows sub-wavelength optical imaging of photonic structures. While the electric field components of light can be routinely obtained, imaging of the magnetic components has only recently become of interest. This is so due to the development of artificial materials, which enhance and exploit the typically weak magnetic light-matter interactions to offer extraordinary optical properties. Consequently, both sources and detectors of the magnetic field of light are now required. In this paper, assisted by finite-difference time-domain simulations, we suggest that the circular aperture at the apex of a metal coated hollow-pyramid SNOM probe can be approximated by a lateral magnetic dipole source. This validates its use as a detector for the lateral magnetic near-field, as illustrated here for a plasmonic nanobar sample. Verification for a dielectric sample is currently in progress. We experimentally demonstrate the equivalence of the reciproc...

  8. Improvements on the present theoretical understanding of octupole correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo L.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some intriguing results, obtained in a recent survey of octupole properties for all even-even nuclei, are reanalyzed in order to understand the origin of the strong disagreement with experimental data and/or the strange behaviours observed. The limitations of the rotational formula to describe E1 and E3 transition strengths are discussed as well as the role played by octupole-quadrupole coupling in some specific nuclei.

  9. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.123528

  10. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure.

  11. Diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Schure, K M; Drury, L O'C; Bykov, A M

    2012-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration is the theory of particle acceleration through multiple shock crossings. In order for this process to proceed at a rate that can be reconciled with observations of high-energy electrons in the vicinity of the shock, and for cosmic rays protons to be accelerated to energies up to observed galactic values, significant magnetic field amplification is required. In this review we will discuss various theories on how magnetic field amplification can proceed in the presence of a cosmic ray population. On both short and long scales, cosmic ray streaming can induce instabilities that act to amplify the magnetic field. Developments in this area that have occurred over the past decade are the main focus of this paper.

  12. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, L. G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, Polo Industrial, CEP 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  13. Microwave Background Signals from Tangled Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, K; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Barrow, John D.

    1998-01-01

    An inhomogeneous cosmological magnetic field will create Alfven-wave modes that induce a small rotational velocity perturbation on the last scattering surface of the microwave background radiation. The Alfven-wave mode survives Silk damping on much smaller scales than the compressional modes. This, in combination with its rotational nature, ensures that there will be no sharp cut-off in anisotropy on arc-minute scales. We estimate that a magnetic field which redshifts to a present value of $3\\times 10^{-9}$ Gauss produces temperature anisotropies at the 10 micro Kelvin level at and below 10 arc-min scales. A tangled magnetic field, which is large enough to influence the formation of large scale structure is therefore potentially detectable by future observations.

  14. Field-dependent motion of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle clusters under a rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of the behavior of biofunctionalized, magnetic nanoparticle clusters under rotating magnetic fields in an aqueous solution can help to facilitate the use of such nanoparticles in biomedical applications. In our previous study, two modes of motion, rotation and oscillation, were observed when biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticle clusters in an aqueous solution were subjected to a rotating magnetic field, and a critical cluster size was defined to distinguish the motion. In this paper, we further investigated this behavior as the magnetic field was varied. The results showed that as the frequency of the magnetic field increased and the field strength was held constant, the critical cluster size decreased. On the other hand, as the field strength increased and the field frequency was held constant, the critical cluster size increased. Accordingly, a field-dependent phase diagram was constructed to evaluate the efficacy of altering the cluster motion type by changing field conditions such as the frequency or amplitude for different cluster sizes. Moreover, it was found that the phase lags of clusters exhibiting rotational motion increased and the amplitudes of clusters exhibiting oscillational motion decreased as either the field frequency increased or the field strength decreased

  15. Chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an introductory review of chaotic magnetic field line in plasmas, together with some new results, with emphasis on the long-time tail and the fractional Brownian motion of the magnetic field line. The chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas is a typical chaotic phenomena in the Hamiltonian dynamical systems. The onset of stochasticity induced by a major magnetic perturbation is thought to cause a macroscopic rapid phenomena called the current disruption in the tokamak discharges. Numerical simulations on the basis of magnetohydrodynamics reveal in fact the disruptive phenomena. Some dynamical models which include the area-preserving mapping such as the standard mapping, and the two-wave Hamiltonian system can model the stochastic magnetic field. Theoretical results with use of the functional integral representation are given regarding the long-time tail on the basis of the radial twist mapping. It is shown that application of renormalization group technique to chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian system proves decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with the power law. Some new numerical results are presented which supports these theoretical results. (author)

  16. A magnetically field-controllable phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Alireza; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-04-01

    Phononic crystals are periodic structures consist of different materials in an elastic medium designed to interact with elastic waves. These crystals have practical applications, such as, frequency filters, beam splitters, sound or vibration protectors, acoustic lasers, acoustic mirrors and elastic waveguides. In this study, the wave propagation in a tunable phononic crystal is investigated. The magnetically controllable phononic crystal consists of a soft magnetorheological elastic medium undergoing large deformations upon the application of a magnetic field. Finite deformations and induced magnetic fields influence wave propagation characteristics in the periodic structure. The soft matrix is modeled as a hyperelastic elastomer to take into account the material nonlinearity. The integrated effects of material properties, transformation of the geometry of the unit cell, and the induced magnetic field, are used to tune the band structure of the periodic structure. Both analytical and finite element methods are employed to evaluate the dispersion diagrams considering Bloch boundary conditions. Results show that the applied magnetic field significantly affect the width and the position of band-gaps.

  17. Solar atmospheric rotation and the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Satish; Vats, Hari

    2012-07-01

    Solar rotation is known for more than four centuries, yet it is still an unresolved issue of solar physics. The rotation has been measured by three methods e.g. Feature tracing, Spectroscopic and flux modulation. We have used the last quite extensively for the estimation of rotation of the solar outer atmosphere, namely chromosphere and corona. These studies used Radio, X-ray and EUV images of the Sun. These investigations have provided quite detailed and systematic information of the solar rotation and its variability. This has established that solar atmosphere has differential rotation and the differentiality has a significant temporal and spatial variability. The spatial variability show that there is North-South asymmetry in the rotation of solar atmosphere. This asymmetry changes sign every solar cycle. This may be related to "Hale cycle". In this paper we tried to combine the Radio, X-ray and EUV estimates of rotation by comparative interpolation. The combined rotation profiles are drawn in the space-time coordinate in the same format as the longitudinal averaged magnetic field. The average magnetic field shows beautiful butterfly structures and poleward flow of the magnetic fields of opposite polarity. Preliminary comparison show that asymmetric differential rotation of the solar atmosphere peaks when the magnetic filed structure is more complex. In this paper a detail comparison of the magnetic field and solar atmospheric rotation will presented.

  18. Doped spin ladders under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)

  19. Manifestations of the Galactic Center Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Several independent lines of evidence reveal that a relatively strong and highly ordered magnetic field is present throughout the Galaxy's central molecular zone (CMZ). The field within dense clouds of the central molecular zone is predominantly parallel to the Galactic plane, probably as a result of the strong tidal shear in that region. A second magnetic field system is present outside of clouds, manifested primarily by a population of vertical, synchrotron-emitting filamentary features aligned with the field. Whether or not the strong vertical field is uniform throughout the CMZ remains undetermined, but is a key central issue for the overall energetics and the impact of the field on the Galactic center arena. The interactions between the two field systems are considered, as they are likely to drive some of the activity within the CMZ. As a proxy for other gas-rich galaxies in the local group and beyond, the Galactic center region reveals that magnetic fields are likely to be an important diagnostic, if no...

  20. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  1. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  2. Homogeneous viscous universes with magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis homogeneous universes are studied containing a large scale magnetic field. In the evolution three different phases are distinguished: the lepton, the plasma and the matter dominated eras. During the lepton and plasma eras, which form the radiation dominated phase, the material contents of the universe are taken to consist of a viscous fluid. The transport properties taking place during this radiation dominated period are described with the help of relativistic kinetic theory, thereby taking into account the effect of the magnetic field on the shear viscosity. In the matter dominated phase the contents of the universe mainly consists of dust and, therefore, viscosity is absent during this period. (Auth.)

  3. Helical magnetic fields via baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Piratova, Eduard F; Hortúa, Héctor J

    2014-01-01

    There is strong observational evidence for the presence of large-scale magnetic fields MF in galaxies and clusters, with strength $\\sim \\mu$G and coherence lenght on the order of Kpc. However its origin remains as an outstanding problem. One of the possible explanations is that they have been generated in the early universe. Recently, it has been proposed that helical primordial magnetic fields PMFs, could be generated during the EW or QCD phase transitions, parity-violating processes and predicted by GUT or string theory. Here we concentrate on the study of two mechanisms to generate PMFs, the first one is the $\

  4. Neutrino conversions in solar random magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the effect of a random magnetic field in the convective zone of the Sun super-imposed to a regular magnetic field on resonant neutrino spin-flavor oscillations. We argue for the existence of a field of strongly chaotic nature at the bottom of the convective zone. In contrast to previous attempts we employ a model motivated regular magnetic field profile: it is a static field solution to the solar equilibrium hydro-magnetic equations. These solutions have been known for a long time in the literature. We show for the first time that in addition they are twisting solutions. In this scenario electron antineutrinos are produced through cascades like ?eL ? ??L ? V-tildeeR, The detection of V-tildeeR at Earth would be a long-awaited signature of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The expected signals in the different experiments (SK, GALLEX-SAGE, Homestake) are obtained as a function of the level of noise, regular magnetic field and neutrino mixing parameters. Previous results obtained for small mixing and ad-hoc regular magnetic profiles are reobtained. We confirm the strong suppression for a large part of the parameter space of the V-tildeeR-flux for high energy boron neutrinos in agreement with present data of the SK experiment. We find that MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) regions (?m2 congruent with ]0-5 eV2, both small and large mixing solutions) are stable up to very large levels of noise (P = 0.7-0.8) but they are acceptable from the point of view of antineutrino production only for moderate levels of noise (P congruent with 0.95). For strong noise and a reasonable regular magnetic field, any parameter region (?m2, sin2 2?) is excluded. As a consequence, we are allowed to reverse the problem and to put limits on the r.m.s. field strength and transition magnetic moments by demanding a particle physics solution to the SNP in this scenario

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong-Joo, E-mail: sj.lee@kriss.re.kr; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a ?/2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5??T static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a ?/2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5??T static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible

  7. Reconnection rates of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sweet-Parker and Petschek scalings of magnetic reconnection rate are modified to include the effect of the viscosity. The modified scalings show that the viscous effect can be important in high-? plasmas. The theoretical reconnection scalings are compared with numerical simulation results in a tokamak geometry for three different cases: a forced reconnection driven by external coils, the nonlinear m = 1 resistive internal kink, and the nonlinear m = 2 tearing mode. In the first two cases, the numerical reconnection rate agrees well with the modified Sweet-Parker scaling, when the viscosity is sufficiently large. When the viscosity is negligible, a steady state which was assumed in the derivation of the reconnection scalings is not reached and the current sheet in the reconnection layer either remains stable through sloshing motions of the plasma or breaks up to higher m modes. When the current sheet remains stable, a rough comparison with the Sweet-Parker scaling is obtained. In the nonlinear m = 2 tearing mode case where the instability is purely resistive, the reconnection occurs on the slower dissipation time scale (Psi/sub s/ approx. eta). In addition, experimental data of the nonlinear m = 1 resistive internal kink in tokamak discharges are analyzed and are found to give reasonable agreement with the modified Sweet-Parker scaling

  8. Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered as a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation, and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations, and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong tangled magnetic field. Here we explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the $\\alpha-\\Omega$ dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop.~III star with $10$~M$_\\odot$ and an accretion rate of $10^{-3}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$, and a supermassive star with $10^5$~M$_\\odot$ and an accretion rate of $10^{-1}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$. For the $10$~M$_\\odot$ Pop.~III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least $100$~AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of $100$~L$_\\odot$ and a mass outflow ra...

  9. Biomaterials and Magnetic fields for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstanty

    2003-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has emerged as an important topic in the purview of NASA s new vision of research activities in the Microgravity Research Division. Although this area has an extensive track record in the medical field as borne out by the routine use of polymeric sutures, implant devices, and prosthetics, novel applications such as tissue engineering, artificial heart valves and controlled drug delivery are beginning to be developed. Besides the medical field, biomaterials and bio-inspired technologies are finding use in a host of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as self-healing and self-assembling structures, biosensors, fuel systems etc. The field of magnetic fluid technology has several potential applications in medicine. One of the emerging fields is the area of controlled drug delivery, which has seen its evolution from the basic oral delivery system to pulmonary to transdermal to direct inoculations. In cancer treatment by chemotherapy for example, targeted and controlled drug delivery has received vast scrutiny and substantial research and development effort, due to the high potency of the drugs involved and the resulting requirement to keep the exposure of the drugs to surrounding healthy tissue to a minimum. The use of magnetic particles in conjunction with a static magnetic field allows smart targeting and retention of the particles at a desired site within the body with the material transport provided by blood perfusion. Once so located, the therapeutical aspect (radiation, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) of the treatment, now highly localized, can be implemented.

  10. Survey of residential magnetic field sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nationwide survey of 1000 residences is underway to determine the sources and characteristics of magnetic fields in the home. This report describes the goals, statistical sampling methods, measurement protocols, and experiences in measuring the first 707 residences of the survey. Some preliminary analysis of the data is also included. Investigators designed a sampling method to randomly select the participating utilities as well as the residential customers for the study. As a first step in the project, 18 utility employee residences were chosen to validate a relatively simple measurement protocol against the results of a more complete and intrusive method. Using the less intrusive measurement protocol, researchers worked closely with representatives from EPRI member utilities to enter customer residences and measure the magnetic fields found there. Magnetic field data were collected in different locations inside and around the residences. Twenty-four-hour recorders were left in the homes overnight. Tests showed that the simplified measurement protocol is adequate for achieving the goals of the study. Methods were developed for analyzing the field caused by a residence's ground current, the lateral field profiles of field lines, and the field measured around the periphery of the residences. Methods of residential source detection were developed that allow identification of sources such as ground connections at an electrical subpanel, two-wire multiple-way switches, and underground or overhead net currents exiting the periphery of a residence

  11. Magnetic field configuration of the theta aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theta aurora is an approximately Sun-aligned transpolar arc that often extends the entire length of the polar cap, linking the dayside and nightside auroral zones. It is a remarkable manifestation of polar cap auroral activity that appears during periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In this paper the authors describe a magnetic configuration of the open magnetosphere that is conducive to the formation of the theta aurora when the IMF has a significant northward component. They present a magnetic field topology and polar cap configuration that is derived from a quantitative model of the open magnetosphere that incorporates Crooker's antiparallel merging hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, when the IMF has a northward component, the dayside merging line bifurcates, leaving a large fraction of the subsolar magnetopause untouched by the merging process. The polar cap, defined by tracing magnetic field lines that connect from the solar wind to the Earth, is similarly bifurcated, leaving a sun-aligned stagnation region that is not magnetically connected to the solar wind and may plausibly be associated with the sun-aligned bar of the theta aurora. The model provides testable predictions with regard to the position of this convection gap in both northern and southern hemispheres as functions of IMF direction

  12. Terrestrial magnetic field effects on large photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonora, E.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the Earth's magnetic field on the performance of large PMTs for a cubic-kilometer-scale neutrino telescope has been studied. Measurements were performed for three Hamamatsu PMTs: two 8? R5912 types; one with a standard and the other with a super bialkali photocathode, and a 10? R7081 type with a standard bialkali photocathode. The main characteristics of the PMTs, such as detection efficiency, transit time, transit time spread, gain, peak-to-valley ratio, charge resolution and fractions of spurious pulses were measured while varying the PMT orientations with respect to the Earth's magnetic field. The measurements were performed both with and without a mu-metal cage magnetic shielding. For the 8? PMTs the impact of the magnetic field was found to be smaller than for the 10? PMT. The magnetic shielding strongly reduced the orientation-dependent variations measured for the 10? PMT and even improved the performance. Although less pronounced, improvements were also measured for the 8? PMTs.

  13. Terrestrial magnetic field effects on large photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonora, E., E-mail: emanuele.leonora@ct.infn.it [INFN section of Catania, Via S.Sofia, 64, Catania 95125 (Italy)

    2013-10-11

    The effects of the Earth's magnetic field on the performance of large PMTs for a cubic-kilometer-scale neutrino telescope has been studied. Measurements were performed for three Hamamatsu PMTs: two 8? R5912 types; one with a standard and the other with a super bialkali photocathode, and a 10? R7081 type with a standard bialkali photocathode. The main characteristics of the PMTs, such as detection efficiency, transit time, transit time spread, gain, peak-to-valley ratio, charge resolution and fractions of spurious pulses were measured while varying the PMT orientations with respect to the Earth's magnetic field. The measurements were performed both with and without a mu-metal cage magnetic shielding. For the 8? PMTs the impact of the magnetic field was found to be smaller than for the 10? PMT. The magnetic shielding strongly reduced the orientation-dependent variations measured for the 10? PMT and even improved the performance. Although less pronounced, improvements were also measured for the 8? PMTs.

  14. Field mapping of the KATRIN pinch magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment aims to probe the effective mass of the electron antineutrino in a model-independent way with an unsurpassed sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.). The energy spectrum of the electrons from Tritium ?-decay is analyzed by an electrostatic spectrometer which is based on the MAC-E filter principle. The so-called PINCH magnet - a superconducting solenoid located at the end of the spectrometer - is a crucial part of the MAC-E filter and its field strength of 6 T is directly related to the sensitivity of the experiment. Thus, a clear understanding of its field stability and field map is indispensable for the success of KATRIN. Along with an overview of the KATRIN experiment and the MAC-E filter principle this poster presents the results of a detailed study of the PINCH magnet's field map obtained with a 3-axis Hall probe.

  15. Antimagnets: Controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Chen, Du-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Magnetism is very important in science and technology, from magnetic recording to energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism - to create and manipulate magnetic fields- almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property which until now has been elusive: how to 'switch off' the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design to conc...

  16. Crystal Fields and the Magnetic Properties of Praseodymium and Neodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; Lebech, Bente

    1970-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Pr and Nd single crystals have been studied by neutron-diffraction and susceptibility measurements. In contrast to earlier results on polycrystals, monocrystalline Pr is found not to be magnetically ordered, because of crystal field effects, but a magnetic field induces a large moment. Anisotropic effective exchange results in a large magnetic anisotropy. The complex magnetic structure of Nd is substantially modified by a magnetic field.

  17. Cluster magnetic fields from active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Yang, H -Y

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) found at the centers of clusters of galaxies are a possible source for weak cluster-wide magnetic fields. To evaluate this scenario, we present 3D adaptive mesh refinement MHD simulations of a cool-core cluster that include injection of kinetic, thermal, and magnetic energy via an AGN-powered jet. Using the MHD solver in FLASH 2, we compare several sub-resolution approaches that link the estimated accretion rate as measured on the simulation mesh to the accretion rate onto the central black hole and the resulting feedback. We examine the effects of magnetized outflows on the accretion history of the black hole and discuss the ability of these models to magnetize the cluster medium.

  18. Magnetic-field considerations in superferric dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, S.C.

    1983-03-21

    Iron dominated magnets are characterized in the limit of infinite permeability by a pole shape that is a magnetic equipotential. Deviations from this ideal because of finite permeability are associated with differences in path length, local saturation, flux concentration in slotted pole if crenellation is used, and sub surface voids. For moderate field levels the variation in flux path length throughout the iron lowers the magnetic potential on the iron surface more for the longer paths. As the excitation increases the permeability is lowered in regions of high flux density. Crenellation in this region offers some degree of control over the permeability by concentrating the flux. To a lesser degree sub surface voids can be used to control the reluctance of a flux path. The net result suggests that the shape of the effective air gap can be adjusted to be a magnetic equipotential sensibly equivalent to the ideal pole shape for infinite permeability.

  19. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 40K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs

  20. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4/sup 0/K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs.

  1. Pulsed-field magnetometry for rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2015-12-01

    An improved method is proposed for measuring dynamic magnetizations of bulk volcanic rock samples induced by a pulsed-field of 0.7 T and a duration of 10 ms. The transient magnetization is measured by a sensing system that consists of a pair of inductive differential coils, an analog preamplifier and integrator, and a high-speed digital storage scope. The system was calibrated using a paramagnetic salt (Gd2O3) and was tested to different kinds of volcanic rocks with their magnetic properties well-documented previously. The results were comparable with those measured by a quasi-static method using a vibrating sample magnetometer, although there were small discrepancies in hysteresis parameters suggesting the time-dependence of the magnetic properties. The proposed system provides not only the magnetization over the short interval of a pulse but also the rapid (~3 ms) exponential decay after a pulse. The decay time constant was different among the samples under study, indicating the variations of their magnetic relaxation time. Although the present system is not sensitive enough to characterize varieties of natural samples including sediments, it has the potential as a versatile and convenient tool for rock magnetism.

  2. High field properties of geometrically frustrated magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitomirsky, M. E.; Tsunetsugu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Above the saturation field, geometrically frustrated quantum antiferromagnets have dispersionless low-energy branches of excitations corresponding to localized spin-flip modes. Transition into a partially magnetized state occurs via condensation of an infinite number of degrees of freedom. The ground state below the phase transition is a magnon crystal, which breaks only translational symmetry and preserves spin-rotations about the field direction. We give a detailed review ...

  3. Primordial magnetic fields and CMB anisotropies

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Possible signatures of primordial magnetic fields on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies are reviewed. The signals that could be searched for include excess temperature anisotropies particularly at small angular scales below the Silk damping scale, B-mode polarization, and non-Gaussian statistics. A field at a few nG level produces temperature anisotropies at the 5 micro Kelvin level, and B-mode polarization anisotropies 10 times s...

  4. Magnetic field generation in curved spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Swadesh M

    2011-01-01

    Using the generally covariant magnetofluid formalism for a hot plasma, a new curvature (of space time) driven mechanism for generating seed vorticity/magnetic field is presented. The "battery" owes its origin to the interaction between gravity (epitomized in the spatial variation of the metric tensor) and the inhomogeneous plasma thermodynamics. The general relativistic drive for the seed field is evaluated in a simplified model of a hot plasma accreting around a Schwarzschild black hole. Some astrophysical applications are suggested.

  5. Magnetic fields and density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury Jr., Freddie

    1999-02-01

    A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules.

  6. Magnetic fields and density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules

  7. Quadratic helicities and the energy of magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmet'ev, Petr M.

    2011-01-01

    Two non-local asymptotic invariants of magnetic fields for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. The velocity of variation of the invariants for a non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics with a small magnetic dissipation is estimated. By means of the invariants the spectra of electromagnetic fields are investigated. A possible role of higher magnetic helicities during a relaxation of magnetic fields is discussed.

  8. Electrical conductivity of quark matter in magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbikov, B.; Andreichikov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermion currents in dense quark matter embedded into magnetic field are under intense discussions motivated by Chiral Magnetic Effect. We argue that conductivity of quark matter may be independent of the magnetic field direction and not proportional to the magnetic field strength.

  9. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conduct...

  10. Measurement of the SC magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    The 3.5-metre-arm carrying 100 Hall plates used for the measurmeent of the SC magnetic field. The arm rotates in a horizontal plane, its positioning and the data read-out are controlled by an on-line computer.

  11. Electro-mechanical resonant magnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new type of magnetic field sensor, which is termed as an Electro-Mechanical Resonant Sensor (EMRS). The key part of this sensor is a small conductive elastic element with low damping rate and therefore, a high Q fundamental mode of frequency f1. An AC current is driven through the elastic element which, in the presence of a magnetic field, causes an AC force on the element. When the frequency of the AC current matches the resonant frequency of the element, maximum vibration of the element occurs and this can be measured precisely by optical means. We have built and tested a model sensor of this type by using for the elastic element, a length of copper wire of diameter 0.030 mm formed into a loop shape. The wire motion was measured using a light-emitting diode photo-transistor assembly. This sensor demonstrated a sensitivity better than 0.001 G for an applied magnetic field of ?1 G and a good selectivity for the magnetic field direction. The sensitivity can be easily improved by a factor of ?10-100 by a more sensitive measurement of the elastic element motion and by having the element in vacuum to reduce the drag force

  12. Electro-Mechanical Resonant Magnetic Field Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Temnykh, A B; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new type of magnetic field sensor which is termed an Electro-Mechanical Resonant Sensor (EMRS). The key part of this sensor is a small conductive elastic element with low damping rate and therefore a high Q fundamental mode of frequency $f_1$. An AC current is driven through the elastic element which, in the presence of a magnetic field, causes an AC force on the element. When the frequency of the AC current matches the resonant frequency of the element, maximum vibration of the element occurs and this can be measured precisely by optical means. We have built and tested a model sensor of this type using for the elastic element a length of copper wire of diameter 0.030 mm formed into a loop shape. The wire motion was measured using a light emitting diode photo-transistor assembly. This sensor demonstrated a sensitivity better than 0.001G for an applied magnetic field of $ \\sim 1$G and a good selectivity for the magnetic field direction. The sensitivity can be easily improved by a factor of $\\sim ...

  13. Brownian motion in a magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Czopnik, R.; Garbaczewski, P.

    2000-01-01

    We derive explicit forms of Markovian transition probability densities for the velocity space, phase-space and the Smoluchowski configuration-space Brownian motion of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field. By invoking a hydrodynamical formalism for those stochastic processes, we quantify a continual (net on the local average) heat transfer from the thermostat to diffusing particles.

  14. Evolution of magnetic field in interacting galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Drzazga, Robert T.; Chyzy, Krzysztof T.; Jurusik, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, To appear in the proceedings of Magnetic Fields in the Universe: From Laboratory and Stars to Primordial Structures Aug. 21st - 27th 2011, Zakopane, Poland, Eds. M. Soida, K. Otmianowska-Mazur, E.M. de Gouveia Dal Pino & A. Lazarian

  15. Charm production in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the effects of a strong magnetic field on B and D mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and the masses of the bound states. Using the Color Evaporation Model we discuss the possible changes in the production of J/? and ?. We briefly comment the recent experimental data

  16. Toroidal Magnetic Field Configurations And Finite Resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following paper discusses the confinement of low-? plasma in closed vacuum-magnetic-field configurations, with particular reference to the finite-resistivity hydromagnetic stability problem. The configurational solutions and stability results given in Sections II and III are part of a collaborative effort with M.N. Rosenbluth

  17. Measuring the magnetic field in SN 1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Hughes, J. P.; Moffett, D. A.

    2011-10-01

    We show that the magnetic field in SN 1006 is radial at the bright lobes but tangential at the SE of the radio shell, where the fractional polarization is highest. This result suggests that the strongest particle injection/acceleration occurs in parallel shocks and that the bright lobes represent polar caps.

  18. Cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhuowei; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Hengdi; Zhao, Shichao; Tang, Xiaosong; Tong, Yanjin; Song, Zhenfei; Tan, Fuli; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei

    2014-05-01

    The cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field (MC-1) is a kind of unique high energy density technique. It has characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising, and would have widely used in areas like high pressure physics, new material synthesis and ultrahigh magnetic field physics. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP) has begun the experiment since 2011 and a primary experimental device had been set-up. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5 Tesla were set-up first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive initiated synchronously. The internal diameter of the liner is 97 mm, and its thickness is 1.5 mm. The movement of liner was recorded optically and a typical turnaround phenomenon was observed. From the photography results the liner was compressed smoothly and evenly and its average velocity was about 5-6 km/s. In the experiment a axial magnetic field of over 1400 Tesla has been recorded. The MC-1 process was numerical simulated by 1D MHD code MC11D and the simulations are in accord with the experiments.

  19. Checking the Quality of Gradient Magnetic Fields.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Gescheidtová, E.; Kubásek, R.

    Gliwice : Politechnika Slaska, 2006, s. 207-210. ISBN 83-85940-28-6. [IC-SPETO 2006 International Conference on Fundamentals of Electrotechnics and Circuit Theory /29./. Gliwice (PL), 24.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MR * NMR * gradient magnetic field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  20. Calculation of magnetic field of helical coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formulae of magnetic field calculation of finite size helical coils with rectangular cross section are extended to the case that the size of the coil, or the relative position to the guiding curve, varies along the arc length of the guiding curve. The error caused by the inappropriate formulae or inappropriate current model is discussed. (author)

  1. Primordial magnetic fields from the string network

    CERN Document Server

    Horiguchi, Kouichirou; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic strings are a type of cosmic defect formed by a symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early universe. Individual strings would have gathered to build a network, and their dynamical motion would induce scalar--, vector-- and tensor--type perturbations. In this paper, we focus on the vector mode perturbations arising from the string network based on the one scale model and calculate the time evolution and the power spectrum of the associated magnetic fields. We show that the relative velocity between photon and baryon fluids induced by the string network can generate magnetic fields over a wide range of scales based on standard cosmology. We obtain the magnetic field spectrum before recombination as $a^2B(k,z)\\sim4\\times10^{-16}G\\mu/((1+z)/1000)^{4.25}(k/{\\rm Mpc}^{-1})^{3.5}$ Gauss on super-horizon scales, and $a^2B(k,z)\\sim2.4\\times10^{-17}G\\mu/((1+z)/1000)^{3.5}(k/{\\rm Mpc}^{-1})^{2.5}$ Gauss on sub-horizon scales in co-moving coordinates. This magnetic field grows up to the end of recombination, ...

  2. Regularities in the solar background magnetic field.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bumba, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 104, ?. 6 (2009), s. 87-94. ISSN 0190-2717. [Anniversary /100./ : past, present and future of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Nauchny, 25.09.2008-25.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : activity * magnetic field * planetary meetings Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  3. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd (Albuquerque, NM); Aronson, Eugene A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-09-14

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  4. Magnetic fields during primordial star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S; Federrath, Christoph; Arshakian, Tigran; Beck, Rainer; Spaans, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Recent FERMI observations provide a lower limit of 10^{-15} G for the magnetic field strength in the intergalactic medium (IGM). This is consistent with theoretical expectations based on the Biermann battery effect, which predicts such IGM fields already at redshifts z~10. During gravitational collapse, such magnetic fields can be amplified by compression and by turbulence, giving rise to the small-scale dynamo. On scales below the Jeans length, the eddy turnover timescale is much shorter than the free-fall timescale, so that saturation can be reached during collapse. This scenario has been tested and confirmed with magneto-hydrodynamical simulations following the collapse of a turbulent, weakly magnetized cloud. Based on a spectral analysis, we confirm that turbulence is injected on the Jeans scale. For the power spectrum of the magnetic field, we obtain the Kazantsev slope which is characteristic for the small-scale dynamo. A calculation of the critical length scales for ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissip...

  5. Serpentine emissions in the polar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very seldomly recorded ''Serpentine Emission'' (SE) in the polar magnetic field was recorded at Ny-Aalesund during 5. and 6. December 1977. Data from this event is presented and compared with previous observations of the phenomenon. The data collected on SE are few, and this report is an attempt to increase the data set of these emmissions. (Auth.)

  6. The Peierls transition under high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence on magnetic field of the Peierls transition has been clearly measured on the quasi-one-dimensional compound Per2[Au(mnt)2]. A quadratic dependence of the transition temperature has been found, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of time-varying magnetic fields from therapeutic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bhatia, Vivek; Prem-Kumar, Krishan; Ulfarsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging of static magnetic fields generated by external probes has been previously demonstrated, there is an unmet need to image time-varying magnetic fields, such as those generated by transcranial magnetic stimulators or radiofrequency hyperthermia probes. A method to image such time-varying magnetic fields is introduced in this work. This article presents the theory behind the method and provides proof of concept by imaging time-varying magnetic fields generated by...

  8. Evolution of primordial magnetic fields in mean-field approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We study the evolution of phase-transition-generated cosmic magnetic fields coupled to the primeval cosmic plasma in turbulent and viscous free-streaming regimes. The evolution laws for the magnetic energy density and correlation length, both in helical and non-helical cases, are found by solving the autoinduction and Navier-Stokes equations in mean-field approximation. Analytical results are derived in Minkowski spacetime and then extended to the case of a Friedmann universe with zero spatial curvature, both in radiation and matter dominated eras. The three possible viscous free-streaming phases are characterized by a drag term in the Navier-Stokes equation which depends on the free-steaming properties of neutrinos, photons, or hydrogen atoms, respectively. In the case of non-helical magnetic fields, the magnetic intensity $B$ and the magnetic correlation length $\\xi_B$ evolve asymptotically with the temperature $T$ as $B(T) \\simeq \\kappa_B (N_i v_i)^{\\varrho_1} (T/T_i)^{\\varrho_2}$ and $\\xi_B(T) \\simeq \\kap...

  9. Nanocomposite films with magnetic field sensing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite thin films were fabricated on SiO2/Si and (0001) Al2O3 substrates through solution deposition routes. The LSMO grain size reduced in the composite films as compared to that in pure LSMO film resulting in a larger volume fraction of grain boundaries. Further, compositional or magnetic disorder at the grain boundary region resulted in a reduction of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic and metal–insulator transition temperatures in LSMO:ZnO films. The magnetoresistance (MR) behavior in the composite films was revealed to be dominated by extrinsic effects with large values of MR at low temperatures and low applied fields. A maximum low-field MR value of ?23.9% was observed at 0.5 T and 10 K with the field applied parallel to the current for LSMO:ZnO film on Al2O3, with a maximum field sensitivity of 632%/T. - Graphical abstract: The magnetic field dependent magnetoresistance values at 10 K for La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) film on Al2O3 substrate are enhanced with addition of secondary phase in LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films on SiO2/Si and Al2O3 substrates. The field sensitivity further increases when the field is applied parallel to the current (H//I). - Highlights: • La0.67Sr0.33MnO3:ZnO composite films were fabricated by solution growth techniques. • Extrinsic magnetoresistance effects were dominant in the nanocomposite films. • Values of low-field magnetoresistance in composite films were enhanced as compared to those in pure LSMO film. • Maximum field sensitivity of 632%/T was found with magnetic field applied parallel to film

  10. Magnetic fields in gaps surrounding giant protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Sarah L.; Wardle, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Giant protoplanets evacuate a gap in their host protoplanetary disc, which gas must cross before it can be accreted. A magnetic field is likely carried into the gap, potentially influencing the flow. Gap crossing has been simulated with varying degrees of attention to field evolution [pure hydrodynamical, ideal, and resistive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD)], but as yet there has been no detailed assessment of the role of the field accounting for all three key non-ideal MHD effects: Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, and Hall drift. We present a detailed investigation of gap magnetic field structure as determined by non-ideal effects. We assess susceptibility to turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and angular momentum loss from large-scale fields. As full non-ideal simulations are computationally expensive, we take an a posteriori approach, estimating MHD quantities from the pure hydrodynamical gap-crossing simulation by Tanigawa, Ohtsuki & Machida. We calculate the ionization fraction and estimate field strength and geometry to determine the strength of non-ideal effects. We find that the protoplanetary disc field would be easily drawn into the gap and circumplanetary disc. Hall drift dominates, so that much of the gap is conditionally MRI unstable depending on the alignment of the field and disc rotation axes. Field alignment also influences the strong toroidal field component permeating the gap. Large-scale magnetic forces are small in the circumplanetary disc, indicating that they cannot drive accretion there. However, turbulence will be key during satellite growth as it affects critical disc features, such as the location of the ice line.

  11. Wide Aperture Multipole Magnets of Separator COMBAS

    CERN Document Server

    Artukh, A G; Gridnev, G F; Gruszecki, M; Koscielniak, F; Semchenkova, O V; Sereda, Yu M; Shchepunov, V A; Szmider, J; Teterev, Yu G; Severgin, Yu P; Rozhdestvensky, B V; Myasnikov, Yu A; Shilkin, N F; Lamzin, E A; Nagaenko, M G; Sytchevsky, S E; Vishnevski, I N

    2000-01-01

    The high-resolving wide aperture separator COMBAS has been designed and commissioned at the FLNR, JINR. Its magneto-optical structure is based on strong focusing principle. The magnetic fields of analysing magnets M_1, M_2, M_7, M_8, contain quadrupole components of alternating sign that provide necessary beam focusing. Besides, all the magnets M_1-M_8, contain sextupole and octupole field components, which minimizes the 2nd and 3rd order aberrations. All this allowed one to increase their apertures, to effectively form a beam of the required sizes, and to decrease the channel length. This implementation of wide aperture magnets with combined functions is unique for the separation technology. Three-components magnetic measurements of all the magnets were performed. The measured data allow reconstructing the 3D-distributions of the fields in all the magnets. 3D-maps are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator.

  12. Behavior of gas flow under gradient magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Nobuko I.

    1991-02-01

    The behavior of gas flow in air has been demonstrated visually under gradient magnetic fields in the range 0-40 T/m under 0-1.5 T. The magnetic behavior depended on the concentration of oxygen. Pure oxygen or nitrogen mixed oxygen (?30%) was observed to be attracted by a magnetic field and act like a magnetic fluid where the magnetic effect on the gas was comparable to that of normal diffusion. In contrast, nitrogen gas escaped from magnetic fields of high intensities, and no magnetic field effect was observed for the flow of air. These phenomena were explained by the difference between the force acting on the gas and that acting on the air surrounding it under gradient magnetic fields. The magnetic force increased with increasing concentration of oxygen. This explanation can be also applicable to the escape of flames from magnetic fields of relatively high intensity or the magnetic quenching of flames inside a pair of columnar poles.

  13. Collisionless reconnection: magnetic field line interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field lines are quantum objects carrying one quantum ?0 = 2?h/e of magnetic flux and have finite radius ?m. Here we argue that they possess a very specific dynamical interaction. Parallel field lines reject each other. When confined to a certain area they form two-dimensional lattices of hexagonal structure. We estimate the filling factor of such an area. Anti-parallel field lines, on the other hand, attract each other. We identify the physical mechanism as being due to the action of the gauge potential field, which we determine quantum mechanically for two parallel and two anti-parallel field lines. The distortion of the quantum electrodynamic vacuum causes a cloud of virtual pairs. We calculate the virtual pair production rate from quantum electrodynamics and estimate the virtual pair cloud density, pair current and Lorentz force density acting on the field lines via the pair cloud. These properties of field line dynamics become important in collisionless reconnection, consistently explaining why and how reconnection can spontaneously set on in the field-free centre of a current sheet below the electron-inertial scale.

  14. Octupole shaps in nuclei, and some rotational consequences thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years a large number of experimental papers presenting spectroscopic evidence for collective dipole and octupole deformations have appeared. Many theoretical attempts have been made to explain the observed spectroscopic properties in terms of stable octupole deformations. The coupling by the octupole potential, being proportional to Y30, is strongest for those subshells for which ?1 = 3. Therefore the tendency towards octupole deformation occurs just beyond closed shells where the high-j intruder subshells (N,1,j) lie very close to the normal parity subshells (N-1,1-3,j-3), i.e. for the particle numbers 34 (g/sub 9/2/-p/sub 3/2/), 56 (h/sub 11/2/-d/sub 5/2/). 9C (i/sub 13/2/-f/sub 7/2/) and 134 (j/sub 15/2/-g/sub 9/2/). Empirically, it is specifically for the particle numbers listed above that negative parity states are observed at relatively low energies in doubly even nuclei. From the different combinations of octupole-driving particle numbers four regions of likely candidates for octupole deformed equilibrium shapes emerge, namely the neutron-deficient nuclei with Z approx. = 90, N approx. = 134 (light actinides) and Z approx. = 34, N approx. = 34 (A approx. = 70) and the neutron-rich nuclei with Z approx. = 56, N approx. = 90 (heavy Ba) and Z approx. = 34, N56 (A approx. = 90). In our calculations we searched for octupole unstable nuclei in these four mass regions. The Strutinsky method with the deformed Woods-Saxon potential was employed. The macroscopic part consists of a finite-range liquid drop energy, where both the surface and Coulomb terms contain a diffuseness correction

  15. Magnetic fields in jets: ordered or disordered?

    CERN Document Server

    Laing, R A; Bridle, A H

    2006-01-01

    The question of the degree of order in the magnetic fields of relativistic jets is important to any understanding of their production. Both vector-ordered (e.g. helical) and disordered, but anisotropic fields can produce the high observed degrees of polarization. We outline our models of jets in FR I radio galaxies as decelerating relativistic flows. We then present theoretical calculations of the synchrotron emission from different field configurations and compare them with observed emission from FR I jets. We show that large-scale helical fields (with significant poloidal and toroidal components) are inconsistent with observations. The combination of an ordered toroidal and disordered poloidal component is consistent with our data, as is an entirely disordered field. Jets must also contain small, but significant amounts of radial field.

  16. RESISTIVE MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION AT COSMIC DAWN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic charged particles (CRs for cosmic rays) produced by supernova explosion of the first generation of massive stars that are responsible for the reionization of the universe escape into the intergalactic medium, carrying an electric current. Charge imbalance and induction give rise to a return current, j-vectort, carried by the cold thermal plasma which tends to cancel the CR current. The electric field, E-vector =? j-vectort, required to draw the collisional return current opposes the outflow of low-energy CRs and ohmically heats the cold plasma. Owing to inhomogeneities in the resistivity, ?(T), caused by a structure in the temperature, T, of the intergalactic plasma, the electric field possesses a rotational component which sustains Faraday's induction. It is found that a magnetic field is robustly generated throughout intergalactic space at a rate of 10-17 to 10-16 G Gyr-1, until the temperature of the intergalactic medium is raised by cosmic reionization. The magnetic field may seed the subsequent growth of magnetic fields in the intergalactic environment. The role of CR-driven instabilities is discussed, and nonlinear effects are briefly considered.

  17. Error field generation of solenoid magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many applications for large solenoids and solenoidal arrays depend on the high precision of the axial field profile. In cases where requirements of ?B/B for nonaxial fields are on the order of 10-4, the actual winding techniques of the solenoid need to be considered. Whereas an ideal solenoid consisting of current loops would generate no radial fields along the axis, in reality, the actual current-carrying conductors must follow spiral or helical paths. A straightforward method for determining the radial error fields generated by coils wound with actual techniques employed in magnet fabrication has been developed. The method devised uses a computer code which models a magnet by sending a single, current-carrying filament along the same path taken by the conductor during coil winding. Helical and spiral paths are simulated using small, straight-line current segments. This technique, whose results are presented in this paper, was used to predict radial field errors for the Elmo Bumpy Torus-Proof of Principle magnet. These results include effects due to various winding methods, not only spiral/helical and layer-to-layer transitions, but also the effects caused by worst-case tolerance conditions both from the conductor and the winding form (bobbin). Contributions made by extraneous circuitry (e.g., overhead buswork and incoming leads) are also mentioned

  18. Fiber-optic magnetic-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, I V; Doronina-Amitonova, L V; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Safronov, N A; Blakley, S; Levchenko, A O; Zibrov, S A; Fedotov, A B; Kilin, S Ya; Scully, M O; Velichansky, V L; Zheltikov, A M

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate a scanning fiber-optic probe for magnetic-field imaging where nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are coupled to an optical fiber integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. The electron spin of NV centers in a diamond microcrystal attached to the tip of the fiber probe is manipulated by a frequency-modulated microwave field and is initialized by laser radiation transmitted through the optical tract of the fiber probe. The two-dimensional profile of the magnetic field is imaged with a high speed and high sensitivity using the photoluminescence spin-readout return from NV centers, captured and delivered by the same optical fiber. PMID:25503039

  19. Magnetic field regulation control system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badelt, S.W. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This study comprises (1) an analytical characterization of the Cameca ion microscope`s magnetic field regulation circuitry and (2) comparisons between the analytical predictions and the measured performance of the control system. It is the first step in a project to achieve routine field regulation better than 10ppm. The control loop was decomposed into functional subcircuits and simulated in SPICE to determine DC, AC, and transient response. Transfer functions were extracted from SPICE, simplified, and analyzed in MATLAB. Both SPICE and MATLAB simulations were calculated for step inputs, and these results were compared to actual measurements. Magnetic field fluctuations were measured at high mass resolving power. The frequency spectrum of the fluctuations was analyzed by FFT. Difficulties encountered and implications for future work are discussed.

  20. Test particle transport in magnetic fields with perturbed magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial transport of circulating particles in a perturbed toroidal magnetic field configuration is calculated using the mapping technique. The specific models are stellarators with external perturbations and tokamaks with tearing modes. Coulomb collisions of the circulating particles are described by a Lorentz scattering model of random changes of the pitch angle. Particle orbits in a perturbated magnetic field lead to a deterministic map whereas the Coulomb collision introduce an extra stochastic process. First, the diffusion in a single chain of islands is studied by launching a sample of particles on the inner closed magnetic surface and calculating the loss rate. The presence of islands enhances the loss rate. In a second case the enhanced loss in a tokamak with two different islands on different resonant surfaces are investigated thus simulating tearing modes in tokamaks. It is found, that the loss rate across the island region grows rapidly if the islands overlap and the region in between becomes stochastic. In such a case the transport of particles is a mixture of stochastic diffusion of field lines and a random walk induced by Coulomb collisions. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic-Field-Tunable Superconducting Rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting electronic components have been developed that provide current rectification that is tunable by design and with an externally applied magnetic field to the circuit component. The superconducting material used in the device is relatively free of pinning sites with its critical current determined by a geometric energy barrier to vortex entry. The ability of the vortices to move freely inside the device means this innovation does not suffer from magnetic hysteresis effects changing the state of the superconductor. The invention requires a superconductor geometry with opposite edges along the direction of current flow. In order for the critical current asymmetry effect to occur, the device must have different vortex nucleation conditions at opposite edges. Alternative embodiments producing the necessary conditions include edges being held at different temperatures, at different local magnetic fields, with different current-injection geometries, and structural differences between opposite edges causing changes in the size of the geometric energy barrier. An edge fabricated with indentations of the order of the coherence length will significantly lower the geometric energy barrier to vortex entry, meaning vortex passage across the device at lower currents causing resistive dissipation. The existing prototype is a two-terminal device consisting of a thin-film su - perconducting strip operating at a temperature below its superconducting transition temperature (Tc). Opposite ends of the strip are connected to electrical leads made of a higher Tc superconductor. The thin-film lithographic process provides an easy means to alter edge-structures, current-injection geo - metries, and magnetic-field conditions at the edges. The edge-field conditions can be altered by using local field(s) generated from dedicated higher Tc leads or even using the device s own higher Tc superconducting leads.

  2. Experimental studies of low-level oscillations in a globally-stable EXTRAP field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out on the linear EXTRAP apparatus. In this device, the plasma is basically a straight Z-pinch, but the axial plasma current channel is along the axial null field line of an octupole vacuum magnetic field. The vacuum magnetic field is generated by currents in four rods. The rod current, J/sub v/, is antiparallel to the plasma current, J/sub p/. All magnetic fields are transverse (poloidal) relative to the longitudinal axis of the discharge and the device becomes a field-reversed configuration if the plasma current is of sufficient magnitude and sufficiently localized

  3. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.; Cochran, William W.; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navi...

  4. Lunar magnetic field measurements with a cubesat

    OpenAIRE

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Lin, Robert P.; Sanchez, Hugo; Jaroux, Belgacem A.; Bester, Manfred; Brown, Patrick; Cosgrove, Daniel; Dougherty, Michele K.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Hemingway, Doug; Lozano, Paulo C.; Martel, Francois; Whitlock, Caleb Wade

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a mission concept that uses 3-unit cubesats to perform new measurements of lunar magnetic fields, less than 100 meters above the Moon’s surface. The mission calls for sending the cubesats on impact trajectories to strongly magnetic regions on the surface, and transmitting measurements in real-time to a nearby spacecraft, or directly to the Earth, up until milliseconds before impact. The cubesats and their instruments are partly based on the NSF-funded CINEMA cubesat now in E...

  5. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical re...

  6. Application of the Green's function method to some nonlinear problems of an electron storage ring. Part III. Beam-size enhancement due to the presence of nonlinear magnets in a ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perturbation method which allows one to find the distribution function and the beam size for a broad class of storage ring nonlinear problems is described in Part I of this work. In present note I apply this method to a particular problem. Namely, I want to evaluate an enhancement of the vertical beam size of a bunch due to the presence of the ring of nonlinear magnetic fields. The main part of the work deals with sextupole magnets. Formula for the beam size in the presence of octupole fields are also developed to the first order in the octupole strength, although octupole magnets are not widely used in present storage ring designs. This calculation is done mainly because the octupole field has the same symmetry as the beam-beam force for the head-on collision. This will give us the opportunity to compare the conduct of the bunch due to this two types of nonlinear kicks. The general terms of the applicability of the Green's function method is discussed in the first part of this work

  7. Galactic Magnetic Fields as a consequence of Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2001-01-01

    The generation of a magnetic field in the Early Universe is considered, due to the gravitational production of the Z-boson field during inflation. Scaled to the epoch of galaxy formation this magnetic field suffices to trigger the galactic dynamo and explain the observed galactic magnetic fields. The mechanism is independent of the inflationary model.

  8. The energy budget of stellar magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    See, V; Vidotto, A A; Donati, J -F; Folsom, C P; Saikia, S Boro; Bouvier, J; Fares, R; Gregory, S G; Hussain, G; Jeffers, S V; Marsden, S C; Morin, J; Moutou, C; Nascimento, J D do; Petit, P; Rosen, L; Waite, I A

    2015-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations have been used to map stellar magnetic fields, many of which display strong bands of azimuthal fields that are toroidal. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain how such fields might be generated though none are definitive. In this paper, we examine the toroidal fields of a sample of 55 stars with magnetic maps, with masses in the range 0.1-1.5$\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$. We find that the energy contained in toroidal fields has a power law dependence on the energy contained in poloidal fields. However the power index is not constant across our sample, with stars less and more massive than 0.5$\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ having power indices of 0.72$\\pm$0.08 and 1.25$\\pm$0.06 respectively. There is some evidence that these two power laws correspond to stars in the saturated and unsaturated regimes of the rotation-activity relation. Additionally, our sample shows that strong toroidal fields must be generated axisymmetrically. The latitudes at which these bands appear depend on the ste...

  9. The energy budget of stellar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, V.; Jardine, M.; Vidotto, A. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Folsom, C. P.; Boro Saikia, S.; Bouvier, J.; Fares, R.; Gregory, S. G.; Hussain, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Marsden, S. C.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; do Nascimento, J. D.; Petit, P.; Rosén, L.; Waite, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations have been used to map stellar magnetic fields, many of which display strong bands of azimuthal fields that are toroidal. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain how such fields might be generated though none are definitive. In this paper, we examine the toroidal fields of a sample of 55 stars with magnetic maps, with masses in the range 0.1-1.5 M?. We find that the energy contained in toroidal fields has a power-law dependence on the energy contained in poloidal fields. However the power index is not constant across our sample, with stars less and more massive than 0.5 M? having power indices of 0.72 ± 0.08 and 1.25 ± 0.06, respectively. There is some evidence that these two power laws correspond to stars in the saturated and unsaturated regimes of the rotation-activity relation. Additionally, our sample shows that strong toroidal fields must be generated axisymmetrically. The latitudes at which these bands appear depend on the stellar rotation period with fast rotators displaying higher latitude bands than slow rotators. The results in this paper present new constraints for future dynamo studies.

  10. Coronal magnetic field modeling using stereoscopy constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifu, I.; Inhester, B.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation has been used extensively in the past to extrapolate solar surface magnetograms to stationary coronal field models. In theoretical tests with known boundary conditions, the nonlinear boundary value problem can be solved reliably. However, if the magnetogram is measured with errors, the extrapolation often yields field lines that disagree with the shapes of simultaneously observed and stereoscopically reconstructed coronal loops. We here propose an extension to an NLFFF extrapolation scheme that remedies this deficiency in that it incorporates the loop information in the extrapolation procedure. Methods: We extended the variational formulation of the NLFFF optimization code by an additional term that monitors and minimizes the difference of the local magnetic field direction and the orientation of 3D plasma loops. We tested the performance of the new code with a previously reported semi-analytical force-free solution. Results: We demonstrate that there is a range of force-free and divergence-free solutions that comply with the boundary measurements within some error bound. With our new approach we can obtain the solution out of this set the coronal fields which is well aligned with given loops. Conclusions: We conclude that the shape of coronal loops reconstructed by stereoscopy may lead to an important stabilization of coronal NLFFF field solutions when, as is typically the case, magnetic surface measurements with limited precision do not allow determining the solution solely from photospheric field measurements.

  11. Scattering Polarization in the Presence of Magnetic and Electric Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Oo, Yee Yee; Sampoornab, M; Nagendrab, KN; Ananthamurthy, Sharath; Ramachandranb, G

    2007-01-01

    The polarization of radiation by scattering on an atom embedded in combined external quadrupole electric and uniform magnetic fields is studied theoretically. Limiting cases of scattering under Zeeman effect, and Hanle effect in weak magnetic fields are discussed. The theory is general enough to handle scattering in intermediate magnetic fields (Hanle-Zeeman effect) and for arbitrary orientation of magnetic field. The quadrupolar electric field produces asymmetric line shifts, and causes inte...

  12. Search for octupole correlations in 147Nd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchowska, E.; Mach, H.; Kowal, M.; Skalski, J.; P?óciennik, W. A.; Fogelberg, B.

    2015-09-01

    Properties of excited states in 147Nd have been studied with the multispectra and ? ? coincidence measurements. Twenty-four new ? lines and three new levels have been introduced into the level scheme of 147Nd. Using the advanced time-delayed ? ? ? (t ) method, we measured lifetimes of eight excited levels in 147Nd, populated via the ? decay of 147Pr. We have determined reduced transition probabilities for 30 ? transitions. Multidimensional potential energy surface calculations performed for 147Nd suggest two single-quasiparticle configurations with nonzero octupole deformation, with K =1 /2 and K =5 /2 . Our calculations also predict a sizable value of the electric dipole moment | D0|=0.26 e fm for this nucleus, while experimentally, a lower limit of | D0|?0.02 e fm has been evaluated for the supposed K =1 /2 parity doublet. In contrast to the theoretical results, we do not observe the parity doublet bands with K =5 /2 . This, and the lack of theoretically expected E 1 strength in Nd,149147 may signal some poorly understood structural effect in the odd-N lanthanides.

  13. Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 1012 cm-3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement

  14. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks have quietly recorded much of its history. The usefulness of magnetic field charts for navigation and the dedication of a few individuals have also led to the patient construction of some of the longest series of quantitative observations in the history of science. More recently even more systematic observations have been made possible from space, leading to the possibility of observing the Earth’s magnetic field in much more details than was previously possible. The progressive increase in computer power was also crucial, leading to advanced ways of handling and analyzing this considerable corpus of data. This possibility, together with the recent development of numerical simulations, has led to the development of a very active field in Earth science. In this paper, we make an attempt to provide an overview of where the scientific community currently stands in terms of observing, interpreting and understanding the past and present behavior of the so-called main magnetic field produced within the Earth’s core. The various types of data are introduced and their specific properties explained. The way those data can be used to derive the time evolution of the core field, when this is possible, or statistical information, when no other option is available, is next described. Special care is taken to explain how information derived from each type of data can be patched together into a consistent description of how the core field has been behaving in the past. Interpretations of this behavior, from the shortest (1 yr) to the longest (virtually the age of the Earth) time scales are finally reviewed, underlining the respective roles of the magnetohydodynamics at work in the core, and of the slow dynamic evolution of the planet as a whole.

  15. Antimagnets: controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetism is very important in various areas of science and technology, ranging from magnetic recording through energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism-to create and manipulate magnetic fields-almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property that has been elusive until now: how to 'switch off' the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design that conceals the magnetic response of a given volume from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields, in some respects analogous to recent theoretical proposals for cloaking electromagnetic waves with metamaterials. However, unlike these devices, which require extreme material properties, our device is feasible and needs only two kinds of available materials: superconductors and isotropic magnetic materials. Antimagnets may have applications in magnetic-based medical techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or in reducing the magnetic signature of vessels or planes.

  16. Antimagnets: controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Prat-Camps, Jordi; Chen, Du-Xing

    2011-09-01

    Magnetism is very important in various areas of science and technology, ranging from magnetic recording through energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism—to create and manipulate magnetic fields—almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property that has been elusive until now: how to ‘switch off’ the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design that conceals the magnetic response of a given volume from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields, in some respects analogous to recent theoretical proposals for cloaking electromagnetic waves with metamaterials. However, unlike these devices, which require extreme material properties, our device is feasible and needs only two kinds of available materials: superconductors and isotropic magnetic materials. Antimagnets may have applications in magnetic-based medical techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or in reducing the magnetic signature of vessels or planes.

  17. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.j [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Japanese Super-Conductivity Organization Co., Ltd., 2-1-6 Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  18. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  19. Hanle Effect Diagnostics of the Coronal Magnetic Field - A Test Using Realistic Magnetic Field Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Raouafi, N -E; Wiegelmann, T

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of coronal phenomena, such as coronal plasma thermodynamics, faces a major handicap caused by missing coronal magnetic field measurements. Several lines in the UV wavelength range present suitable sensitivity to determine the coronal magnetic field via the Hanle effect. The latter is a largely unexplored diagnostic of coronal magnetic fields with a very high potential. Here we study the magnitude of the Hanle-effect signal to be expected outside the solar limb due to the Hanle effect in polarized radiation from the H {\\sc{i}} Ly$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ lines, which are among the brightest lines in the off-limb coronal FUV spectrum. For this purpose we use a magnetic field structure obtained by extrapolating the magnetic field starting from photospheric magnetograms. The diagnostic potential of these lines for determining the coronal magnetic field, as well as their limitations are studied. We show that these lines, in particular H {\\sc{i}} Ly$\\beta$, are useful for such measurements.

  20. Electric breakdown potentials under longitudinal magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio V, L.F.; Soberon V P, F. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima (Peru). Seccion Fisica. Grupo de Investigacion en Plasmas. E-mail: plasma@pucp.edu.pe

    1998-07-01

    A study of a DC ionization potential with longitudinal magnetic fields in a parallel plate configuration is presented. A variation of the well known Paschen curve is studied for two different separation distances (2.0 and 6.7 cm) between the electrodes; more than orders of magnitude in pressures (1.4 x 10{sup -2} to 40 mbar); and magnetic fields up to 250 Gauss. The differences between the curves with and without B field are explained by the fluid model only by means of perpendicular mobility ({mu}) and diffusion (D) coefficients, cyclotron frequencies ({omega}{sub c}), Larmor radii (r-L) and collision frequencies v{sup =}{pi}{sup -1} with neutrals, independently of whether they produce ionization or not. Some inversions or crossings of the electric behavior between the right and left branch of different modified Paschen curves are due to the increasing collision frequencies and anomalous coefficients producing lower ionization potentials than the established ones in the absence of magnetic fields. (author)

  1. Validation of the CMS Magnetic Field Map

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A; Curé, B; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Mulders, M; Calvelli, V; Hervé, A; Loveless, R

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4-T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 three-dimensional (3-D) Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The magnetic field description is compared with the measurements and discussed.

  2. Intergalactic magnetic fields in Stephan's Quintet

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiel-Wroczy?ski, B; Urbanik, M; Beck, R; Bomans, D J

    2013-01-01

    We present results of the VLA radio continuum total power and polarised intensity observations of Stephan's Quintet at 1.43 and 4.86 GHz along with complementary 4.85 and 8.35 GHz Effelsberg observations. Our study shows a large envelope of radio emission encompassing all the member galaxies and hence a large volume of intergalac- tic matter. Infall of the galaxy NGC 7318B produces a ridge of intergalactic, polarised emission, for which the magnetic field strength was estimated as 11.0 \\pm 2.2 {\\mu}G, with an ordered component of 2.6 \\pm 0.8 {\\mu}G. The energy density of the field within the ridge area is of the same order as estimates of the thermal component, implying a significant role of the magnetic field in the dynamics of the intergalactic matter. We also report that the tidal dwarf galaxy candidate SQ-B possesses a strong and highly anisotropic magnetic field with the total strength being equal to 6.5 \\pm 1.9 {\\mu}G and an ordered component reaching 3.5 \\pm 1.2 {\\mu}G, which is comparable to that foun...

  3. Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y. X.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field effects have been a successful tool for studying carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors as the weak spin-orbit coupling in these materials gives rise to long spin relaxation times. As the spin-orbit coupling is strong in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are promising materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, magnetic field effects are expected to be negligible in these optoelectronic devices. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent, magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence responses in hybrid perovskite devices and thin films, where the amplitude and shape are correlated to each other through the electron-hole lifetime, which depends on the perovskite film morphology. We attribute these responses to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs with different g-factors--the ?g model. We validate this model by measuring large ?g (~ 0.65) using field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence, and electron-hole pair lifetime using picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  4. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN POPULATION III STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom, E-mail: matthewturk@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32, and 64 zones per Jeans length, and study the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomenon that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  5. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  6. Hypersensitivity test to electric magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called electromagnetic hypersensitivity (RH) syndrome includes a number of unspecific, medically unexplained symptoms attributed to exposure to electric and magnetic fields. As a whole, laboratory tests have provided inconclusive results, in part due to the fact that many individuals show nuclear, inconsistent responses to repeated experimental field-exposures. It has been proposed that such inconsistencies could be due in part to distress caused by the lab test itself. We have developed a test to be conducted at the patient's residence, allowing for long-term follow up of exposure-response assessment and avoiding the laboratory environment and the presence of the researcher as potential stressors and confounding factors. In a pilot test, EMDEX-II magnetometers were used to continuously recording power-frequency magnetic fields in the residence of a patient with perceived EH. The patient's symptoms included distress, headache and dizziness, among other ailments. Magnetographic data of a total of 123 recording days were plotted against the corresponding data on occurrence of the symptoms episodes. As a whole, the results did not show positive linear correlation between the daily occurrence of the episode and the exposures levels recorded during the day or during the day before. These preliminary results are little supportive of the hypothesis that the patient's ailments are caused or worsened by a putative hypersensitivity to residential exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields in the 0.02-4.00 ?T range. (Author) 29 refs

  7. A topology for the penumbral magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    We describe a scenario for the sunspot magnetic field topology that may account for recent observations of upflows and downflows in penumbrae. According to our conjecture, short narrow magnetic loops fill the penumbral volume. Flows along these field lines are responsible for both the Evershed effect and the convective transport. This scenario seems to be qualitatively consistent with most existing observations, including the dark cores in penumbral filaments reported by Scharmer et al. Each bright filament with dark core would be a system of two paired convective rolls with the dark core tracing the lane where the plasma sinks down. The magnetic loops would have a hot footpoint in one of the bright filament and a cold footpoint in the dark core. The scenario also fits in most of our theoretical prejudices (siphon flows along field lines, presence of overturning convection, drag of field lines by downdrafts, etc). If the conjecture turns out to be correct, the mild upward and downward velocities observed in p...

  8. Deformed Hartree-Fock model of parity mixing and octupole moments in neutron rich barium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deformed Hartree-Fock calculation with parity mixing reveals considerable octupole deformation for neutron rich barium nuclei. The energy surfaces for 142-148Ba as a function of octupole deformation are calculated and show a single humped shape with the minimum for positive octupole deformation slightly lower in energy. Parity mixing and octupole deformation show a typical shell effect and are negligible for 146Ce and 148Ce. (author)

  9. Torsional oscillations of neutron stars with highly tangled magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sotani, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequencies of magnetic oscillations in the neutron stars with highly tangled magnetic fields, we derive the perturbation equations. We assume that the field strength of the global magnetic structure is so small that such fields are negligible compared with the tangled fields, which may still be far from a realistic configuration. Then, we systematically examine the spectra of the magnetic oscillations, as varying the magnetic field strength and stellar mass. The frequencies without crust elasticity are completely proportional to the strength of magnetic field, whose proportionality constant depends strongly on the stellar mass. On the other hand, the oscillation spectra with crust elasticity become more complicated, where the frequencies even for weak magnetic fields are different from the crustal torsional oscillations without magnetic fields. For discussing the spectra, the critical field strength can play an important role, which is determined in such a way that the shear velocity is equi...

  10. Switching field distribution of magnetic fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the magnetic recording media the switching field distribution (SFD) is an important micromagnetic characteristic curve. However, in general case, methods of assessing SFD have not presented a reasonable relation between the macroscopic measurements and the microscopic properties of the system. The degree of alignment of particles easy axis in a texture and the angular dependence of switching field are two fundamental factors for the distribution function. A technique for determining the switching field distribution curve due to these factors is reported. This technique is performed for textured iron fine particles and samples of CrO2 and ?Fe2O3 commercial tapes. The distribution differs from a gaussian function. However, the width and the mean switching field equal to twice of the width of dMr/dH curve and the remanent coercivity, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that the width of the switching field distribution decreases with increasing the degree of easy axis orientation

  11. On the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the extensive and controversial literature concerning how the cosmic magnetic fields pervading nearly all galaxies and clusters of galaxies actually got started. Some observational evidence supports a hypothesis that the field is already moderately strong at the beginning of the life of a galaxy and its disc. One argument involves the chemical abundance of the light elements Be and B, while a second one is based on the detection of strong magnetic fields in very young high red shift galaxies. Since this problem of initial amplification of cosmic magnetic fields involves important plasma problems it is obvious that one must know the plasma in which the amplification occurs. Most of this review is devoted to this basic problem and for this it is necessary to devote ourselves to reviewing studies that take place in environments in which the plasma properties are most clearly understood. For this reason the authors have chosen to restrict themselves almost completely to studies of dynamos in our Galaxy. It is true that one can get a much better idea of the grand scope of galactic fields in extragalactic systems. However, most mature galaxies share the same dilemma as ours of overcoming important plasma problems. Since the authors are both trained in plasma physics we may be biased in pursuing this approach, but we feel it is justified by the above argument. In addition we feel we can produce a better review by staying close to that which we know best. In addition we have chosen not to consider the saturation problem of the galactic magnetic field since if the original dynamo amplification fails the saturation question does not arise. It is generally accepted that seed fields, whose strength is of order 10-20 G, easily spring up in the era preceding galaxy formation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to amplify these seed magnetic fields to a coherent structure with the microgauss strengths of the currently observed galactic magnetic fields. The standard and most popular mechanism is the ?-? mean field dynamo theory developed by a number of people in the late sixties. This theory and its application to galactic magnetic fields is discussed in considerable detail in this review. We point out certain difficulties with this theory that make it seem unlikely that this is the whole story. The main difficulty with this as the only such amplification mechanism is rooted in the fact that, on galactic scales, flux is constant and is frozen in the interstellar medium. This implies that flux must be removed from the galactic discs, as is well recognized by the standard theory. For our Galaxy this turns out to be a major problem, since unless the flux and the interstellar mass are somehow separated, some interstellar mass must also be removed from the deep galactic gravitational well. This is very difficult. It is pointed out that unless the field has a substantial field strength, much larger than that of the seed fields, this separation can hardly happen. And of course, it must if the ?-? dynamo is to start from the ultra weak seed field. (It is our philosophy, expressed in this review, that if an origin theory is unable to create the magnetic field in our Galaxy it is essentially incomplete.) Thus, it is more reasonable for the first and largest amplification to occur before the Galaxy forms, and the matter embedded in the field is gravitationally trapped. Two such mechanisms are discussed for such a pregalactic origin; (1) they are generated in the turbulence of the protogalaxy and (2) the fields come from giant radio jets. Several arguments against a primordial origin are also discussed, as are ways around them. Our conclusion as to the most likely origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they are first produced at moderate field strengths by primordial mechanisms and then changed and their strength increased to their present value and structure by a galactic disc dynamo. The primordial mechanisms have not yet been seriously developed, and this preliminary amplification of the magnetic fi elds is still very open. If

  12. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization properties of asymmetric nuclear matter under a strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Rabhi, A; Providência, C; Vidaña, I

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same order or even larger for small proton fractions and subsaturation densities for $B > 10^{16}$ G. We expect that neutron superfluidity in the crust will be affected by the presence of magnetic fields.

  13. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Wilgen, John B.; Murphy, Bart L.

    2015-05-19

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a plurality of work-piece separators disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla for supporting and separating a plurality of work-pieces by a preselected, essentially equal spacing, so that, as a first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, a second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  14. Magnetic Fields at Largest Universal Strengths: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, V. S.; Balogh, A.; Falanga, M.; Treumann, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    A brief review is given about the role strong magnetic fields play in the universe. We list the main observational and theoretical achievements treated in the following chapters including a number of open questions which future research is going to attack. Strong fields in the universe exceed any large scale fields by several orders of magnitude, at first glance suggesting that their generation mechanisms would be different. However, it is believed that gravitational collapse and magnetic flux conservation is responsible for the amplification of fields generated in the progenitors to the observed strengths. In this sense the extremely strong fields are mainly fossil, and their variety confirms the different masses and stages where the collapse comes to rest, at the lightest in white dwarfs and at the strongest in magnetars, which are a particular class of neutron stars with strongly inhomogeneous particularly structured crust. Various effects related to the detection of such fields, radiation generation and consequences for the environment are pointed out and referred to the relevant chapters in this volume.

  15. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  16. Electron transport in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness; Makabe

    2000-09-01

    An investigation of electron transport in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field. PMID:11088933

  17. Local field of magnetic islands: role of their shape

    OpenAIRE

    Redlinski, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    I analyze in details distribution of local magnetic field induced by micro- and nano-magnets. I consider three kinds of elongated magnetic islands: ellipse-, diamond- and rectangular shaped islands which were magnetized uniformly along long axis. This report concentrates on the role of their shape upon distribution of the field. Calculations show that unlike rectangular-shaped magnet, ellipse-shaped and diamond-shaped ones produce much more localized field in proximity of it...

  18. Microscopic observation of magnetic bacteria in the magnetic field of a rotating permanent magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Pieter; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Petersen, Nikolai

    2015-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are ubiquitous and can be found in both freshwater and marine environments. Due to intracellular chains of magnetic single domain particles, they behave like swimming compass needles. In external magnetic fields like the Earth's magnetic field, a torque is acting on the chain. This will cause the bacterium to be rotated and aligned with the external field. The swimming direction of magnetotactic bacteria can be controlled with external magnetic fields, which makes it convenient to study them under a light microscope. Usually, a special set of coils arranged around a light microscope is used to control the swimming magnetotactic bacteria. Here, we present a simple mechanical system with a permanent magnet, which produces a rotating magnetic field of nearly constant amplitude in the focal plane of a light microscope. The device is placed beside the light microscope and easily adaptable to almost any microscope and thus convenient for field experiments. To describe the trajectories qualitatively, a theoretical model of the trajectories is presented. This device can be used to control the swimming direction of magnetotactic bacteria and also for studying their magnetic and hydrodynamic properties.

  19. Characteristics of magnetic field induction inside a module of a magnetic separator ?????????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandulyak Anna Aleksandrovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of magnetic separators are analyzed in the article. Magnetic separators are used to treat various construction materials. Unfortunately, the nature of the magnetic field, generated in their operating zone, is generally not taken into account by their designers. Academic publications fail to provide any detailed basic characteristics of the field induction emitted by magnetic separators in the course of their operation.Magnetic systems of any magnetic separator have a modular structure; they consist of several modules. Single and opposite magnetic elements are usually integrated into one module within a system having permanent magnets. If opposite magnetic elements are used, magnetic field intensity inside the module increases.In this study, characteristics of magnetic induction for single magnetic elements inside various modules of magnetic separators were assessed in a laboratory experiment. Similar characteristics of magnetic induction for single and twin (opposite magnetic elements were compared. In the module consisting of two opposed magnetic elements, the magnetic field becomes stronger compared to the field of a single magnetic element. Magnetic induction in the module recedes as the distance between magnetic elements increases, because of the isolation of the field generated by the opposed magnetic elements.The authors have proven the feasibility and expediency of employment of the superposition principle used to obtain the resulting characteristics. It may be employed to substitute modeling by calculations.???????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ? ??????, ????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? «??????????» ????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????.???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????.

  20. Magnetic Field Water Treatment Section - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the last year the activity of the team was focused on industrial implementing of methods developed, as well as on designing and implementing devices for magnetohydrodynamic water treatment and water filtration in the magnetic field. - Phase 1 of research for Ostrowiec Steelworks in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (IFJ N-3454 Research) on the possibilities of implementation of the methods of magnetohydrodynamic water treatment in water and sewage circuits, as well as of the method of filtration in the magnetic field were completed. In this part of research, phase analyses of deposits from water and sewage circuits were carried out. In the rolling mill circuit of Ostrowiec Steelworks, a magnetic filter with a capacity of 200 m3/h, designed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics was installed and tested. Implementation of this filter is predicted for the year 1999. - Research for the Kozienice Power Station in Swierze Gorne (IFJ N-3450 Research) on determination of the phase composition of total suspended solids in water-steam circuits was completed. - A preliminary evaluation was completed on economic effects of implementation of the prototype magnetic filter FM-500 which has been operational since 1993 in the circuit of turbine condensate cleaning in the 225 MW unit in the power station in Polaniec. (author)

  1. Explosive nucleosynthesis at strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, V.N. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, Physics Department (Ukraine); Bielefeld University, Physics Department, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The effect of a strong magnetic field on the synthesis of chemical elements is considered at conditions of nuclear statistical equilibrium. The possibility to employ the produced radionuclides to probe the transient ultra-magnetized astrophysical plasma in supernovae and near neutron stars is analyzed. For iron group nuclides the magnetic modification of the nuclear structure shifts a maximum of nucleosynthesis products towards smaller mass numbers approaching titanium. Signals of {sup 44}Ti radioactive decay in the gamma-spectra of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A are revealed from the Integral IBIS/ISGRI observational data. The determined gamma-ray fluxes for {sup 44}Sc{sup *} lines with energies 67.9 keV and 78.4 keV correspond to the initial {sup 44}Ti volume (3.3{sub -0.7} {sup +0.9}) x 10{sup -4} solar masses that corroborates the magnetic enhancement of isotope production at a field constrained on conditions of supernova explosion. (orig.)

  2. Study of Interplanetary Magnetic Field with Ground State Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Yan, Huirong

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a new way of studying interplanetary magnetic field -- Ground State Alignment (GSA). Instead of sending thousands of space probes, GSA allows magnetic mapping with any ground telescope facilities equipped with spectropolarimeter. The polarization of spectral lines that are pumped by the anisotropic radiation from the Sun is influenced by the magnetic realignment, which happens for magnetic field (

  3. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  4. Magnetic Field in Superlattices Semiconductors of Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a study on the super-semiconductor networks, using the Kronig-Penney model for the effective mass approximation, and then the calculations for the application of the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the layers of super lattices crystals. The magnetic field applied parallel to the layers, was used to adjust the resonance of a higher energy subband of a well by thermal excitation with a lower energy subband of the adjacent well, increasing energy levels in its tunneling rate. We use the formalism of Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics. Introducing the calculations in a systematic way in superlattices for each semiconductor quantum well to assess their energy spectrum systematically studied.

  5. Cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    A residence time approach is used to explain the nonuniform beam current density profile of the SERT II thruster and to propose a magnetic field modification which should produce a highly uniform beam profile. Expressions are derived which relate the thruster performance parameters to the geometry and plasma properties of the discharge chamber. These relationships are applied to a cylindrical discharge chamber model of the SERT II thruster and suggest that, in addition to the magnetic field modification, the discharge chamber length of this thruster should be reduced. These modifications should result in a thruster which has a highly uniform beam profile, good performance, and a low double ion population. Experimental results indicate that at about the same thrust and performance levels the beam flatness parameter of the modified thruster is 40% higher than the SERT II thruster value.

  6. Saturated magnetic field amplification at supernova shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Qinghuan

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-ray streaming instabilities at supernova shocks are discussed in the quasilinear diffusion formalism which takes into account the feedback effect of wave growth on the cosmic ray streaming motion. In particular, the nonresonant instability that leads to magnetic field amplification in the short wavelength regime is considered. The linear growth rate is calculated using kinetic theory for a streaming distribution. We show that the nonresonant instability is actually driven by a compensating current in the background plasma. The nonresonant instability can develop into a nonlinear regime generating turbulence. The saturation of the amplified magnetic fields due to particle diffusion in the turbulence is derived analytically. It is shown that the evolution of parallel and perpendicular cosmic-ray pressures is predominantly determined by nonresonant diffusion. However, the saturation is determined by resonant diffusion which tends to reduce the streaming motion through pitch angle scattering. The saturated...

  7. Statistics of turbulence induced by magnetic field

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A., Ferreira; M.V.A.P., Heller; M.S., Baptista; I.L., Caldas.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the TCABR tokamak facility, we analyze turbulent electrostatic fluctuations in a stationary toroidal magnetoplasma, created by radio-frequency waves and confined by two different toroidal magnetic fields. The increase of toroidal magnetic field leads to gradients in the mean plasma radial prof [...] iles and the onset of electrostatic turbulence. For the turbulent fluctuations, we show that the statistics of data collected using fixed sampling time is the same than the statistics of the time in which measurements of the data return to a specified reference interval of values. With these statistical analyses we find special invariant probability distributions, power-scaling laws for some average quantities, and long-range correlation for their oscillations. These observations suggest that turbulence has recurrent properties, as those observed in recurrent fully chaotic low-dimensional systems. Therefore, evolution of measurements of low-dimensional dynamical systems can be used to describe the recurrence observed in the tokamak edge turbulence.

  8. Electroweak strings, sphalerons and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Vachaspati, T

    1994-01-01

    We describe electroweak strings and their ability to carry Chern-Simons number. Certain string configurations, for any \\theta_W, carry Chern-Simons number equal to that of the sphaleron and we conjecture that such strings are ``extended sphalerons''. The production of electroweak strings during the phase transition is discussed and it is suggested that electroweak strings could survive long enough for them to play a role in baryogenesis. Finally the issue of magnetic field generation during the electroweak phase transition is addressed and several points not discussed in the existing literature are clarified. A connection is made between electroweak strings and magnetic fields produced at the phase transition. (Based on the talk presented at the NATO workshop on ``Electroweak Physics and the Early Universe'', in Sintra, March 1994)

  9. Solar magnetic fields and terrestrial climate

    CERN Document Server

    Georgieva, Katya; Kirov, Boian

    2014-01-01

    Solar irradiance is considered one of the main natural factors affecting terrestrial climate, and its variations are included in most numerical models estimating the effects of natural versus anthropogenic factors for climate change. Solar wind causing geomagnetic disturbances is another solar activity agent whose role in climate change is not yet fully estimated but is a subject of intense research. For the purposes of climate modeling, it is essential to evaluate both the past and the future variations of solar irradiance and geomagnetic activity which are ultimately due to the variations of solar magnetic fields. Direct measurements of solar magnetic fields are available for a limited period, but can be reconstructed from geomagnetic activity records. Here we present a reconstruction of total solar irradiance based on geomagnetic data, and a forecast of the future irradiance and geomagnetic activity relevant for the expected climate change.

  10. Successive magnetic transitions of Ca$_2$CoSi$_2$O$_7$ in high magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Akaki, Mitsuru; Kuwahara, Hideki; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Tokunaga, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of \\aa kermanite Ca$_2$CoSi$_2$O$_7$ single crystals were investigated in pulsed high magnetic fields. In magnetic fields along the $c$ axis, this material shows a magnetization plateau in a wide range of field below the saturation. Magnetization processes for fields along the $a$ and $b$ axes show multiple anomalies but different traces to each other, indicating the breaking of four-fold symmetry. Measurements of the magnetoelectric effect...

  11. The origin of large scale magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, K

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic fields correlated on several kiloparsec scales are seen in spiral galaxies. Their origin could be due to the winding up of a primordial cosmological field or due to amplification of a small seed field by a turbulent galactic dynamo. Both options have difficulties: There is no known battery mechanism for producing the required primordial field. Equally the turbulent dynamo may self destruct before being able to produce the large scale field, due to excess generation of small scale power. The current status of these difficulties is discussed. The resolution could depend on the nature of the saturated field produced by the small scale dynamo. We argue that the small scale fields do not fill most of the volume of the fluid and instead concentrate into intermittent ropes, with their peak value of order equipartition fields, and radii much smaller than their lengths. In this case these fields neither drain significant energy from the turbulence nor convert eddy motion of the turbulence on the outer scale t...

  12. Breaking van der Waals molecules with magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Krems, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that weakly bound van der Waals complexes can dissociate in a magnetic field through coupling between the Zeeman levels. The Zeeman predissociation process is shown to be efficient and it can be controlled by external magnetic fields.

  13. Magnetic fields and wind variability in massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Schnerr, R. S.; Henrichs, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the thesis work of Schnerr (2007) entitled ”Magnetic fields and mass loss in massive stars“, which aimed at a better understanding of the impact of magnetic fields on the winds of massive stars.

  14. Exciton trapping in a periodically modulated magnetic field

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A.K., Freire; V.N., Freire; G.A., Farias; F.M., Peeters.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of excitons in spatially modulated magnetic fields is described taking into account theb exciton spin contribution. The results show that the exciton trapping in periodic magnetic fields is possible and dependent on the modulation profile. [...

  15. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Markus J. Aschwanden; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern...

  16. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for ...

  17. Magnetic Field Configuration Around Large Flux Ropes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romashets, E.; Vandas, Marek

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2005 - (Dere, K.; Wang, J.; Yan, A.), s. 428-429 ISBN 0-521-85197-1. [International Astronomical Union Symposium /226./. Beijing (CN), 13.09.2004-17.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS1003006; GA MŠk ME 501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : magnetic field * coronal mass ejections * analytical method Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Arc Channel Branching in External Magnetic Field.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Josef; Hlína, Jan

    Brno : Brno University of Technology , 2005, s. 1-4. ISBN 80-214-2931-3. [Symposium on Physics of Switching Arc /16/. Nové M?sto na Morav? (CZ), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electric arc * external magnetic field * turn-to-turn short Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Topology, Magnetic Field, and Strongly Interacting Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2015-11-01

    Gauge theories with compact symmetry groups possess topologically non-trivial configurations of gauge field. This has dramatic implications for the vacuum structure of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) and for the behavior of QCD plasma, as well as for condensed matter systems with chiral quasiparticles. I review the current status of the problem with an emphasis on the interplay of chirality with a background magnetic field, and on the observable manifestations of topology in heavy ion collisions, Dirac semimetals, neutron stars, and in the Early Universe.

  20. MAGNETIC HYPERFINE FIELD AT CESIUM IN IRON

    OpenAIRE

    ASHWORTH, C; Back, P.; Ohya, S.; Stone, N.; White, J.

    1990-01-01

    We report temperature dependence of nuclear orientation (NO), and the first observation of NMR/ON on Cs in iron.132, 136Cs were implanted at room temperature into polycrystalline and single crystal iron. NO values for the (average) magnetic hyperfine field Bhf (Cs Fe) are close to 34T, intermediate between the value of 40.7T found in on-line samples made at mK temperatures and the NMR/ON value of 27.8 (2)T. The latter studies. The site/field distribution is briefly discussed. © 1990 J.C. Balt...

  1. Solar magnetic fields and convection. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flux-rope model of solar magnetic fields is developed further by the use of a variety of observational results. (i) Tt is confirmed that magnetic fields emerging to form active regions are already in the form of helically twisted flux ropes. (ii) A flux rope is not a homogeneous structure but is made up of hundreds or thousands of flux fibres. (iii) Convection occurs only between the fibres, and when they fill roughly half of the photospheric area this is halted and a pore forms. (iv) These fibres are attached to the parent rope and so migrate in ordered fashion with random motions superposed. (v) The dynamics of a sunspot are discussed and a model developed which explains the observed radial decrease of magnetic field strength, umbral flashes and the umbral boundary, the penumbral plasma structure and the Wilson depression. (vi) A new, large-scale (up to approximately> 105 km) convective motion is described, originating below the penumbra and carrying away the sunspot energy deficit. (Auth.)

  2. Stability of interstellar clouds containing magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of interstellar clouds against gravitational collapse and fragmentation in the presence of magnetic fields is investigated. A magnetic field can provide pressure support against collapse if it is strongly coupled to the neutral gas; this coupling is mediated by ion-neutral collisions in the gas. The time scale for the growth of perturbations in the gas is found to be a sensitive function of the fractional ion abundance of the gas. For a relatively large fractional ion abundance, corresponding to strong coupling, the collapse of the gas is retarded. Star formation is inhibited in dense clouds and the collapse time for diffuse clouds cn exceed the limit on their lifetime set by disruptive processes. For a small fractional ion abundance, the magnetic fields do not inhibit collapse and the distribution of the masses of collapsing fragments are likely to be quite different in regions of differing ion abundance. The solutions also predict the existence of large-scale density waves corresponding to two gravitational-magnetoacoustic modes. The conditions which best support these modes correspond to those found in the giant molecular clouds

  3. Magnetic field effects in ultracold molecular collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, A; Volpi, Alessandro; Bohn, John L.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the collisional stability of magnetically trapped ultracold molecules, taking into account the influence of magnetic fields. We compute elastic and spin-state-changing inelastic rate constants for collisions of the prototype molecule $^{17}$O$_2$ with a $^3$He buffer gas as a function of the magnetic field and the translational collision energy. We find that spin-state-changing collisions are suppressed by Wigner's threshold laws as long as the asymptotic Zeeman splitting between incident and final states does not exceed the height of the centrifugal barrier in the exit channel. In addition, we propose a useful one-parameter fitting formula that describes the threshold behavior of the inelastic rates as a function of the field and collision energy. Results show a semi-quantitative agreement of this formula with the full quantum calculations, and suggest useful applications also to different systems. As an example, we predict the low-energy rate constants relevant to evaporative cooling of molec...

  4. Magnetic field influence on mass transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation reactions of hexacyanoferrate(II) and hydroquinone in KCl media were studied on disk platinum electrodes using chronoamperometry under a strong magnetic field (1.74 T). The limiting current measured under magnetic field iB can be expressed as a function of parameters that control the mass transfer phenomenon by iB = KCaDbdc?e?fBgnh. C represents the electroactive species concentration, D the diffusion coefficient of the electroactive species, d the working electrode diameter, ? the kinematic viscosity of the electrolyte, ? the dielectric constant of the solution, B the magnetic field strength, n the number of electrons involved in the redox process and K is a proportionality constant. Contribution of B to the limiting current is well established (g = 1/3), whereas the contribution of D has to be confirmed (b = 1). The aim of this work was to specify the influence of the other parameters for which various results have been published in recent literature. We concluded that iB KC4/3Dd5/3?-2/3?-7/4B1/3n, quantifying for the first time, to our knowledge, the drastic influence of the electrolyte dielectric constant

  5. The Galactic Magnetic Field and UHECR Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Farrar, Glennys R; Khurana, Deepak; Sutherland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A good model of the Galactic magnetic field is crucial for estimating the Galactic contribution in dark matter and CMB-cosmology studies, determining the sources of UHECRs, and also modeling the transport of Galactic CRs since the halo field provides an important escape route for by diffusion along its field lines. We briefly review the observational foundations of the Jansson-Farrar 2012 model for the large scale structure of the GMF, underscoring the robust evidence for a N-to-S directed, spiraling halo field. New results on the lensing effect of the GMF on UHECRs are presented, displaying multiple images and dramatic magnification and demagnification that varies with source direction and CR rigidity.

  6. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C. V.; Howard, R.; Levine, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray images and magnetograms of several active regions and coronal holes are examined which support the interpretation that some of the dark X-ray gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions are foot points of open field lines inside the active regions. Characteristics of the investigated dark gaps are summarized. All the active regions with dark X-ray gaps at the proper place and with the correct polarity predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields are shown to be old active regions, indicating that field opening is accomplished only in a late phase of active-region development. It is noted that some of the observed dark gaps probably have nothing in common with open fields, but are either due to the decreased temperature in low-lying portions of interconnecting loops or are the roots of higher and less dense or cooler loops.

  7. Improved Magnetic Field Generation Efficiency and Higher Temperature Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R D; Hill, D N; McLean, H S; Hooper, E B; Hudson, B F; Moller, J M; Romero-Talamas, C A

    2008-09-15

    New understanding of the mechanisms governing the observed magnetic field generation limits on the sustained spheromak physics experiment has been obtained. Extending the duration of magnetic helicity injection during the formation of a spheromak and optimizing the ratio of injected current to bias flux produce higher magnetic field plasmas with record spheromak electron temperatures. To explore magnetic field buildup efficiency limits, the confinement region geometry was varied resulting in improved field buildup efficiencies.

  8. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurat...

  9. Magnetic field observations of low-mass stars

    OpenAIRE

    Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurements of magnetic fields in low-mass stars of spectral class M have become available during the last years. This contribution summarizes the data available on direct magnetic measurements in M dwarfs from Zeeman analysis in integrated and polarized light. Strong magnetic fields at kilo-Gauss strength are found throughout the whole M spectral range, and so far all field M dwarfs of spectral type M6 and later show strong magnetic fields. Zeeman Doppler images fro...

  10. Milestones in the Observations of Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Han, J.L; Wielebinski, R

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic fields are observed everywhere in the universe. In this review, we concentrate on the observational aspects of the magnetic fields of Galactic and extragalactic objects. Readers can follow the milestones in the observations of cosmic magnetic fields obtained from the most important tracers of magnetic fields, namely, the star-light polarization, the Zeeman effect, the rotation measures (RMs, hereafter) of extragalactic radio sources, the pulsar RMs, radio polarizati...

  11. Biermann Mechanism in Primordial Supernova Remnant and Seed Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hanayama, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kotake, Kei; Oguri, Masamune; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    We study generation of magnetic fields by the Biermann mechanism in the pair-instability supernovae explosions of first stars. The Biermann mechanism produces magnetic fields in the shocked region between the bubble and interstellar medium (ISM), even if magnetic fields are absent initially. We perform a series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Biermann term and estimate the amplitude and total energy of the produced magnetic fields. We find that ma...

  12. Estimation of magnetization loss at angular magnetic field using perpendicular magnetization loss in striated and transposed YBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetization loss in a perpendicular external magnetic field is main AC loss of YBCO coated conductor for AC power applications. One of solutions for decreasing the magnetization loss is to make striations on it and to transpose the striated coated conductors. We measured the magnetization losses of several samples made by striated and transposed YBCO coated conductors in external magnetic field with an inclined angle for wide face of YBCO coated conductor. We compared the measured magnetization loss at an arbitrary direction in the magnetic field with those measured in a perpendicular magnetic field at the same value of perpendicular component of the external magnetic field. The results agree well with each other in all samples. This means that the magnetization loss in any directional applied magnetic field can be estimated by using only the perpendicular loss data.

  13. Background magnetic fields and activity of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that after quantitative investigation of the Hsub(?)-charts of large-scale background magnetic fields and latitude distribution of the activity on the Sun for one and a half solar cycles, the scattered magnetic fields of the following polarity do not define the background magnetic field. Their contribution at the area occupied by the magnetic field of a corresponding sign is negligible. Quantitative characteristics of the background field structures, obtained earlier, confirm the hypothesis that the large-scale background magnetic fields of the Sun are actually the reflection of convection with elements of an order of solar radius (< or approx. 0.5 Rsub(theta)). (author)

  14. Magnetic field near the center on the baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the AVF cyclotron, the relative distribution of magnetic field changes when the magnitude of the field varies for a wide range. This change is large in the central region. The change of the relative magnetic field, however, may be suppressed in magnitude by employing a physical configuration that alleviates local saturations of iron at the magnetic pole surfaces. This paper covers a recently generated magnetic field featuring the relative field distribution in the central region of a type 3015 baby cyclotron that has successfully been held more or less steady from a 1.5 Tsl below 1.0 Tsl in average magnetic field. (author)

  15. Magnetic field reversal and magnetic circuit in a thermally driven MHD dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanism of magnetic field generation in a celestial body is investigated numerically. As a minimal model we study the dynamics of a Boussinesq MHD fluid confined between two rotating concentric spheres of uniform temperature. Five pairs of thermally driven convection columns are formed, which are robust against magnetic field generation. The activity of the magnetic field changes randomly in time. The global structure of the magnetic field outside the outer sphere is reversed rather periodically. It is also observed that closed bundles of strong magnetic field lines connecting two nearest anticyclonic convection columns are generated synchronously with the magnetic field reversal. (author)

  16. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvie, T.P.

    1989-10-01

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed.

  17. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed

  18. Visualisation of Magnetic Fields Generated by Helmholtz Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Suriansky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a method of a homogenous magnetic field generation using Helmholtz coils. There is also an experiment of a magnetic field visualisation with a digital image processing performed with a magneto-resistive sensor described. At the end of this article, there is a possibility of permeability measurement using digital images of a magnetic field shown.

  19. Magnetic Fields in Diffuse H I and Molecular Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Heiles, Carl; Crutcher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This book chapter reviews the current state of observations of magnetic fields in diffuse H I and in dense molecular clouds. It covers techniques for measuring magnetic fields, the analysis of the observations, and the role of magnetic fields in the physics of interstellar clouds and in the star formation process.

  20. From the Gyration of Electrons to Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Employing Bohr's quantum theory, the author deduces three limits, which correspond to the magnetic fields of white dwarfs, neutron stars and the strongest in the universe. The author discusses the possible origins of magnetic fields due to collapse of stars, which produces a magnetic field of 10[superscript 8] T. Although the complete analysis…